Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Aydi̊̊n-Og̲h̲lu

(540 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, a Turkomān dynasty which reigned from 708 to 829 (1308 to 1425) over the emirate of the same name. Aydi̊n-og̲h̲lu Meḥmed Beg (708-734/1308-1334), ṣubas̲h̲i̊ of the emir of Germiyān, separated from him in the early years of the 8th/14th century and started to make war on his own account, associating himself with Sasa Beg, son-in-law of the emir of Mentes̲h̲e. After having conquered Birgi, Ayaṣoluḳ and Keles, Sasa turned against his former ally and was defeated and put to death by him in 708/1308.…

Tīre

(667 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, modern Turkish Tire, a town of southwestern Anatolia, in the southern part of the Küçük Menderes valley, 67 km/40 miles south-east of Izmir (lat. 38° 64’ N., long. 27° 45’ E., altitude 108 m/350 feet), in early Turkish times a town in the beylik of the Aydi̊n-og̲h̲ullari̊ [see aydi̊n ; aydi̊n-og̲h̲lu ]. The present town presumably occupies the site of the ancient Arcadiopolis, later called Teira (i.e. “town”, e.g. in Thya-teira; cf. W.M. Ramsay, The historical geography of Asia Minor , 104, 114). In the Byzantine period the town appears as Thyrea (Θύρ…

Rūs̲h̲anī, Dede ʿUmar

(272 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Turkish adherent of the Ṣūfī order of the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.] and poet in both Persian and Turkish. He was born at an unspecified date at Güzel Ḥiṣār in Aydi̊n, western Anatolia, being connected maternally with the ruling family of the Aydi̊n Og̲h̲ullari̊ [see aydi̊nog̲h̲lu ] and died at Tabrìz in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in 892/1487. Dede ʿUmar was the k̲h̲alīfa of Sayyid Yaḥyā S̲h̲īrwānī, the pīr-i t̲h̲ānī or second founder of the Ḵh̲alwatī order, and as head of the Rūs̲h̲anī branch of the order engaged in missionary work in northern Ād̲h̲a…

Aya Solūk

(740 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
, Ayasulūḳ, Ayasulūg̲h̲, Ayat̲h̲olūg̲h̲ (from ῞Αγιος θεόλογος, i.e., the apostle and evangelist John, who lived and died there). In mediaeval western (Latin) sources, the town is referred to as Altoluogo, today (since 1914) it is known as Selčuk. It is a small town on the western coast of Anatolia, 37° 55′ north, 27° 20′ east, on the site of the Ephesus of antiquity (still referred to as Afṣūs or Ufsūs by Arabic geographers) in the plain which surround…

Ṣarūk̲h̲ān

(787 words)

Author(s): Zachariadou, E.A.
, the name of a Turkish amirate, which appeared after the collapse of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ state of Rūm [see sald̲j̲ūḳids. III. 5]. It was probably named after its founder, Ṣarūk̲h̲ān the son of Alpagi̊, and it was situated in the region roughly coinciding with the ancient Lydia, a territory yielding a rich agricultural production (grapes, figs and especially cereals). Its capital was the ancient city of Magnesia on the Sipylos, called by the Turks Mag̲h̲nisa [ q.v.] or Manisa, which, after having acquired special importance under the emperors of Nicaea, was conquered by Ṣarūk̲h̲an Beg ca. 1313.…

Aynabak̲h̲ti̊̊

(410 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Turkish name for Lepanto, or Naupaktos, in Greece. It is on the Gulf of Corinth, has a picturesque position, but is—these days—an impoverished small town, called Epaktos by the people and Lepanto by the Italians. It is surrounded by crumbling walls which date from the times of Venetian rule, and is dominated by a fortress. In the Middle Ages, Aynabak̲h̲ti̊ ruled over the Gulf of Corinth, and in 1407 it came under Venetian rule (cf. Vitt. Lazzarini, L’acquisto di Lepanto, 1407, in: Nuovo Archivio Veneto , XV (Venice 1898), 267-833; in 1483 it was unsuccessf…

Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Pas̲h̲a

(317 words)

Author(s): Walsh, J.
, D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn K̲h̲iḍr b. ʿAlī , eminent 8th/14th century Turkish physician and author of several important medical texts, including the famous S̲h̲ifāʾ al-asḳām wa dawāʾ al-ālām (Brockelmann, II, 233; Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, ii, 1049). He was born about the second quarter of the 8th/14th century in Konya (and not Aydîn, as stated by Ṭas̲h̲köprü-zāde, S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-nuʿmāniyya , in marg. of Ibn K̲h̲allikān, Cairo 1310, 114; Turkish trans, by Med̲j̲dī, Istanbul 1269, 74), whence he went to Cairo to study under Mubārak S̲h̲āh al-…

Umur Pas̲h̲a

(510 words)

Author(s): Zachariadou, Elizabeth A.
, Bahāʾ al-Dīn ʿUmar (709-49/1309-48), early Turkish corsair and warrior and son of Meḥemmed, founder of the Aydi̊n-og̲h̲ullari̊ [see aydi̊n-og̲h̲lu ] The main source on him is the Turkish epic poem, unique of its type, the Düstūr-nāme , completed by its ¶ author, Enwerī, in 869/1464. Also, the Byzantine historians Gregoras and Cantacuzenus, his contemporaries, offer rich items of information on Umur, especially from 741/1341 onwards, when he was a participant in the Byzantine civil war. He received from his father the region of Smyrna…

Ala S̲h̲ehir

(506 words)

, "the motley-coloured town", town in Anatolia at the foot of the Boz Dag̲h̲ (ancient Tmolus), near the Kuzu Čay. In antiquity and in Byzantine times the town, called Philadelphia after its founder, Attalus II Philadelphus, played an important role (see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.). It was taken, together with the other towns of Phrygia, by Sulaymān b. Ḳutlumus̲h̲ in 1075 or 1076, but was recaptured by the Byzantines in 1098 and served as an important base in their operations against the Sald̲j̲ūḳids. A…

Aydi̊̊n

(551 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
, also known as Güzel Ḥiṣār ("Beautiful Fortress"), formerly Tralleis, a town in western Anatolia 60-80 m. above sea level, 37° 50′ north, 27° 48′ east. It lies at the foot of the Gevizli Dag̲h̲i̊ (Messogis), which forms the northern boundary of the valley of the Büyük Menderes (in antiquity the Maeander), on the little river Tabak Çay (formerly Eudon) which flows thence to the Menderes. It is surrounded by fields and gardens, and the railway line from Izmir (via Dinar) to Afyon Ḳaraḥiṣār passes through it. It is the capital of the wilāyet of the same name and has …

Germiyān-Og̲h̲ullari̊̊

(1,451 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
Germiyān, at first the name of a Turkoman tribe, was afterwards applied to a family, then to an amīrate. Mentioned from the 6th/12th century in the history of the Anatolian Turks, the Germiyān appeared for the first time in 636-7/1239 in the reign of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Kayk̲h̲usraw II; at this time the Germiyān Muẓaffar al-Dīn b. ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, installed in the region of Malaṭya, was sent at the head of a troop of Kurds and Germiyān against the Turkoman rebel …

Deñizli̇

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, chief town of the wilāyet of the same name, in south-western Anatolia. Situated in a fertile plain which has been inhabited since the earliest times, Deflizli in the 14th century replaced Lādīḳ, the ancient Laodiceia ad Lycum , whose ruins stand at Eski Ḥiṣār, on the Çürük Şu, a tributary of the Büyük Menderes, near the railway station of Gond̲j̲ali, 9 km. from Deñizli. Built in the 3rd century B.C. by the Seleucid Antiochus II on the site of the ancient Diospolis (Pliny, v, 105), Laodicaea controlled an impo…

Sisām

(901 words)

Author(s): Soucek, S.
, the Turkish name for Samos, an island in the south-eastern Aegean alongside the Turkish coast, from which only 1.8 km/1.2 miles separate it at the narrowest point of the Dar Bog̲h̲az/Stenon Samou. With an area of 468 km2, Samos is one of the larger islands in the Aegean, and today forms, with Ikaria and a few other islands, one of Greece’s 52 nomoi . The capital and main port city is situated on the north-eastern coast inside the bay of Vathy, and was known by this name until outgrown by a suburb called Samos. The nearest important port on the Turkish coast is Kuşadası [see aya solūḳ …

D̲j̲unayd

(1,311 words)

Author(s): I. Mélikoff
, last of the amīrs of the family of the Aydi̊n-og̲h̲lu [ q.v.]. D̲j̲unayd who is given in the Ottoman sources the surname of Izmir-og̲h̲lu, succeeded for nearly a quarter of a century in prolonging the existence of the Aydi̊n amīrate through intrigues as clever as they were bold and by turning to account the dynastic wars between the sons of Bayezīd I. The recent researches by Himmet Akin, whose efforts were directed mainly towards documents in Turkish archives, have helped to enrich the insufficient infor…

Tesalya

(1,961 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A.
or Teselya , the Ottoman name for Thessaly, the geographical part of central Greece between Greek Macedonia on the north, Sterea Hellas on the south, Epiros on the west and the Aegean Sea on the east. Its cardinal strategic and economic importance resulted in a series of raids and settlement throughout the late mediaeval period by Franks, Catalans, Navarrese, Serbs and Albanians, until the initial stages of the Ottoman conquest in the late 14th century, heralded by raids on the part of the Aydi̊nog̲h̲lu Turcomans of Umur Beg [ q.v.] between 1336-41 (see Enweri, ed. Mélikoff, 87 v. 1…

Gümüld̲j̲ine

(1,929 words)

Author(s): Kiel, M.
, the Ottoman Turkish form of the Greek Komotene, Komotini, a town of over 30,000 inhabitants in Western Thrace, the modern Greek province of Rhodope, which from the sixties of the 14th century until 1912 was without interruption a part of the Ottoman Empire. The name Komotene is the academic version of ¶ Koumoutsinas, which was already used by Cantacusinos in the mid-14th century. The Destān of Ümür Pas̲h̲a (ed. Mélikoff, 101, 124) appears to be the first Turkish source to use the form “Gümüld̲j̲üne” when relating Ümür Aydi̊nog̲h̲lu’s actions in Thrace in and after 745/1344. Komotene emer…

Ṣaḳi̊z

(2,737 words)

Author(s): Soucek, S.
(the Ottoman Turkish name for Chios, the Greek name of this island and of its capital; ṣaḳi̊z means “gum mastic”, a testimony to the product for which Chios was famous), an island in the eastern Aegean alongside the Turkish coast, from which only 8 km/5 miles separate it at the narrowest point of the strait of Chios ( Ṣaḳi̊z bog̲h̲azi̊ ); the large peninsula of Karaburun on the mainland, jutting north, separates the island’s northern half from the gulf and port of Smyrna [see izmir in Suppl.]. With an area of 841 km2, it is the fifth largest island of the Aegean after Crete [see iḳrītis̲h̲ …

Izmīr

(2,852 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Turkish form of the ancient Greek name Smyrna , one of the great mercantile cities of the Eastern Mediterranean. It lies in western Anatolia at the head of the Gulf of Izmir, and the pre-modern city lay mainly on the small delta plain of the Kızılcullu (ancient Melas) river. Izmir has a history going back five millennia, archaeological excavations having revealed the earliest level of occupation as contemporary with the first city of Troy at the beginning of the Bronze Age ( ca. 3,000 B.C.). Greek settlement is indicated from ca. 1,000 B.C., and Herodotus says that the city was f…

Midilli

(2,842 words)

Author(s): Soucek, S.
(Turkish form of Μυτιλήνη, Mytilene, the Greek name of its capital), the island of Lesbos in the eastern Aegean alongside the Turkish coast near the entrance to the Gulf of Edremit [ q.v.] and the town of Ayvalık (Aywali̊ḳ [ q.v.]); the straits of Müsellim and Mytilene that separate it from Turkey on the north and east average 10 and 16 km in width. With an area of 1614 km2, Lesbos is the third largest Greek island after Crete and Euboea, and the seventh largest of the Mediterranean. It has a roughly triangular shape, its broad base, ca. 70 km long, running from east-south-east to west-nort…

Bulgaria

(2,919 words)

Author(s): İnalcık, Halil
, a country in the Balkans. It drew its name from the Bulgare, a people of Turkic origin, who first invaded the Dobrud̲j̲a [ q.v.] under Asparuk̲h̲ or Isperik̲h̲ in 679 A.D. and founded an independent state in the Byzantine province of Moesia. Adopting Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium (865) and identifying themselves with the native Slavs who had previously settled Bulgaria, the Bulgare built up a strong empire in the Balkans which extended from the Danube to the Adriatic Sea under Czar Symeon (893-927). The first Islamic accounts of Bulgaria belonged to this period through…
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