Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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Ag̲h̲labids or Banu ’l-Ag̲h̲lab

(3,380 words)

Author(s): Marçais, G. | Schacht, J.
, a Muslim dynasty which throughout the 3rd/9th century held Ifrīḳiya in the name of the ʿAbbāsids and reigned at al-Ḳayrawān. (i) general survey. In 184/800 the founder of this dynasty, Ibrāhīm b. al-Ag̲h̲lab, who, as governor of the Z…

Banū Īfran

(6,375 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(or Ifran , Ifrān , Ufrān Ūfrān etc.). the most important branch of the large Berber tribe of the Zenāta (Zanāta [ q.v.]). According to the writings, now lost, of three Berber genealogists used by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, namely Sābiḳ b. Sulaymān al-Maṭmāṭī, Hanīʾ b. Masdūr al-Kūmī and Kaḥlān b. Abī Luwā, the Banū Īfran are descended from Īṣlitan (also Yaṣlitan), son of Misrā, son of Zākiyā, son of Wardīran (or of Wars̲h̲īk), son of Adīdat. According to the same tradition, Zākiyā was the brother of Dammar (Demmer), the eponymo…


(21 words)

, followed by the name of the eponymous ancestor of a tribe, see under the name of that ancestor.

Banū K̲h̲urāsān

(1,956 words)

Author(s): Idris, H.R.
, the dynast y which, taking advantage of the anarchy initiated in Zīrīd Ifrīḳiya by the Hilālī invasion, governed Tunis 454-522/1062-1128 and 543-554/1148-59. When leaving Ḳayrawān to take refuge in al-Mahdiyya (449/1057), the Zīrīd al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs had left Ḳayrawān and Tunis in the protection of a Ṣanhād̲j̲ī chieftain Ḳāʾid b. Maymūn. The latter seems to have exercised no authority at Tunis, which was probably evacuated by the Ṣanhād̲j̲a, regrouping at al-Mahdiyya or in Ḥammādid territory, and independent. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn states that it fell prey to a Hilālī

banū K̲h̲ālid

(1,008 words)

Author(s): Meglio, R. Di
an Arab tribe occupying the central part of the eastern provinces of modern Saudi Arabia, the region along the Gulf coast known since earlier times as al-Aḥsāʾ or al-Ḥasā [ q.v.]. The tribe at present occupies the territory lying between al-Miḳṭāʿ in the north and al-Bayāḍ in the south, with its centre at the town of al-Ḥasā. For the last two centuries, the chieftainship has been in the hands of the ʿUrayʿir family. The tribe begins to figure in historical sources from the 10th/16th century onwards, indicating its growing importance. In 989/1581 they fought off S̲h̲a…

Aḥmar, Banu

(13 words)

’l-, genealogical name of the naṣrid dynasty [see naṣrids ].

banū Ḳasī

(923 words)

Author(s): Chalmeta, P.
, one of the important mawālī families who figure prominently in the history of al-Andalus Together with the Banū Ṭawīl and the Tud̲j̲ībids [ qq.v.], they divided between them effective power in the region of Aragon. The history of this region only becomes clear when considered in the light of the centripetal-centrifugal struggles which are a constant feature of Spanish history. The Banū Ḳasī followed an opportunistic policy in order to preserve their virtual autonomy, but they were at the same time relatively faithful…

Hās̲h̲im, Banū

(12 words)

[see hās̲h̲imids , hās̲h̲imiyya , ḥid̲j̲āz , makka ].

Nūr Bānū

(901 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Wālide Suḷtān ( ca. 932-91/ca. 1525-83), K̲h̲aṣṣekī (principal consort) of the Ottoman sultan Selīm II [ q.v.] and mother of the sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. She was born on Paros [see para ] as Cecilia, illegitimate daughter of Nicolo Venier (d. 1520), the penultimate sovereign ruler of the island and of Violante Baffo. The identity of this “Venetian Sultana” is often confused with that of her successor, the Wālide Sulṭān Ṣāfiye [ q.v.]. Some Turkish historians persist in ascribing a Jewish origin to her. At the time of the conquest of the island in 1537,…

Banū G̲h̲ifār

(446 words)

Author(s): Fück, J.W.
b. Mulayk b. Ḍamra b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna , a small Arab tribe, being a subdivision of the Banū Ḍamra b. Bakr, who in their turn formed a branch of the Kināna. The G̲h̲ifār lived in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medina; some of their abodes are mentioned by the geographers. Very little is known of their history in pre-Islamic times: one of their members is mentioned ( Ag̲h̲ānī 1, xix, 74, 5) in the brawls preceding the Fid̲j̲ār-war [ q.v.]. A quarrel between the G̲h̲ifār and the Banū T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Saʿd b. Ḏh̲ubyān is referred to in a poem quoted by Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am , i…

ʿAnbar, Banu

(7 words)

’l- [see tamīm ].

Banū Kaʿb

(468 words)

Author(s): Abu-Hakima, A.M.
, an Arab tribe which occupies, at present, parts of K̲h̲ūzistān in South Western Iran. The Banū Kaʿb comprise several clans, and they are therefore known to the inhabitants of eastern Arabia and southern ʿIrāḳ as al-Kuʿūb (in 18th century European sources Chaub ). Arab authors and genealogists do not speak of them in detail but usually list them un…

Banū Isrāʾīl

(2,370 words)

Author(s): Goitein, S.D.
, “the Children of Israel”. 1. This designation of the Jewish people occurs in the Ḳurʾān about forty times. The terms Yahūd , Jews, and its derivatives as well as Naṣāra , Christians, ¶ appear only in the Medinese period, although they had been widely used in pre-Islamic poetry and certainly were familiar to every Arab townsman (Joseph Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen , 144 ff. and 153 ff.). On the other hand, Banū Isrāʾīl never occurs in authentic pre-Islamic poetry ( ibid., 91). It would therefore seem to follow that the exclusive use of this term during the Meccan pe…

Sarrād̲j̲, Banū

(9 words)

’l [see ibn al-sarrād̲j̲, in Suppl.].

Mirdās, Banū or Mirdāsids

(9,259 words)

Author(s): Bianquis, Th. | Shamma, Samir
, an Arab dynasty of Kilābī origin, founded by Ṣāliḥ b. Mirdās. The latter and some of his descendants were, on several occasions between 415/1024 and 473/1080, either tolerated or recognised as princes of Aleppo. In succession to the Ḥamdānids, they maintained a tradition of autonomy in northern Syria, thanks to the tacit protection of the Byzantine Empire, which they accepted in order to ward off pressure from the Būyids of Bag̲h̲dād and the Fāṭimids of Egypt. However, they did not hesitate on…

al-Furāt, Banū

(7 words)

[see ibn al-furāt ].

Banū ʿĀmir

(446 words)

Author(s): Nadel, S.F.
(beni amor), a camel- and cattle-owning nomadic tribe, pop. approx. 60,000, in Western Eritrea and the adjacent area of the Sudan. The tribe is divided into 17 sections, some speaking Bed̲j̲a (a hamitic language) others Tigrē (a Semitic one), though there is a firm tradition of common de…

Banū Ḥanẓala b. Mālik

(403 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a branch of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.], of the group of Maʿādd, descended from Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm. The chief subdivisions were Dārim (from which came the poet al-Farazdaḳ), Yarbūʿ (to which D̲j̲arīr belonged) and the Barād̲j̲im (five families descended from Mālik b. Ḥanẓala). They inhabited the Yamāma between the hills D̲j̲urād and Marrūt, near ḥimā Ḍariyya [ q.v.]. Among their villages were al-Ṣammān (with wells, cisterns and irrigation) and al-Raḳmatān; but they were mainly nomadic.…
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