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(1,235 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, Taḳī al-Dīn Abū ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (766-845/1364-1442), Egyptian historian. His father (d. 779/1378 at the age of fifty), married a daughter of the wealthy philologist and jurist Ibn al-Ṣāʾig̲h̲ (d. 776/1375). He was born in Cairo, apparently in 765/1363-4. The nisba Maḳrīzī refers to a quarter in Baʿlabakk where his paternal family came from. His paternal grandfather, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. Muḥammad ( ca. 677-733/1278-1332, see Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Durar , ii, 391 f.) was a Ḥanbalī, his maternal grandfather, who influenced his early …

Sitt al-Mulk

(849 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, or Sayyidat al-Mulk , Fāṭimid princess, daughter of the fifth Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz [ q.v.] and half-sister of al-Ḥākim [ q.v.]. She was born in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 359/September-October 970 at al-Manṣūriyya near al-Ḳayrawān to the prince Nizār (the future al-ʿAzīz) by an anonymous umm walad [ q.v.], who is referred to in the sources as al-Sayyida al-ʿAzīziyya (al-Musabbiḥī, Ak̲h̲bār Miṣr , ed. A.F. Sayyid, Cairo 1978, 94, 111; al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ, ed. D̲j̲. al-S̲h̲ayyāl et alii, Cairo 1967 ff., i, 271, 292; Ibn Muyassar, Ak̲h̲bār Miṣr, ed. A.F. Sayyid, Cairo 1981, 175)…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), room, apartment, used (with the definite article) especially of the room of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a where the Prophet and his two successors, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, were buried; it is now one of the holiest places of Islam [see al-madīna ]. From the same word is also derived Ḥud̲j̲ariyya , a term used in Egypt for the slaves who were lodged in barracks near to the royal residence. Under the Fāṭimids, these slaves were organized by al-Afḍal into a sort of military bodyguard under the command of an amīr who held the title of al-Muwaffaḳ. They consisted at this period of 3000 men (see al-Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ


(108 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
“veil”, a curtain behind which the Fāṭimid caliph was concealed at the opening of the audience session ( mad̲j̲lis ) and which was then removed by a special servant ( ṣāḥib/muṭawallī al-sitr ) in order to unveil the enthroned ruler. The sitr corresponded to the velum of the Roman and Byzantine emperors. The holder of the function of ṣāḥib al-sitr, who also served as bearer of the caliph’s sword ( ṣāḥib al-sitr wa ’l-sayf), chamberlain and master of ceremonies, was mostly ¶ chosen from the Slav mamlūks ( ṣaḳāliba [ q.v.]); al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ , ii, ed. M.Ḥ.M. Aḥmad, 30, 72, 106, 127. (H…


(244 words)

Author(s): Stern, S.M.
, according to the account of Ibn Rizām (see Fihrist , 187) and Ak̲h̲ū Muḥsin (quoted in al-Nuwayrī’s chapter on the Ḳarmaṭians and in an abbreviated form in al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ al-Ḥunafāʾ (Bunz), 103 ff.), also going back, no doubt, to Ibn Rizām, was brother-in-law and lieutenant of Ḥamdān Ḳarmaṭ [ q.v.], leader of the Ḳarmaṭians [ q.v.] of southern ʿIrāḳ. When the Ismāʿīlī headquarters in Salamiya changed their policy, ʿAbdān fell away ¶ from their allegiance, but was killed, in 286/899, at the instigation of Zikrawayh, the leader of the loyalists. The account of …


(356 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
, a jewel used by the ʿAbbāsid and Fāṭimid [ q.vv.] caliphs as one of the insignia of kingship. According to the description of the Fāṭimid s̲h̲amsa , given by Ibn Zūlāḳ (quoted by al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ , i, 140-2), it was not a sunshade, as has been guessed (de Goeje, in al-Ṭabarī, Glossarium , p. cccxvi), but a kind of suspended crown, made out of gold or silver, studded with pearls and precious stones, and hoisted up by the aid of a chain. The s̲h̲amsa, therefore, is not to be confounded with the miẓalla [ q.v.] or sunshade which belonged also to the royal insignia. The model of the s̲h̲amsa…

Ibn S̲h̲addād

(279 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. S̲h̲addād b. Tamīm b. al-Muʿizz b. Bādīs (d. after 582/1186), sometimes also called Abu ’l-G̲h̲arīb ʿIzz al-Dīn al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī, chronicler of Zīrid descent, being the grandson of Tamīm (454-501/1062-1108) and the nephew of Yaḥyā b. Tamīm (501-9/1108-16). He lived at first in the entourage of the last Zīrid of Mahdiyya, al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, and seems to have gone with him, at least for some time, to the Almohad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin whose support he was seeking. It …

Ibn al-Ṭuwayr

(111 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām b. al-Ḥasan . . . al-Ḳaysarānī al-Miṣrī (525-617/1130-1220), high-ranking official of the later Fāṭimids, wrote in the reign of Salāḥ al-Dīn a “History of the two dynasties”, Nuzhat al-muḳlatayn fī ak̲h̲bār al-dawlatayn , an important work now unfortunately lost, to which the great compilers of the Mamlūk period, Ibn al-Furāt, al-Maḳrīzī, al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, and even before them Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, owe the most important part of their knowledge of the history of the later Fāṭimids and of the general institutions of the régime. (Cl. Cahen) Bibl…


(135 words)

Author(s): Wiet, G.
, a place in the province of D̲j̲īza, some 40 kms. south of Cairo, to the west of the Nile on the edge of the desert. A necropolis and pyramids dating from the first dynasties of the Old Kingdom are situated there. These relics of the age of the Pharaohs are mentioned by al-Harawī and al-Maḳrīzī without a precise description being given. Abū Ṣāliḥ speaks of a great church and an important monastery there. The present-day hamlet is insignificant and the name continues to be well known solely on account of the pyramids. (G. Wiet) Bibliography Ibn Mammātī, 138 al-Harawī, Ziyārāt, 39 Abū Ṣāliḥ, fol.…


(1,862 words)

Author(s): Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
, the eocene limestone plateau that borders the city of Cairo to the east, between Ṭurā near the Nile in the south and al-D̲j̲abal al-Aḥmar in the north, the Red Mountain which is near the modern quarter of ʿAbbāsiyya. In Islamic tradition, the Muḳaṭṭam is considered as a sacred mountain. Before Islam, in Christian tradition, al-Muḳaṭṭam, ¶ like all the desert mountains of Egypt, was associated with monasteries, oratories and caves for meditation and seclusion. Abū Ṣāliḥ the Armenian, who wrote in the early 7th/13th century, also designates it, perha…


(817 words)

Author(s): Halm, H.
(Egyptian pronounciation: rōk ), a word of non-Arabic origin, probably derived from Demotic ruwk̲h̲ , “land distribution”. From the noun is derived an Arabic verb rāka , yarūku . In the language of Egyptian administration, rawk means a kind of cadastral survey which is followed by a redistribution of the arable land. The procedure comprises the surveying ( misāḥa [ q.v.]) of the fields, the ascertainment of their legal status (private property, endowment, crown land, grant, etc.), and the assessment of their prospective taxable capacity ( ʿibra ). Until the f…


(555 words)

Author(s): Littmann, E.
, one of the Muslim states in East Africa that played an important part in the wars between Islam and Abyssinian Christendom. Al-Maḳrīzī ( al-Ilmām bi-Ak̲h̲bār man bi-Arḍ al-Ḥabas̲h̲a min Mulūk al-Islām , Cairo 1895, 5) enumerates the following seven Islamic states in Southern and Eastern Abyssinia, which he designates as mamālik bilād Zaylaʿ : Awfāt (the common form is Īfāt), Dawārō, Arayabnī (Arabaynī, Arababnī), Hadyā, S̲h̲ark̲h̲ā, Bālī, Dāra. From Abyssinian chronicles, other states are known which stood on the same footin…


(345 words)

Author(s): Mauny, R.
, a generic name given by mediaeval Arabic authors to the animistic African peoples, considered to be cannibals, living to the south of the Muslim sultanates of the Sudanese zone; other versions are Dahdam, Damdam, Iamiam, Limiyyia, Namnam and Temiam. Al-Masʿūdī (before 356/957) places the Dahdam ¶ upstream from Gao and says of them “They fight amongst themselves. They eat people. They have a paramount king who has other kings under his authority. In his land there is an important fortress in which there is an image in the shape of a woman …


(567 words)

Author(s): Sayyid, Ayman F.
(pl. of wāḥ “oasis”, this being a transcription of Coptic ouah denoting cultivated lands within the deserts, as already noted by Yāḳūt), the name of a series of oases in the western desert of Upper Egypt. E. Amélineau, in his Géographie de l’Egypte à l’époque copte (Paris 1893), had great difficulty in identifying the names of the oases with the modern names, and the Arabic texts are equally ambiguous. According to Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, v, 341-2, they were three districts ( kuwar ) stretching southwards into the western desert parallel to the Nile va…


(238 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (Ḏj̲ird̲j̲ā; an obsolete form Dad̲j̲ird̲j̲ā is also found), a town and province of Upper Egypt. The name is said to be derived from a monastery of St. George (V. Denon, tr. A. Aikin, Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt , London 1803, ii, 25). The town originated in the late 8th/14th century ¶ as the tribal centre of Hawwāra [ q.v.], who dominated Upper Egypt for the following two centuries. About 983/1576, the power of this tribe was broken, and Girgā. became the seat of the governor of Upper Egypt, who was also kās̲h̲if of the Girgā district. The governors, who are variously referred to as ḥākim al-Ṣ…

Aytāk̲h̲ al-Turkī

(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(d. 235/849), a K̲h̲azar military slave or g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.] who had been bought in 199/815 by the future caliph al-Muʿtaṣim, and who played an important role in the reigns of his master, of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ and of al-Mutawakkil. At the opening of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s caliphate, he was, with As̲h̲nās, the “mainstay of die caliphate”. After being commander of die guard in Sāmarrā, in 233/847 he was made governor of Egypt, but delegated his powers there to Hart̲h̲ama b. Naṣr (Ibn Tag̲h̲rībardī, Nud̲j̲ūm , ii, 265; al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. Wiet, v, 136). It was he who, in…

Bazīg̲h̲ b. Mūsā

(189 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, called al-ḥāʾik , S̲h̲īʿite heretic. A disciple of Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb [ q.v.], he was, like his master, denounced by the Imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ as a heretic and was even, according to Nawbak̲h̲tī, disowned by Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb himself. Kas̲h̲s̲h̲ī reports a tradition that when Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ was told that Bazīg̲h̲ had been killed, he expressed satisfaction. This would place Bazīg̲h̲’s death before that of D̲j̲aʿfar in 148/765. Like many of the early extremist S̲h̲īʿites, Bazīg̲h̲ was an artisan—a weaver of …

Ibn Sulaym al-Aswānī

(238 words)

Author(s): Faḍl Ḥasan, Yūsuf
, ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad , a Fāṭimid dāʿī , author of Kitāb Ak̲h̲bār al-Nūba wa ’l-Muḳurra wa ʿAlwa wa ’l-Bud̲j̲a wa ’l-Nīl . He was sent on a special mission to Nubia by D̲j̲awhar al-Siḳillī [ q.v.], probably in 365/975. He persuaded King George of Nubia to resume the delivery of the baḳt [ q.v.], which had lately been withheld, but failed in debate to convert the court to Islam. He travelled into the southern Nubian kingdom of ʿAlwa, but there is no evidence that he actually toured the country of the Bud̲j̲a. His book is known only from excerpts transcribed by al-Maḳrīzī in al-K̲h̲iṭaṭ


(211 words)

Author(s): Huntingford, G.W.B.
one of the Muslim trading states in southern Ethiopia. It lay to the east of Lake Awasa and the Ganale Doria, and extended to the Webi S̲h̲abelle near longitude 40 E., with a narrow piece stretching north of the Webi Shabelle to the edge of the Danākil lowlands, the railway marking approximately the northern boundary. The first mention of Bāli seems to be in the epinikia in honour of ʿĀmda Ṣyon king of Ethiopia, 1312-42 (I. Guidi, Rend Lin , 1889, nos. viii and ix) where Bāli is described as part of the king’s dominions. In the middle of the 14th cent…

Saʿīd al-Suʿadāʾ

(771 words)

Author(s): Denoix, Sylvie
, the name of a k̲h̲ānḳāh or establishment for Ṣūfīs at Cairo founded during the Ayyūbid period in a former Fāṭimid house within al-Ḳāhira, now in the modern D̲j̲amāliyya street ( Index des monuments historiques , no. 480). In Fāṭimid times it was a dwelling facing the Dār al-wizāra , at that period the ministry of justice. Some famous persons dwelt there, such as the vizier Ṭalariʾiʿ b. Ruzzīk [ q.v.], who had a tunnel dug to connect it with the Dār al-wizāra. It was at this point that it acquired its name of Saʿrd al-Suʿadāʾ “the Supremely-happy one”, from the name of the person thus styled, the ust…
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