Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Azāriḳa

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Rubinacci, R.
, One of the main branches of the Ḵh̲arid̲j̲ites [ q.v.]. The name is derived from that of its leader Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥanẓalī, who, according to al-As̲h̲ʿarī, was the first to cause disputes among the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites by supporting the thesis according to which all adversaries should be put to death together with their women and children ( istiʿrāḍ ). As regards the man himself, it is known that he was the son of a manumitted blacksmith of Greek origin and that in 64/683 he came to the aid of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, be…

Azraḳites

(5 words)

[see azāriḳa ].

ʿUbayd Allāh b. Bas̲h̲īr

(321 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
(or Bus̲h̲ayr) b. al-Māḥūz, leader of the Azāriḳa [ q.v.] sect of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites. (Al-)Māḥūz was the nickname of Yazīd b. Musāḥiḳ of the Banū Salīṭ b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Yarbūʿ of Tamīm. Several of the Banu ’l-Māḥūz, among them ʿUbayd Allāh, were among the Baṣran Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites who went to Mecca to support ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] in 64/683 but deserted him when he would not denounce the caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān. They returned to Baṣra together with Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ [ q.v.] and then joined his revolt. After Nāfiʿ was killed during fighting at Dūlāb (Ḏj̲umādā II 65/Dec.-Jan. …

al-Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra

(979 words)

Author(s): Crone, P.
, Abū Saʿīd al-Azdī al-ʿAtakī , Arab general of the 1st/7th century and founder of an influential family [see muhallabids ]. According to Abū ʿUbayda, al-Muhallab’s father was a Persian weaver from K̲h̲ārak who migrated via ʿUmān to Baṣra, where he gained acceptance as an Azdī thanks to his military valour (Yāḳūt, ii, 387; Ibn Rusta, 205 f.; cf. also Ag̲h̲ānī3 , xx, 75; M. Hinds (tr.), The History of al-Ṭabarī , xxiii, 187 n.). Most sources accept him as a genuine Azdī, and some even present him as a s̲h̲arīf (e.g. al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 396). Abū Ṣufra was among t…

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, fifth Caliph of the Umayyad line, reigned 65-86/685-705. According to general report he was born in the year 26/646-7, the son of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam [ q.v.], his mother being ʿĀʾis̲h̲a bint Muʿāwiya b. al-Mug̲h̲īra. As a boy of ten he was an eye-witness of the storming of ʿUt̲h̲mān’s house, and, at the age of sixteen Muʿāwiya appointed him to command the Madinian troops against the Byzantines. He remained at Medina until the outbreak of the rebellion against Yazīd I (62-3/682-3). When the Umayyads were expelled by the rebels, he left the town with his ¶ father, but on meeting the Syrian …

D̲j̲ābir b. Zayd

(446 words)

Author(s): Rubinacci, R.
, Abu ’l-s̲h̲aʿthāʾ al-azdī al-ʿumānī al-yaḥmidī al-d̲j̲awfī (al-D̲j̲awf in Baṣra) al-baṣrī , a famous traditionist, ḥāfiẓ and jurist, of the Ibāḍī sect. He was born in 21/642 in Nazwā (in ʿUmān), and, according to tradition, became head of the Ibāḍī community of Baṣra upon the death of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ [ q.v.]. He carried on the latter’s policy of maintaining friendly relations with the Umayyads, and kept on good terms with the ruthless persecutor of the Azāriḳa, al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, through whom he even succeeded in obtaining regular payments …

Istiʿrāḍ

(481 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(A), technical term of the Ḵh̲awārid̲j̲ [ q.v.], used, in a general sense, of religious murder, the putting to death in particular by the Azāriḳa [ q.v.] of Muslims and pagans who objected to their still rudimentary doctrine. However this meaning seems to be the result of a semantic evolution (even an involution), the verb istaʿraḍa (tenth form) meaning “to ask someone to display his possessions” and, thence, “to give an account of his opinions”; the istiʿrāḍ is thus the interrogation to which the enemies of these sectarians were subjected on falli…

Nāfīʿ b. al-Azraḳ

(521 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥanẓalī, Abū Rās̲h̲id (said to be the son of a freedman of Greek origin who was a blacksmith; al-Balād̲h̲urī. Futūḥ , 56), K̲h̲arid̲j̲ite who played quite a considerable role in Islamic history as leader of an extremist fraction of that sect known after him as the Azāriḳa [ q.v.] or Azraḳīs, which lived on substantially after his death; he is furthermore said to have laid down their doctrines. The sequence of events in which he was involved is difficult to establish, since there is a certain confusion in the narratives involving him. From them one le…

al-K̲h̲irrīt

(616 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. Rās̲h̲id al-Nād̲j̲ī , partisan of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib who fought in his ranks at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.], but who rebelled against him when the first results of the arbitration were known after having accepted, it appears, the principle of arbitration. He was chief of the Banū ʿAbd al-Bayt b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Sama b. Luʾayy (most usually called the B. Nād̲j̲iya, after the name of ʿAbd al-Bayt’s mother), who had only recently been converted to Islam, where they had not kept their original Christianity. He informed ʿAlī of h…

Ṣufriyya

(3,470 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W. | Lewinstein, K.
, an early Islamic religious group defined by the heresiographers as the name of a K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite sect arising out of the breakup of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite community in Baṣra in the year 64/683-4. The heresiographers commonly derive the name from a founder variously called ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Aṣfar, ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ṣaffar al-Saʿdī al-Tamīmī, or Ziyād b. al-Aṣfar, who was active at the time of the breakup. This founder is almost certainly fictitious. The scholars of the Ṣufriyya themselves, according to al-Mubarrad, narrated that the…

Hid̲j̲ra

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, latinized as Hegira, the emigration of Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in September 622. The first stem of the verb, had̲j̲ara , means “to cut someone off from friendly association” (cf Ḳurʾān IV, 34/38) or “to avoid association with” (LXXIII, 10); there is often an explicit or implicit reference to a sexual relationship, as in the first Ḳurʾānic verse. The third stem hād̲j̲ara refers to a mutual ending of friendly relationships. Thus hid̲j̲ra properly does not mean “flight” as it has been traditionally translated but connotes primarily the brea…

Fitna

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, the primary meaning is “putting to the proof, discriminatory test”, as gold, al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ānī says in his Taʿrīfāt (ed. Flügel, Leipzig 1845, 171), is tested by fire. Hence the idea of a temptation permitted or sent by God to test the believer’s faith, which, for the man wedded to his desires, would have the appearance of an invitation to abandon the faith. “Your goods and children are fitna ” (Ḳurʾān, VIII, 28; LXIV, 15). The term fitna occurs many times in the Ḳurʾān with the sense of temptation or trial of faith (“tentation d’abjurer”, according to R. Blachère’s tra…

Ḳaṭarī b. al-Fud̲j̲āʾa

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Levi Della Vida, G.
, the last chief of the Azraḳī K̲h̲arid̲j̲īs [see azāriḳa ], celebrated both as poet and as orator. He belonged to a clan of the Tamīm (the tribe which furnished one of the most noteworthy contingents to these rebels), the Banū Kābiya b. Ḥurḳūṣ b. Māzin (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel,Tab. 82). The name of his father, al-Fud̲j̲āʾa, is said to have been a surname and his real name was Ḏj̲aʿwana. Like other Arab chiefs, al-Ḳaṭarī had a double kunya (cf. Goldziher, Huh. Studien , i, 267, Eng. tr. i, 242): Abū Muḥammad in peace and Abū Maʿāma in war (D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Bayān , ed. Hārūn, i, 342…

Muhallabids

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Crone, P.
(in Arabic, al-Mahāliba ), kinsmen and clients of Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra [ q.v.], famed for their numbers and their remarkable role in early Islamic history. They rose to power in the service of the Umayyads even though al-Muhallab himself was once an adherent of Ibn al-Zubayr [ q.v.] and though the family as such, especially the women, had strong Ibāḍī connections (Cook, Early Muslim dogma , 63). They were crushed in 102/720, but staged a spectacular come-back under the ʿAbbāsids, having apparently exchanged their Ibāḍī for Hāshimite lea…

Nad̲j̲adāt

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Rubinacci, R.
, K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite sub-sect which was especially widespread in Baḥrayn and Yamāma. The name derives from that of its founder Nad̲j̲da b. ʿĀmir al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥarūrī. It is known of him that he rebelled in Yamāma at the time of al-Ḥusayn’s death in battle (61/680) and that in 64/683 he gave military help to ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr when he was besieged in Mecca by the Syrian army. Once the siege was raised, Nad̲j̲da, in company with other K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite chiefs, including Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ and ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ,…

al-Ṭirimmāḥ

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Krenkow, F. | El Achèche, Taïeb
, meaning in Arabic “tall”, or “proud”, the name of at least four persons from the 1st century of the Hid̲j̲ra. On the basis of al-Āmidī’s (d. 370/980) Muʾtalif Cairo 1381/1961, ʿIzzat Ḥasan’s Introduction to the Dīwān of al-Ṭirimmāḥ b. Ḥakīm (2 Aleppo and Beirut 1414/1994) and, above all, Salīm al-Nuʿaymī’s article al-Ṭirimmāḥ , in Publics . of the Arab Academy , Bag̲h̲dād (1964), 401-22, four persons of this name can be disentangled: 1. al-Ṭirimmāḥ al-Akbar , or Ḳaʿḳaʿ b. Nafr or Ibn Ḳays al-Ṭāʾī, the paternal uncle of al-Ṭirimmāḥ al-Ḥakīm or rat…

Ḳūmis

(1,721 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small province of mediaeval Islamic Persia, lying to the south of the Alburz chain watershd and extending into the northern fringes of the Das̲h̲t-i Kavīr. Its western boundaries lay almost in the eastern rural districts of Ray, whilst on the east it marched with K̲h̲urāsān, with which it was indeed at times linked. It was bisected by the great Ray-K̲h̲urāsān highway, along which ¶ were situated the chief towns of Ḳūmis, from west to east K̲h̲uwār or K̲h̲awār (classical Χοαρηνή, modern Aradūn), Simnān [ q.v.]. Dāmg̲h̲ān [ q.v.], and Bisṭām [ q.v.], whilst at its south-eastern extrem…

al-Nukkār

(1,875 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
( al-Nakkāra , al-Nakkāriyya ) “deniers”: one of the main branches of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī sect of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.]. The existence of this sect has already been proved by E. Masqueray, A. de C. Motylinski and R. Strothmann; cf., however, the opinion of G. Levi della Vida, according to whom al-Nukkār is simply “an insulting epithet applied to K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs in general” [see Ṣufriyya ]. The name al-Nukkār comes from the fact that the members of this sect refused to recognise the second Ibāḍī imām of Tāhert, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rustam [see rustamids ]. The…

al-Madāʾin

(1,869 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Morony, M.
, "the cities" (pl. of al-madīna ), the Arabic translation of the Aramaic Māḥōzē or Medīnāt̲h̲ā referring to the Sāsānid metropolis on the Tigris about 20 miles southeast of Bag̲h̲dād where several adjacent cities connected by a floating bridge stretched along both banks of the river. This was the imperial administrative capital, the winter residence of the king, the home of the Jewish Exilarch and the seat of the Nestorian Catholikos. Among the mixed population of Aramaeans, Per…

K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites

(3,946 words)

Author(s): Levi Della Vida, G.
( al-K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ , sing. K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī ), the members of the earliest of the religious sects of Islam, whose importance lies particularly, from the point of view of the development of dogma, in the formulation of questions relative to the theory of the caliphate and to justification by faith or by works, while from the point of view of political history the principal part they played was disturbing by means of continual insurrections, which often ended in the temporary conquest…
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