Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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Conquest

(2,799 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Chase F.
Gain or acquisition by force of arms. In the Islamic context it is associated with the ‘opening’ of a land to the message and rule of Islam. The Qurʾān, revealed as it ¶ was before the Islamic conquests had begun, does not possess a clear concept of conquest, but the Arabic root f-t-ḥ produced during the first Islamic century the technical term for the Muslims' conquests over the Byzantine and Sasanian empires ( fatḥ/futūḥ) and is frequently translated as such in the Qurʾān. The Qurʾān has much to say about warfare (see war ). It is enjoined upon those able to do so ( q 48:17 exempts the blind, cr…

Dreams and Sleep

(4,173 words)

Author(s): Kinberg, Leah
Visions (q.v.) seen while asleep which convey a message or meaning of some import. Four different terms denote dreams in the Qurʾān. The word ruʾyā appears six times ( q 12:5, 43, 100; 17:60; 37:105; 48:27); the word manām appears four times, twice meaning sleep (q.v.; q 30:23; 39:42) and twice meaning dream ( q 8:43; 37:102); bushrā, which means good tidings (see good news ), is interpreted once to mean a dream ( q 10:64). All three words signify good dreams. For bad dreams the Qurʾān uses ḥulm. This word occurs twice, both times in the expression aḍghāth aḥlām, meaning “confused dreams” ( q 12:4…

S (Sūrat al-Naṣr)

(43 words)

Sūrat al-Naṣr  Sūrat al-Naṣr   Farewell Pilgrimage   Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān   Literary Structures of the Qurʾān   Muḥammad   Opposition to Muḥammad  1   Conquest   Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān  1-3   Quraysh  2   Conversion   Muḥammad  3   Forgiveness   Mercy   Repentance and Penance

S (Sūrat al-Ṣaff)

(254 words)

Sūrat al-Ṣaff  Sūrat al-Ṣaff   Chronology and the Qurʾān   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān   Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān   Persian Literature and the Qurʾān   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Ranks and Orders   Sūra(s)   Verse(s)  1   Material Culture and the Qurʾān   Pairs and Pairing  2-3   Ethics and the Qurʾān   Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān  3   Material Culture and the Qurʾān  4   Conquest   Courage   Jihād   Numismatics   Opposition to Muḥammad   Path or Way   Ranks and Orders   War  5   Ethics and the Qurʾān   Prophets and Prophethood  5-6   Messenger  6   A…

S (Sūrat al-Fatḥ)

(510 words)

Sūrat al-Fatḥ  Sūrat al-Fatḥ   Expeditions and Battles   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān   Manuscripts of the Qurʾān   Material Culture and the Qurʾān   Mosque   Opposition to Muḥammad   Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Sūra(s)   Victory   Virtue   Witnessing and Testifying  1   African Literature   Conquest   Expeditions and Battles   House, Domestic and Divine   Muḥammad   Quraysh   Shekhinah   Turkish literature and the Qurʾān  1-2   Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān  1-6   Epigraphy  1-22   Material…

Iraq

(769 words)

Author(s): El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria
A region extending over the southern lands of Mesopotamia including the fertile lands between the Tigris and the Euphrates ¶ rivers. Although the word Iraq does not occur in the Qurʾān (see geography ), a number of prophets (see prophets and prophethood ) mentioned therein are believed to have come from Iraq (i.e. Abraham, q.v.), leading some recent Western scholarship to posit Iraq as the cradle of the Qurʾān (see Wansbrough, qs, 49-50; and id., Sectarian milieu for a more fully developed version of the theory; see also south arabia, religion in pre-islamic ). In post-qurʾānic times, t…

S (Sūrat al-Anfāl)

(779 words)

Sūrat al-Anfāl  Sūrat al-Anfāl   Basmala   Chronology and the Qurʾān   Conquest   Days of God   Fasting   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān   Jesus   Politics and the Qurʾān   Punishment Stories   Sīra and the Qurʾān   Sūra(s)   Taxation  1   Booty   Creeds   Ethics and the Qurʾān   Everyday Life, Qurʾān In   Jihād   Muḥammad   Taxation  1-13   Material Culture and the Qurʾān  1-19   Muḥammad   Quraysh  2   Belief and Unbelief   Faith   Fear   Literacy   Memory   Recitation of the Qurʾān  2-4   Belief and Unbelief   Mercy   Paradise  4   Forgiveness   Life   Sustenance  6  …

M (Macdonald, D. - Marar Trading Company, Baghdad)

(616 words)

Macdonald, D.  Idolatry and Idolaters Macoraba  Geography Madelung, W.  Createdness of the Qurʾān  Emigration  Inimitability Madhabite  Yemen Madhḥij  Divination  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Madigan, D.A.  Book  Criterion  Preserved Tablet  Revelation and Inspiration Madyan see Midian Madyanites see Midianites Madāʾ  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Madāʾin  Jerusalem Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ  Antichrist  Thamūd  Ḥijr al-Madāʾinī  Conquest Maghrib  Calligraphy  Khārijīs  Manuscripts of the Qurʾān  Mosque  Numismatics  Ornamentation and Illumination  Prayer Formulas  …

F (-fāʾ- - f-t-w / f-t-y - fāl-nāma)

(648 words)

f-t-w / f-t-y    aftā    Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies    fatayāt    Concubines    Slaves and Slavery    fatiya    Moses    Slaves and Slavery    Teaching    fatwā, pl. fatāwā    Adultery and Fornication    Barēlwīs    Gambling    Media and the Qurʾān    Medicine and the Qurʾān    Persian Literature and the Qurʾān    Printing of the Qurʾān    Ritual and the Qurʾān    Slaughter    Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān    Temporary Marriage    Torah    lajnat al-fatāwā    istafā    Teaching    muftī    Politics and the Qurʾān   f-t-ḥ   Conquest   Expeditions an…

Victory

(645 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Matthew S.
Success, often in the face of military aggression. The principal meanings of “victory” in the Qurʾān are conveyed by derivatives of the verbal roots f-t-ḥ, n-ṣ-r, f-w-z, and gh-l-b. Particularly in the case of fatḥ, a specific military meaning can pertain to the defeat of one's foes in battle (see expeditions and battles; fighting; enemies) and, by extension, conquest, as in the opening verses of q 48, entitled “Victory” (Sūrat al-Fatḥ), and referring to the conquest of Mecca in 8/630 by the Prophet and the early Muslims. More often than not reference to aspects of an es…

(-ḥāʾ- - ḥ-j-b - ḥ-k-m)

(551 words)

ḥ-j-b   Trade and Commerce    ḥijāb    Barrier    Barzakh    Clothing    Community and Society in the Qurʾān    Epigraphy    Eschatology    Furniture and Furnishings    God and his Attributes    People of the Heights    Prophets and Prophethood    Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān    Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān    Veil    Wives of the Prophet    Women and the Qurʾān    min warāʾi ḥijāb[in]    ʿ_ʾisha bint Abī Bakr    Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān    ḥijāban mastūran    ḥājib    Soothsayer   ḥ-j-j    iḥtajja    Politics and the Qurʾān    ḥajj    Almsgiving    Caravan    Cave…

S (Sūrat al-Nabāʾ)

(215 words)

Sūrat al-Nabāʾ  Sūrat al-Nabāʾ   Manuscripts of the Qurʾān   Material Culture and the Qurʾān   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Ritual and the Qurʾān   Sūra(s)  2   News  4   Scholar  4-5   Pairs and Pairing  5   Scholar  6   Earth   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān   Tents and Tent Pegs  6-11   Cosmology  6-13   Creation  6-14   Philosophy and the Qurʾān  6-16   Geography   Nature as Signs  8   Family   Pairs and Pairing   Women and the Qurʾān  8-10   Cosmology  9   Cosmology   Day, Times of   Sabbath  9-11   Sleep  10   Clothing   Time  11   Cosmology   Day, Tim…

S (Sūrat al-Sajda)

(293 words)

Sūrat al-Sajda  Sūrat al-Sajda   Biology as the Creation and Stages of Life   Cosmology   Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval   Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān   Mysterious Letters  1   Turkish literature and the Qurʾān  1-3   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  2   Prophets and Prophethood   Revelation and Inspiration  3   Community and Society in the Qurʾān   Cosmology   Messenger   Muḥammad   Warner  4   Cosmology   Creation   Friends and Friendship   God and his Attributes   Heaven and Sky   Literary Structures of the Qurʾān   Pairs and Pairing   Philosophy and the Qur…

M (Meccan(s) - Medina [(al-)Madīna(t al-Nabī)])

(635 words)

Meccan(s)  Air and Wind  Animal Life  Arrogance  Badr  Basmala  Bedouin  Belief and Unbelief  Boast  Camel  Captives  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Consolation  Covenant  Death and the Dead  Dialects   Emigrants [muhājirūn]   Brother and Brotherhood   Emigrants and Helpers   Inheritance   Jihād   Literature and the Qurʾān   Medina   Musaylima   Parties and Factions   Prayer   Pre-Islamic Arabia and the Qurʾān   Reward and Punishment   Slaves and Slavery   Sīra and the Qurʾān   Taxation   Time  Emigrants and Helpers  Emigration  Epigraphy  Eschatology  Exegesis of the …

N (Nabatean (language) - Nebuchadnezzar)

(707 words)

Nabatean (language)  Arabic Script  Archaeology and the Qurʾān  Cups and Vessels  Foreign Vocabulary  Instruments Nabatean(s)  Archaeology and the Qurʾān  Christians and Christianity  Foretelling in the Qurʾān  Kaʿba  Soul  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic  Thamūd  Ḥijr Nabhan  Festivals and Commemorative Days Nablus  Joseph  Samaritans Nabū  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Nadwat al-ʿUlamaʾ [Nahdlatul Ulama]  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Nadīm  Epigraphy Nag Hammadi  Crucifixion Nagel, Michael (d. 1788)  Destiny  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qur…

B (Badr - Southeast Asian Qurʾānic Literature)

(681 words)

Badr  Badr   Battle of (2/624)   Apparition   Badr   Book   Byzantines   Chronology and the Qurʾān   Companions of the Prophet   Consultation   Courage   Criterion   Day, Times of   Days of God   Dreams and Sleep   Emigrants and Helpers   Expeditions and Battles   Fasting   Fate   Food and Drink   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān   Goliath   Good News   Guardianship   Intercession   Jews and Judaism   Life   Mosque of the Dissension   Myths and Legends in the Qurʾān   Opposition to Muḥammad   Oppressed on Earth, The   Orphans   Prayer   Punishment Stories   Qaynuqāʿ (Ban…

S (Sūrat al-Zumar)

(726 words)

Sūrat al-Zumar  Sūrat al-Zumar   Dreams and Sleep  1   Revelation and Inspiration  1-2   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  2   Intention   Prophets and Prophethood  3   Belief and Unbelief   Friends and Friendship   Grammar and the Qurʾān   Idolatry and Idolaters   Jihād   Politics and the Qurʾān   Polytheism and Atheism   Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān   Vow  4   Election   God and his Attributes  5   Creation   Day and Night   Day, Times of   Freedom and Predestination   Pairs and Pairing   Sun   Time  5-7   Ethics and the Qurʾān  6   Animal Life   Biology as the Creat…

A (Arabian(s) - Philosophy and the Qurʾān)

(689 words)

Arabian(s)  Messenger  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic  The Collection of the Qurʾān Arabic (language)  African Literature  Agriculture and Vegetation  Ambiguous  Arabic Language  Arabic Script  Arabs  Ark  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Authority  Christians and Christianity  Chronology and the Qurʾān   Classical (CA)   Arabic Language   Grammar and the Qurʾān   Language and Style of the Qurʾān   Money   Moon   Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Readings of the Qurʾān   Slaves and Slavery   Tabl…

H (Hottinger, Johann Heinrich (d. 1667) - Hūlāgū (Mongol chief))

(600 words)

Hottinger, Johann Heinrich (d. 1667)  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies Hourani, G.  Ethics and the Qurʾān House of God see God House, People of the [ahl al-bayt]  Companions of the Prophet  Family of the Prophet  Love and Affection  People of the House  Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies Housman, A.E.  Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān Hoyland, R.  Epigraphy  Qibla  Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān  Sīra and the Qurʾān Hoziq (of Bukhara)  Persian Literature and the Qurʾān Hrbek, I.  Translations of the Qurʾān Hsu, S.S.A…

F (Faculty for Islamic Mission - Frolov, D.)

(689 words)

Faculty for Islamic Mission see al-Azhar University, Cairo Fadak  Expeditions and Battles  Opposition to Muḥammad Fadel, M.  Chastisement and Punishment  Murder al-Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭabarsī (d. 548/1153)  Muʿtazila Fahd, T.  Agriculture and Vegetation  Consecration of Animals  Divination  Foretelling in the Qurʾān Failaka (Kuwait)  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Faizer, R.  Expeditions and Battles Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī see al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn (d. 606/1210) Fakhry, M.  Philosophy and the Qurʾān al-Fākihī (historian of Mecca)  Place of Abraham Family of the Prophet see Proph…
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