Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(2,714 words)

Author(s): Robinson, F. C. R. | Salim, A. I. | Gorokhoff, P.
i-vi.—See Vol. II. vii.—India and Pakistan This article defines the Muslim press as those newspapers both owned and edited by Muslims. The definition does not include either newspapers in languages normally associated with Islam, for instance Persian and Urdu, with which Muslims have had nothing to do, or newspapers edited by Muslims but owned by men of other faiths. The Muslim press originated in the government and private newsletters of the Mug̲h̲al period. There was the waḳāʾiʿ , a confidential letter by which the emperor was informed of developments in his dominions, and the ak̲h̲bār…


(16,453 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Pellat, Ch. | Ed. | P. M. Holt | K. Hitti, Philip | Et al.
, literally “leaf”, which has become the usual term in modern Arabic for a newspaper, its adoption being attributed to Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ [ q.v.]. Its synonym ṣaḥīfa is less used in the sing., but the plural ṣuḥuf is more common than d̲j̲arāʾid . Some interest in the European press was shown by the Ottomans as early as the 18th century and, it would seem, excerpts from European newspapers were translated for the information of the dīwān (Prussian despatch from Constantinople, of 1780, cited by J. W. Zinkeisen, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches , vi, Gotha 1859, …

Aḥmed Ḥilmī

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, known as S̲h̲ehbenderzāde, a Turkish journalist who first achieved prominence after the revolution of 1908, when he returned to ¶ Istanbul from exile in Fezzan, and started a periodical called Ittiḥād-i Islām . He also contributed to Iḳdām , Taṣwīr-i Efkār , and, later, the weekly Ḥikmet [see d̲j̲arīda , iii], and wrote a considerable number of books, some of which were published. These include a history of Islam and books on the Sanūsī order and on Ibrahim Güls̲h̲anī [ qq.v.]. He died in 1913. (Ed.) Bibliography Babinger, 397 ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ müʾellifleri, ii, 156-7.

Luṭfī al-Sayyid

(655 words)

Author(s): Wendell, C.
, Aḥmad , Egyptian scholar, statesman and writer, born in the village of Barḳayn, Daḳahliyya Province, on 15 January 1872 and died in Cairo on 5 March 1963. His family were rural gentry ( aʿyān ), and both his father, al-Sayyid Abū ʿAlī, and his grandfather were ʿumdas . He was educated in the traditional kuttāb , the government school in al-Manṣūra, the Khedivial Secondary School in Cairo and the School of Law in Cairo. The most significant intellectual contacts which he made at the School of Law were with Muḥammad ʿAbduh and Ḥ…


(189 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar (b. 1862 in S̲h̲emākha, d. 1911 in Bākū), Azerbaijani satirical poet and journalist. After the First Russian Revolution of 1905, a humorous and satirical literature grew up in Russian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, seen especially in the weekly journal Mollā Naṣreddīn founded at Tiflis in 1906 by Ḏj̲elāl Meḥmed Ḳulī-zāde [see d̲j̲arīda. iv], which attacked the old literary forms, backwardness in education and religious fanaticism, achieving a circulation also in Turkey and Persian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. One of the writers in it was Ṣābir (who als…

Malak Ḥifnī Nāṣif

(470 words)

Author(s): Philipp, T.
(1886-1918), pen-name of Bāḥit̲h̲at al-Bādiya, daughter of Ḥifnī Ṇāsif, a follower of Muḥammad ʿAbduh [ q.v.], and pioneer protagonist of women’s rights in Egypt. She was in 1903 one of the first Egyptian women to receive a teacher’s primary certificate and became a teacher in the government girls’ school. Her marriage to ʿAbd al-Sattār al-Bāsil took her to the Fayyūm, where she observed the life of women in nomadic and rural society. She was herself faced with the problem of polygamy, since her husband had married a second wife. The intellectual influence of her father, her profess…

Umm al-Ḳurā

(316 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), lit. "the mother of settlements/ villages/towns", a Ḳurʾānic expression. It occurs as such in VI, 92 and XLII, 5/7, in which the Prophet Muḥammad is commanded to warn the people of the umm al-ḳurā [of God’s punishment for disobedience], whilst in XXVIII, 59, it is said that God did not destroy the ḳurā until He had sent to them a messenger ( rasūl ) reciting God’s miraculous signs. Although taken by the commentators to mean the town of Mecca, an interpretation followed in the art. Ḳarya (and used as such at the present day, Umm al-Ḳurā being the title of an offi…

Muḥammad Farīd Bey

(479 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Aḥmad Farīd Pas̲h̲a (1284-1338/1867-1919), Egyptian nationalist politician, active in the first two decades of the 20th century. Of aristocratic Turkish birth, he had a career as a lawyer in the Ahliyya courts and then as a supporter of Muṣṭafā Kāmil Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], leader of the nationalist opposition to the British protectorate over Egypt and founder in 1907 of the Nationalist Party ( al-Ḥizb al-Waṭanī ) [see ḥizb. i. In the Arab lands]. When Muṣṭafā Kāmil died at the beginning of 1908, Muḥammad Farīd succeeded him as leader of the party, but being by temperame…

al-Rāʾid al-Tūnusī

(877 words)

Author(s): Chenoufi, M.
(“The Tunisian Scout”), the first official newspaper to be published in the Arabic language, appearing on 22 July 1860 and thereafter on a weekly basis. Considered the third-oldest newspaper of the Arab world [see d̲j̲arīda ], after al-Waḳāʾiʿ al-miṣriyya (1828) and the Algerian Moniteur , al-Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ir (1847), this leading light of the Tunisian press was created by the twelfth Ḥusaynī Bey Ṣādiḳ (1859-82), at the instigation of the minister K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn [ q.v.], champion of the Tunisian reformist movement, with the object of promoting the reforms set in motion…

Yeñi ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊lar

(861 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, the Young Ottomans, a political grouping which strove for the establishment of a constitutional régime in the Ottoman empire. The group was formed in 1865 by a group of six young civil servants who had been trained in the new government offices created under the Tanẓīmāt , ¶ and specifically in the Translation Bureau of the Porte. Some of the leading members of the group, such as Nami̊ḳ Kemāl [ q.v.], also pioneered modern journalism in the empire. The Young Ottomans opposed the leading statesmen of their day, Meḥmed Amīn ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a and Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a [ q.vv.], accusing them of establish…

Esʿad Efendi, Ṣaḥḥāflar-s̲h̲eyk̲h̲i-zāde seyyid Meḥmed

(706 words)

Author(s): Münr Aktepe, M.
(1204/1789-1264/1848), Ottoman official historiographer ( waḳʿa-nüwīs ) and scholar, was left in straitened circumstances by his father’s accidental death (December 1804) while on his way to take up the duties of ḳāḍī of Medina. After holding various clerical posts, in Ṣafar 1241/October 1825 he succeeded S̲h̲ānī-zāde ʿAtāʾullāh Efendi [ q.v.] as waḳʿa-nüwīs, a post he held until his death. His work Üss-i ẓafer attracted the favour of Maḥmūd II: he was ḳāḍī of the army in 1828, then ḳāḍī of Üsküdar, and was appointed editor of the official gazette Taḳwīm al-waḳāʾiʿ (see art. djarīda …

Muṣṭafā ʿAbd al-Rāziḳ

(657 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N.
, Egyptian journalist who became Rector of al-Azhar [ q.v.]. ¶ Born in Egypt in 1882 (according to Y.A. Dāg̲h̲ir, Maṣādir ) or in 1885 (al-Ziriklī, Aʿlām ) and dying in 1946 or 1947, he belonged to a rich and aristocratic family. He was the son of Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a ʿAbd al-Rāziḳ and the brother of ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziḳ, his junior by several years and famed for the “scandal” raised by his book al-Islām wa-uṣūl al-ḥukm in 1925, a little before the one which Ṭāhā Ḥusayn provoked with his al-S̲h̲iʿr al-d̲j̲āhilī . Despite being on a very different social level, Muṣṭafā ʿA…


(848 words)

Author(s): Ende, W.
, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd , Syrian Arab politician and journalist, author of numerous writings advocating political, social and religious reform ¶ [see iṣlāḥ. i.]. The date of his birth in Ḥimṣ is not certain; in Arabic sources, it ranges from 1855 to 1863 or even 1871 (see Tarabein, 118 n. l, and ʿAllūs̲h̲, Madk̲h̲al , 12). He was born into a Sunnī family claiming descent from al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī and Fāṭima [ q.vv.], and from the latter’s honorific title, al-Zahrāʾ , the family derived its nisba . Over several generations, it had held the position of naḳīb al-as̲h̲rāf [ q.v.] in Ḥimṣ. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd receiv…

al-Fatḥ b. Muḥammad b. ʿUbayd Allāh b. K̲h̲āḳān

(838 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, M. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Naṣr al-Ḳaysī al-Is̲h̲bīlī , an Andalusian anthologist whose history is somewhat obscure. We do, however, know that he studied seriously under well-known teachers and that he led an adventurous life, travelling through much of Muslim Spain and enjoying to the full pleasures strictly forbidden by the laws of Islam. Despite this, he obtained a position as secretary to the governor of Granada, Abū Yūsuf Tās̲h̲fīn b. ʿAlī, but did not keep it and went to Marrākus̲h̲ where, at …

Zaydān, D̲j̲urd̲j̲ī

(1,019 words)

Author(s): Wiebke Walther
(b. 14 December 1861 in Beirut, d. 21 July 1914 in Cairo), outstanding representative of the Nahḍa [ q.v.] or Arabic cultural and literary renaissance of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Son of an illiterate Greek Orthodox cook who considered education, except for some reading and writing skills, unnecessary, Zaydān was more than any other Arab intellectual of his time a self-made man. His autobiography (Eng. tr. Th. Philipp, 1979, 1990) gives information on his amazing intellectual development, from being a waiter and cook …


(5,370 words)

Author(s): Floor, W. | Strauss, J.
4. Persia. During the century and a half of its existence, the Iranian press has experienced several periods of expansion and contraction. From 1851 to 1880 the press had only a limited audience, as it was meant only for civil servants. In all, some seven newspapers ( rūznāma-hā ) were published. From 1880 to 1906, the press began publishing for all Persians, although few could afford a newspaper. By the end of the century almost forty newspapers and journals had been published. From 1906 to 1925 the number of newspapers…


(1,437 words)

Author(s): Hitti, Philip K.
(from Arabic d̲j̲alā [ ʿan ], to emigrate), used here for the Arabic-speaking communities with special reference to North and South America. About eighty per cent of these emigrants are estimated to have come from what is today the Lebanese Republic; fifteen per cent from Syria and Palestine and the rest from al-ʿIrāḳ and al-Yaman. Egypt’s quota is negligible. Overpopulation in mountainous Lebanon, whose soil was less fertile than its women, combined with political unrest, economic pressure and a seafaring tradition, found relief in migration to other l…


(1,591 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Lewis, B.
, ‘valley lord’, the Turkish name popularly given to certain rulers in Asia Minor who, from the early 12th/18th century, made themselves virtually independent of the Ottoman central government in Istanbul. The Ottoman historians usually call them mutag̲h̲allibe , usurpers, or, when a politer designation was needed, K̲h̲ānedān . great families. The derebeys became in effect vassal princes, ruling over autonomous and hereditary principalities. In time of war they served, with their own contingents, in the Ottoman armies, w…


(4,995 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a stitched or bound booklet, or register, more especially an account or letter-book used in administrative offices. The word derives ultimately from the Greek διφθέρα “hide”, and hence prepared hide for writing. It was already used in ancient Greek in the sense of parchment or, more generally, writing materials. In the 5th century B.C. Herodotus (v, 58) remarks that the lonians, like certain Barbarians of his own day, had formerly written on skins, and still applied the term diphthera to papyrus rolls; in the 4th Ctesias ( in Diodorus Siculus ii, 32; cf. A. Christensen, Heltedigtning og …

Istiʿrāḍ, ʿĀrḍ

(4,916 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the mustering, passing in review and inspection of troops, the official charged with his duty being known as the ʿāriḍ , pl. ʿurrāḍ . The institution of the ʿarḍ was from the start closely bound up with the Dīwān al-Ḏj̲ays̲h̲ or that departaient of the bureaucracy concerned with military affairs, and these duties of recruitment, mustering and inspection comprised one of the dīwāns main spheres of activity, the other sphere being that concerned with pensions and salaries [see dīwān and d̲j̲ays̲h̲ ]. The Ṣāḥib Dīwān al-Ḏj̲ays̲h̲ of the early ʿAbbāsid Caliphate or ʿĀriḍ al-Ḏj̲ays̲h̲
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