Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān


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(1,167 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
The Israelite king, mentioned sixteen times in the Qurʾān. David (Dāwūd) appears in the Qurʾān as a link in the chain of proph-¶ ets who preceded Muḥammad ( q 4:163; 6:84). Although he is not one of the law giving prophets (ulū al- ʿazm), he is far from a marginal figure. David in the Qurʾān David was the recipient of a written divine book of psalms (q.v.; q 4:163; 17:55). Mountains and birds obeyed him in praising God ( q 21:79; 34:10). He killed Goliath (q.v.; Jālūt) and God granted him kingship ( mulk, see kings and rulers ) after Saul (q.v.; Ṭālūt) and wisdom (q.v.; ḥikma, q 2:251), sometimes exp…

Book of David

(6 words)

 see psalms Bibliography

Koran. German. Nerreter. 1703.

(72 words)

Author(s): Bobzin
Click here to open EPK-44 Author Nerreter, David, 1644-1726. Language German Reference BM Arabic II, col. 429. | Schnurrer, C.F. von. Bibliotheca Arabica, p. 424. | Binark & Eren. World bib., 813. In Nerreter, David, 1644-1726. David Nerreters Neu-eröffnete Mahometanische Moschea. Gedrückt in Nürnberg : Wolffgang Moritz Endters, 1703. p. 1-504. Original held by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek -- Munich, Germany Shelfmark BSB A.or.587 Prof. dr. Hartmut Bobzin


(802 words)

Author(s): Takim, Liyakat
Israelite king mentioned in both the Qurʾān and the Bible. Called Ṭālūt, the “tall one,” in the Qurʾān, Saul is mentioned briefly in q 2:246-51. After Moses (q.v.), the Israelites (see children of israel ) asked an unnamed prophet (see prophets and prophethood ) — identified in qurʾānic commentaries as Ashmawīl or Shamwīl, Samuel (q.v.) — that God appoint a king so that they could fight in his path (see kings and rulers; path or way). They were surprised to find that Saul was appointed, especially since he was a poor water-carrier. The Israelites considered themselves …

Koran. German. Megerlin. 1772.

(95 words)

Author(s): Bobzin
Click here to open EPK-11 Author Megerlin, David Friedrich, d. 1778. Imprint Franckfurt am Mayn : Bey Johann Gottlieb Garbe, 1772. Physical description 876 p. : front. ; 18 cm. Language German Reference BM Arabic I, col. 892. | Schnurrer, C.F. von. Bibliotheca Arabica, p. 430. | Binark & Eren. World bib., 812. Original held by Württembergische Landesbibliothek -- Stuttgart, Germany Shelfmark WLB Theol.oct.9947 Prof. dr. Hartmut Bobzin


(2,641 words)

Author(s): Schippers, Arie
The title of a book of religious songs and poems of praise and prayer poems in the Hebrew Bible to which, according to most interpretations, reference is made in the Qurʾān. It is called Tehillim in rabbinical Hebrew (lit. “songs of praise”) with the connotation in post-exilitic Bible books of “songs of Temple worship”; psalmos is Greek for “a song sung to a harp.” One of the common words for this kind of composition found in the book of Psalms itself is mizmōr, which is related to the Arabic mizmār, “single-pipe woodwind instrument resembling the oboe,” and mazmūr, “psalm.” The Hebrew psal…


(430 words)

Author(s): Lindsay, James E.
Foe of the Children of Israel (q.v.) slain by David (q.v.). Goliath's name (Jālūt; this Arabic rendition of the name is possibly influenced by the Heb. word for exile, gālūt; cf. Vajda, Djālūt) is mentioned three times in q 2:249-51 wherein he is portrayed as the ancient Israelites' opponent in battle. The qurʾānic account conflates the biblical story of Gideon's conflict with the Midianites (see midian ) — in particular the episode wherein God instructed Gideon to ¶ select only those men who drank from the river by scooping water with their hand ( Judg 7:1-7) — with the account of the wars of Sau…


(974 words)

Author(s): Kadi, Wadad
In Arabic, khalīfa is the title adopted by the head of the Muslim polity (see community ¶ and society in the qurʾān ) ever since the death of the prophet Muḥammad in 11/632. The term occurs in the Qurʾān twice in the singular and seven times in the plural, as khalāʾif or khulafāʾ, and some of its verbal occurrences (particularly khalafa and istakhlafa) are semantically very closely connected with it. There is little in the qurʾānic occurrences of the term that prepares for its politically and theologically charged meaning. By far its most prevalent meaning in the …

S (Sūrat Ṣād)

(776 words)

Sūrat Ṣād  Sūrat Ṣād   Cosmology   David   Dreams and Sleep   Mysterious Letters   Narratives   Ritual and the Qurʾān   Verse(s)  1   Form and Structure of the Qurʾān   Memory   Names of the Qurʾān   Prayer   Remembrance   Rhetoric and the Qurʾān   Sūra(s)  1-11   Narratives  3   Generations   Grammar and the Qurʾān   Mercy  4   Insanity   Jinn   Magic   Marvels   Provocation  4-5   Miracles  4-7   Quraysh  4-8   Muḥammad  6   Community and Society in the Qurʾān   Mecca   Moses   Trust and Patience  7   Foreign Vocabulary   Muḥammad  8   Names of the Qurʾān  10   Kings and…

Q (-qāf- - q-ḍ-y - qarmaṭa)

(507 words)

q-ḍ-y    qaḍā    Conquest    Cosmology    Fate    Grammar and the Qurʾān    Judgment    Persian Literature and the Qurʾān    Word of God    qaḍāʾ    Belief and Unbelief    Cosmology    Death and the Dead    Decision    Ethics and the Qurʾān    Fate    Freedom and Predestination    Impotence    Judgment    Philosophy and the Qurʾān    Trust and Patience    qaḍāʾ wa-(l-)qadar    qāḍī, pl. quḍāt    African Literature    Judgment    Maintenance and Upkeep    Reciters of the Qurʾān    Ritual and the Qurʾān    Seeing and Hearing    Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān    Torah…


(1,011 words)

Author(s): Muhammad Fadel
Adoption (tabannī) was a recognized practice in pre-Islamic Arabia, with Muḥammad, prior to his prophetic mission, himself having reportedly adopted his freedman, Zayd ibn Ḥāritha, who consequently became known as Zayd b. Muḥammad. Q 33:4-6, however, abrogated this pre-Islamic custom, dissolved the fictive ties of kinship  (al-muʾākhāt) that the Prophet Muḥammad had established between the Meccan immigrants to Medina and the Medinans upon his arrival there, and recognized ties of fictive kinship between the Prophet’s wives and the Muslim community by declaring them…
Date: 2017-08-31


(1,005 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla
The son of the biblical king David (q.v.) and heir to his throne. Solomon (Ar. Sulaymān) is presented in the Qurʾān as playing three important roles, although they are often interwoven in its narrative (see narratives ). He was a ruler who inherited his father's knowledge as well as his kingdom (see kings and rulers; knowledge and learning; power and impotence); a prophet (see prophets and prophethood ) who, despite occasional lapses in devotional practice (see piety; worship; ritual and the qurʾān), enjoyed divine protection (q.v.) and was assured an honored place in paradi…

Author List

(1,635 words)

Khaled M. Abou El Fadl, University of California at Los Angeles Binyamin Abrahamov, Bar-Ilan University Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabiʿ, Hartford Seminary Nadia Abu-Zahra, Oxford University Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd, University of Leiden Charles J. Adams, McGill University Camilla P. Adang, Tel Aviv University Asma Afsaruddin, University of Notre Dame M. Shahab Ahmed, Harvard University Ahmad M. al-Baghdadi, Kuwait University Michael W. Albin, Library of Congress, Washington, DC Scott C. Alexander, Catholic Theological Union, Chicago Muhammad al-Faruque, Stanford University Ilai Alon, Tel…

S (Sūrat Sabāʾ)

(574 words)

Sūrat Sabāʾ  Sūrat Sabāʾ   Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval   Persian Literature and the Qurʾān   Sheba  1   Pairs and Pairing   Praise  1-5   Destiny  2   Basmala   Jinn   Pairs and Pairing   Spiritual Beings  3   Adultery and Fornication   Book   Computers and the Qurʾān   Day, Times of   Destiny   Instruments   Language and Style of the Qurʾān   Last Judgment   Measurement   Money   Provocation   Time   Weights and Measures  4   Book   Forgiveness  5   Inimitability   Reward and Punishment   Ritual Purity   Verse(s)  6   Pairs and Pairing   Path or Way   S…

F (-fāʾ- - f-t-w / f-t-y - fāl-nāma)

(648 words)

f-t-w / f-t-y    aftā    Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies    fatayāt    Concubines    Slaves and Slavery    fatiya    Moses    Slaves and Slavery    Teaching    fatwā, pl. fatāwā    Adultery and Fornication    Barēlwīs    Gambling    Media and the Qurʾān    Medicine and the Qurʾān    Persian Literature and the Qurʾān    Printing of the Qurʾān    Ritual and the Qurʾān    Slaughter    Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān    Temporary Marriage    Torah    lajnat al-fatāwā    istafā    Teaching    muftī    Politics and the Qurʾān   f-t-ḥ   Conquest   Expeditions an…


(597 words)

Author(s): Mir, Mustansir
Undeserved favor or unmerited salvation. Grace has no linguistic or conceptual equivalent in the Qurʾān, although faḍl in certain contexts suggests shades of that meaning. q 2:64, criticizing the Israelites (see children of israel ) for breaking a covenant (q.v.) with God, says “Were it not for God's faḍl upon you and his mercy (q.v.), you would have been among the losers.” This implies that while, strictly-speaking, the breach called for punishment (see chastisement and punishment ), God's faḍl gave the Israelites respite and another chance. It was David's (q.v.) special gift that…


(361 words)

Author(s): Waines, David
Plants distinguished by their jointed stems, narrow and spear-shaped blades and fruits of a seedlike grain; also, the green herbage affording food for cattle and other grazing animals. The Qurʾān does not contain spe-¶ cific words for grass(es) as used in the modern Arabic language such as ʿushb and ḥashīsh. The word ḍighth in q 38:44, rendered in some translations as “a handful of (green or dry) grass,” can also refer to a mixture of herbs or a handful of twigs from trees or shrubs; Lane conveys a gloss of the term in the same passage as “a bundle of rushes.” Al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923) understands…

K (Khārija b. Zayd - Kūfic (script))

(1,146 words)

Khārija b. Zayd  Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān Khārijī(s)/Khārijites  Ambiguous  Belief and Unbelief  Courage  Deferral  Dissimulation  Emigration  Epigraphy  Expeditions and Battles  Faith  Forgery  Heresy  Immunity  Imām  Intercession  Iraq  Jews and Judaism  Justice and Injustice  Khārijīs  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Last Judgment  Laudation  Numismatics  Parties and Factions  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Politics and the Qurʾān  Reciters of the Qurʾān  Revision and Alteration  Reward and Punishment  Sin, Major and Minor  Sovereignty  Taxation  Witnessing and Testi…

Kings and Rulers [Supplement 2017]

(3,571 words)

Author(s): Louise Marlow
Kings and rulers refer to male sovereigns and other political leaders. They are evoked or alluded to in a number of Qurʾānic terms and passages. Derived from the root m-l-k, which connotes possession, having power or dominion over someone or something (see Power and Impotence), or the capacity or ability to obtain something, the Arabic term malik, “king,” appears thirteen times in the Qurʾān (its plural form mulūk appears twice). Related Qurʾānic terms include mulk, “dominion, power, or kingdom,” and malakūt, “dominion or kingdom.” The former, attested many times in the Qur…
Date: 2017-08-31

Kings and Rulers

(3,291 words)

Author(s): Marlow, Louise
Royal male sovereigns and other political leaders. The Arabic term malik, “king,” appears thirteen times in the Qurʾān (its plural form mulūk appears twice), and is derived from the root m-l-k, which connotes possession (q.v.), having power or dominion over someone or something (see power and impotence ), or capacity, the ability to obtain something. Other qurʾānic terms relevant to this subject include mulk, “dominion, power or kingdom,” and malakūt, “dominion or kingdom.” The former, which is attested many times in the Qurʾān, may be associated either with God …
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