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Ibn ʿAsākir family

(2,048 words)

Author(s): Mourad, Suleiman A.
The Ibn ʿAsākir family (Banū ʿAsākir) was prominent in mediaeval Damascus. It produced several notable Shāfiʿī scholars who occupied prestigious scholarly and judicial positions in Damascus and Syria and shaped intellectual and religious life there between the fifth/eleventh and eighth/fourteenth centuries. Even though each male member of the family was known by the name of Ibn ʿAsākir (along with an honorific peculiar to each), the reference when used on its own in mediaeval literature refers inva…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Fūrak

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Nguyen, Martin
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan Ibn Fūrak al-Iṣfahānī (d. 406/1015–6) was an important proponent of the early Ashʿarī school of theology and a Shāfiʿī legal scholar. Judging from his nisba, he was probably from the city of Isfahan. Ibn Fūrak’s theological training began in Baghdad, under the tutelage of a direct disciple of Abū l-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī (d. 324/935–6), the little known Abū l-Ḥasan al-Bāhilī (fl. fourth/tenth century), who also instructed Abū Isḥāq al-Isfarāyīnī (d. 418/1027) and Abū Bakr al-Bāqillānī (d. 403/1013), …
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Khafīf

(3,185 words)

Author(s): Sobieroj, Florian
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Khafīf b. Isfakshādh (Iskafshādh) al-Ḍabbī al-Shīrāzī (c.268–371/882–982), known as Ibn Khafīf, was a Ṣūfī, ascetic, and prolific writer of Shirazi origin with an Ashʿarī orientation. By virtue of his many encounters with the great masters, his immense achievements, and his long life, he was considered the “seal of Ṣūfism” ( khātam al-ṣūfiyya; Junayd, 38–9). 1. Life His mother was of Nīshāpūrī descent, and his father, mostly absent, served as a Daylamī commander in the army of the Ṣaffārid ʿAmr b. Layth (r. 265–87/879–900) (al-Daylamī, Sīrat, 9) (the Ṣaffā…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Mayyāda

(709 words)

Author(s): Hussein, Ali Ahmad
Abū Sharāḥīl (or Shuraḥbīl) (al-)Rammāḥ b. Abrad b. Thawbān (d. 149/766), known as Ibn Mayyāda, was a Bedouin poet. His tribe was the Murra, a branch of the Dhubyān (a subtribe of the Ghaṭafān). He lived in western Najd (in the north-central Arabian Peninsula), in or near a place called Ḥimā Ḍariyya, close to the Ḥijāz. His father was a shepherd, despite being a descendant of al-Ḥārith b. Ẓālim (d. 600 C.E.), the leader of the Ghaṭafān, and a grandson of Salmā, the daughter of the famous poet Kaʿb b. Zuhayr (…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Ḥayyūs

(727 words)

Author(s): Papoutsakis, Nefeli
Abū l-Fityān Muḥammad b. Sulṭān b. Muḥammad Ibn Ḥayyūs (394–473/1003–80) was a prominent Syrian poet descended from the Arabian Ghanī tribe. The scion of a notable Damascene family, he started his career as a eulogist of Anūshtakīn al-Dizbirī, the Fāṭimid governor of Damascus and Syria (419–33/1028–42), on whom he composed forty odes that celebrated his just rule and victories over his enemies, both the Byzantines and the local Arab tribes and rulers that opposed Fāṭimid rule. He also eulogised some of …
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Harma

(1,163 words)

Author(s): Weipert, Reinhard
Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī b. Salama b. ʿĀmir  Ibn Harma al-Fihrī al-Madanī (d. mid-to-late second/eighth century), was an Arab poet of Medina, whose lifetime spanned the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid eras. His poetry praises, among others, prominent figures of both dynasties and descendants of the fourth caliph, ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. His nasab, or lineage—albeit in a shorter form—is known from Ibn al-Sikkīt (d. 244/858) (followed by Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, d. 356/967, in al-Aghānī), who left out b. ʿĀmir, and by Ibn al-Nadīm (d. 380/990), who calls him only Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī b. H…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn al-Qalānisī

(716 words)

Author(s): Christie, Niall
Abū Yaʿlā Ḥamza b. Asad al-Tamīmī, better known by his family name of Ibn al-Qalānisī (c. 465–555/1073–1160), was a Damascene official and littérateur. He is well known to modern historians for his chronicle Dhayl taʾrīkh Dimashq (“Continuation of the history of Damascus”), which constitutes one of the few sources available for the Muslim response to the Crusades of the late fifth/eleventh and early sixth/twelfth centuries. Yet despite this, actual knowledge about his life is sparse. Most of our information comes from the great biographical dictionary Taʾrīkh madīnat Dimashq (“His…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Rushayd

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Vidal-Castro, Francisco
Ibn Rushayd (657–721/1259–1321), the greatest traditionist of his time in the Islamic West, possessed great intellectual authority and social prestige due to his extensive knowledge. He was recognised by his contemporaries and is still admired today. He is renowned for the seven-volume account of his three-year journey (riḥla) of pilgrimage and study to more than twenty-seven cities. His full name was Muḥibb al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. Idrīs b. ʿAbdallāh b. Saʿīd b. Masʿūd b. Ḥasan/Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. ʿ…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Abī Ḥātim al-Rāzī

(1,466 words)

Author(s): Pavlovitch, Pavel
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Idrīs b. al-Mundhir al-Ḥanẓalī al-Rāzī (240–327/854–5–938), known as Ibn Abī Ḥātim al-Rāzī, was a transmitter (rijāl) critic, traditionist, and exegete, who was born in Rayy (north-eastern Iran) to a family originating from the village of Jazz near Iṣfahān. His chief mentors included his father, Abū Ḥātim (195–277/810–1–90), and Abū Zurʿa al-Rāzī (200–64/815–6–78), both towering third/ninth-century ḥadīth experts. During his travels (riḥlāt) in pursuit of knowledge (255–64/869–78), which encompassed the Ḥijāz, Iraq, Eg…
Date: 2019-07-04

Ibn Manẓūr

(2,101 words)

Author(s): Baalbaki, Ramzi
Jamāl al-Dīn Abū l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Mukarram b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad Ibn Manẓūr al-Anṣārī al-Ruwayfiʿī al-Ifrīqī al-Miṣrī is most famous for having compiled the Lisān al-ʿArab (“The tongue of the Arabs”), a lexicon that comprises five earlier works and is considered one of the most authoritative in the tradition. He was born in Cairo on 22 Muḥarram 630/8 November 1232 and died on 10–11 Shaʿbān 711/23–24 December 1311. He was called al-Ruwayfiʿī after Ruwayfiʿ b. Thābit, a Companion of the prophet Muḥammad. He served in the dīwān al-inshāʾ (chancery) in Cairo and then as qāḍī of Tripoli. He beca…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn al-Fāriḍ

(1,755 words)

Author(s): Homerin, Th. Emil
ʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. al-Murshid b. ʿAlī Ibn al-Fāriḍ al-Saʿdī is the most celebrated Ṣūfī Arab poet in the history of Islam. He was born in Cairo on 4 Dhū l-Qaʿda 576/23 March 1181 after his father had moved there from Hama, probably to serve in the judiciary, where he was a women’s advocate in legal proceedings involving their share of inheritance (fāriḍ), hence ʿUmar’s eventual title of Ibn al-Fāriḍ. ʿUmar’s father oversaw his son’s education in the religious sciences, and in Arabic language, literature, and poetry. ʿUmar also studied ḥadīth with al-Qāsim Ibn ʿAsākir (d. 527/1203), a r…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn Munīr al-Ṭarābulusī

(980 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Muhadhdhab al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥusayn Aḥmad b. Munīr b. Aḥmad b. Mufliḥ al-Ṭarābulusī (or al-Aṭrābulusī) al-Raffāʾ (the darner), known as Ibn Munīr al-Ṭarābulusī (b. 473/1080–1, d. 548/1153), was a Syrian poet famous for his panegyrics—especially those written for the Zangid rulers ʿImād al-Dīn Zangī (r. 521–41/1127–46) and his son Nūr al-Dīn (r. 541–65/1146–74)—and for several love poems and the Qaṣīda Tatariyya. Ibn Munīr was born in Ṭarābulus (Tripoli, Lebanon) the son of a darner, hence his laqab al-Raffāʾ. His father used to recite Shīʿī poetry in the markets of Tripoli,…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn al-Qaysarānī, Abū ʿAbdallāh

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
The Syrian poet Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Naṣr b. Ṣaghīr al-ʿAkkāwī al-Ḥalabī, known as al-Qaysarānī or Ibn al-Qaysarānī (478–548/1085–1153), is famous for his panegyrics, especially those he composed for ʿImād al-Dīn Zangī (r. 521–41/1127–46) and his son Nūr al-Dīn b. Zangī (r. 541–65/1146–74), and his love poems about people from the region of Anṭākiya. Ibn al-Qaysarānī was born in ʿAkkā (Acre, Palestine) in 478/1085 and grew up in nearby Qaysāriyya (Caesarea Maritima) until his family fled to Damascus (probably in 494/1101) to take refuge from t…
Date: 2019-08-29

Ibn al-Muzawwiq

(689 words)

Author(s): Onimus, Clément
Ibn al-Muzawwiq (d. 833/1430), also known as Ibn al-Sadīd, Fakhr al-Dīn Mājid b. Abī l-Faḍāʾil b. Sanā l-Mulk, and sometimes as ʿAbdallāh b. al-Sadīd al-Qibṭī (for his Coptic ancestry), was a judge and a secretary of the Mamlūk sultanate. His entire career was tied to his special relationship with his patron, the powerful secretary Ibrāhīm Ibn Ghurāb (d. 808/1406), who effectively ruled the sultanate in 808/1405–6, during the reign of Sulṭān al-Nāṣir Faraj (r. 801–8/1399–1405, 808–15/1405–12). Ibn al-Muzawwiq is first mentioned when he succeeded Ibn Ghurāb, on 29 Rabīʿ …
Date: 2019-08-29

al-Khawlānī, Abū Muslim

(1,240 words)

Author(s): Aerts, Stijn
Abū Muslim al-Khawlānī was a Successor (a member of the generation that comes after the Companions) from the Yemeni tribe of Khawlān, who, like many Yemeni converts at that time, resettled in Dārayyā, about eight kilometres southeast of Damascus. Islamic tradition records him as a reputed ascetic (zāhid) and Qurʾān reciter, a wise man (ḥakīm), and someone who appealed to Caliph Muʿāwiya’s (r. 41–60/661–80) sense of justice and magnanimity. He is commonly included in the list of the eight greatest ascetics of the Successor generation (Ibn ʿAbd Rabbihi; GAS, 1:179). The sources are con…
Date: 2019-08-29

al-Khawlānī, Abū Idrīs

(600 words)

Author(s): Aerts, Stijn
Abū Idrīs ʿĀʾidh (ʿAyyidh) Allāh b. ʿAbdallāh al-Khawlānī was a Damascene storyteller, preacher, jurisprudent, and judge of the generation of Successors to the Prophet. He was born in the year of the battle of Ḥunayn (8/630) and died in 80/699–700. He is described as a man of noble spirit but not of wealth (al-Dhahabī, 273), who enjoyed reciting the Qurʾān, spending time in the mosque, and engaging with students of religion. He was a professional qāṣṣ, a teller of stories about the Prophet, and a wāʿiẓ, a preacher who specialised in admonitory narratives. Although he never met t…
Date: 2019-08-29

Abū Zurʿa al-Dimashqī

(672 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Abū Zurʿa ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAmr al-Dimashqī (d. 282/895) was born into a family of Damascene muḥaddiths, sometime before 200/815. Few details of his life are preserved. He apparently travelled with his father to Ḥimṣ and Rāmallāh in 211/826 and later travelled to other Syrian cities in order to pursue ḥadīth transmitters. He reportedly visited Egypt in 219/834 and probably visited Baghdad, Kufa, and Basra as well. He died in Damascus in 281/895. He was a noted muḥaddith, whose teachers included Ibn Ḥanbal (164–241/780–855), Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn (158–233/775–848), and a number…
Date: 2019-08-29

Bashīr b. Saʿd

(534 words)

Author(s): Lecker, Michael
Bashīr b. Saʿd (d. c. 12/633) was one of the Anṣār and a Companion of the prophet Muḥammad. He belonged to a branch of the Khazraj—one of the two main Arab tribes of Medina, the Aws being the other—called al-Ḥārith b. al-Khazraj, and, more precisely, to a subdivision of the Ḥārith called Mālik al-Agharr (Caskel, 1:188). Bashīr, who was one of the few who were literate before Islam (Ibn Saʿd, 3:531), became famous for his role in the meeting that was held after Muḥammad’s death at the saqīfa of the Banī Sāʿida (the roofed assembly hall of the Sāʿida, another branch of the Khazraj). At that meeting …
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿAbbād b. Ziyād b. Abī Sufyān

(452 words)

Author(s): Keshk, Khaled M. G.
ʿAbbād b. Ziyād b. Abī Sufyān (d. 100/718; sometimes designated by the sources as Ibn Sumayya and other times, but more rarely, as Ibn Abī Sufyān) was one of four sons of Ziyād b. Abīhi (d. 53/673), ʿUbaydallāh (d. 67/686), ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, and Salm (d. 73/692) being the others. All four brothers served as generals or governors under the Sufyānids. It is not certain how old ʿAbbād was at the time of his death in 100/718 (Ibn ʿAsākir, 26:234; al-Dhahabī, 398), but from the following accounts it can be assumed he was at least in his early seventies. In 41/6…
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(601 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 126/744) was an Umayyad prince who was married to a daughter of the caliph Hishām b. ʿAbd al-Malik (d. 125/743). Al-Ṣafadī and Ibn ʿAsākir report that his mother was Rayṭa bt. ʿUbaydallāh b. ʿAbdallāh, making him a half-brother to the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ (d. 136/754). Other sources note only that his mother was an umm walad. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥajjāj is seldom mentioned in historical sources before he became involved in the third fitna, in which he supported the efforts of Yazīd b. al-Walīd (Yazīd III, re…
Date: 2019-08-29
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