Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(6,030 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, a word of Persian origin designating on the one hand a staging-post and lodging [see also manzil ] on the main communication routes, on the other a warehouse, later a hostelry [see also funḍuḳ ] in the more important urban centres. I. The highway k̲h̲ān. The economic functions served by this institution have changed little from the Middle Ages to the present day. It had its roots in the beginnings of organised highway trade in the earliest times, but it flourished with particular vigour in the Islamic world. The K̲h̲ān was born of the need to ensure safe lodgi…


(236 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
, a Turkish title ( k̲h̲an or ḳan ) first used by the Tʿu-chüeh apparently as a synonym of ḳag̲h̲an , the later k̲h̲āḳān [ q.v.], with which its relationship is obscure; it was afterwards normally applied to subordinate rulers. The title is first recorded in Muslim lands on the coins of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids or Ilek K̲h̲āns [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs and K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, k̲h̲ān was the highest title of the nobility taking precedence over malik and amīr . It was applied by the Mongols to the head of an ulus [ q.v.], ḳāʾan , i.e. k̲h̲āḳān, being reserved for the Great K̲h̲ān in Ḳaraḳorum o…

G̲h̲āzī K̲h̲ān

(405 words)

Author(s): Hasan, Mohibbul
, Indo-Muslim military leader. Known to Kas̲h̲mīr chroniclers as Sulṭān G̲h̲āzī S̲h̲āh Čak, he was the son of Kād̲j̲ī Čak, the leader of the Čaks [ q.v.] and a powerful chief. Nothing is known of G̲h̲āzī Ḵh̲ān’s early life except that in 933/1527 G̲h̲āzī with other chiefs defeated the Mug̲h̲als sent by Bābur to help Sikandar, son of Sulṭān Fatḥ S̲h̲āh, against Muḥammad S̲h̲āh the reigning Sulṭān of Kas̲h̲mīr. Next year, however, the Čaks were defeated, and G̲h̲āzī Ḵh̲ān, who fought under his father, was taken prisoner. I…


(3,279 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
, the founder of the Mongol world-empire, was born in 1167 A.D. on the right bank of the Onon in the district of Deli’ün-Boldoḳ in the present-day Chita Region in eastern Siberia. The ultimate sources for the details of his early life are two Mongolian works, the Secret History of the Mongols , composed in 1240 (or perhaps as late as 1252), and the Altan Debter or "Golden Book", the official history of the Imperial family. This latter work has not survived in the original, but the greater part of it is reproduced in the Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Tawārīk̲h̲ of Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn and the…

S̲h̲aybānī k̲h̲ān

(7 words)

[see s̲h̲ībānī ḵh̲ān ].

Mahābat K̲h̲ān

(534 words)

Author(s): Athar Ali, M.
, military leader in Mug̲h̲al India. Zamāna Beg (later known as Mahābat K̲h̲ān) was the son of G̲h̲ayyūr Beg Kābulī, a Riḍawī Sayyid, who migrated from S̲h̲īrāz to Kābul during the reign of Akbar and settled there. Zamāna Beg entered the service of Akbar’s son Salīm as an aḥadī (cavalry trooper) and rose to the rank of 500. After D̲j̲ahāngīr’s accession (October 1605) he was promoted to the rank of 2,000 and given the title of Mahābat K̲h̲ān, becoming a trusted noble of that Emperor. He led a rather unsuccessful campaign…

K̲h̲iḍr K̲h̲ān

(642 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
, founder of the “Sayyid” dynasty which ruled at Dihlī from 817/1414 to 855/1451. His designation as a sayyid is traced in the near-contemporary Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Mubārak S̲h̲āhī firstly to a remark hagiologically attributed to the Ṣūfī D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Buk̲h̲ārī, and secondly to his own excellent character, and has been accepted by later historians like Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad, Badāʾūnī and Firis̲h̲ta; but this has been regarded as dubious by modern British and South Asian historians. The other nearcontemporary source, Bihāmad K̲h̲ānī’s Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Muḥammadī (comp…

Arslan K̲h̲ān

(6 words)

[see ḳarak̲h̲ānids ].

Maḥmud K̲h̲an

(401 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, Naṣīr al-Dīn , the founder of a short-lived dynasty ruling in Kālpī [ q.v.] in the first half of the 9th/15th century. He was the son of Malikzāda Fīrūz b. Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn Turk, the wazīr of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ II, who was killed with his sovereign in Dihlī in 791/1389; after that event he fled to Kālpī, his iḳṭāʿ , gave it the honorific name of Muḥammadābād, and “aspired to independence” ( dam az istiḳlāl mīzad ). This was not difficult to attain in the disrupted conditions of the Dihlī sultanate after Tīmūr’s sack and withdrawal, and Maḥm…

Iʿtibār Ḵh̲ān

(230 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a-sarāʾī (eunuch) who ultimately rose to the high office of a provincial governor under the emperor D̲j̲ahāngīr [ q.v.]. Originally in the service of a grandee of Akbar’s court, on his death he joined the service of the Great Mogul who appointed him nāẓir (comptroller) of the household of Prince Salīm (later Ḏj̲ahāngīr) on his birth in 977/1569. He served the prince well and soon after his accession to the throne Salīm rewarded him by assigning to him the district of Gwāliyār as his d̲j̲āgīr in 1025/1607. Thereafter he received one promotion aft…

ʿAlī K̲h̲ān

(8 words)

[see mahdī ʿalī k̲h̲ān ].

Ḳāḍī K̲h̲ān

(301 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, Th.W. | Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. Manṣūr al-Farg̲h̲ānī . 6th/12th century Ḥanafī jurist (d. Ramaḍān 592/August 1196), a native of Transoxania, who wrote commentaries on those works of Muḥammad al-S̲h̲aybānī, Abū Ḥanīfa’s disciple, recognized as ẓāhir al-riwāya (authentic version). A few manuscript copies of his commentaries are extant, notably a S̲h̲arḥ al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣag̲h̲īr and a S̲h̲arḥ al-Ziyādāt in the Cairo National Library. Ḳāḍī K̲h̲ān’s fame rests on his Fatāwā , also called al-Fatāwā al-k̲h̲āniyya , not, as the name would seem to suggest, a…

ʿInāyat Ḵh̲ān

(228 words)

Author(s): Ali, M. Athar
, a noble of the Indian Mug̲h̲al emperor Awrangzīb. He stemmed from Ḵh̲wāf [ q.v.] in Ḵh̲urāsān, but no information about his early career is available. In 1077/1666-7 he was appointed head of the dīwān-i Ḵh̲āliṣa ( dīwān of crown lands). In 1079/1668-9 he was promoted to the rank of 900 d̲h̲āt and 100 suwār . In 1080/1669-70 he reported that the expenditure had increased since the time of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān and that there was a large deficit; Awrangzīb thereupon ordered an enlargement of the Ḵh̲āliṣa lands and a reduction in expenditure. In 1082/1671-2 he was appointed fawd̲j̲dār [ q.v.] (comma…

Mustaʿidd K̲h̲ān

(199 words)

Author(s): Hidayet Hosain, M.
Muḥammad Sāḳī , historian of Mug̲h̲al India. Born about 1961/1650, he was brought up as an adopted son by Muḥammad Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān, whom he faithfully assisted in various capacities. After the death of his patron he passed into the service of Awrangzīb [ q.v.]. In the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿĀlam Bahādur S̲h̲āh I (1118-24/1707-12 [ q.v.]), he became the secretary of ʿInāyat Allāh K̲h̲ān. son of Mīrzā S̲h̲ukr Allāh, the minister of Bahādur S̲h̲āh, and by his desire Mustaʿidd K̲h̲ān composed the history of the reign of Awrangzib entitled Maʾāt̲h̲ir-i ʿĀlamgīrī . Part 1…

Iʿtiḳād Ḵh̲ān

(314 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a Kas̲h̲mīrī of obscure origin, whose name was Muḥammad Murād, was originally in the service of Bahādur S̲h̲āh I ( reg . 1119/1707-1124/1712), enjoying a rank of 1,000 and the title of Wakālat Ḵh̲ān. On the accession to the throne of the ill-starred Farruk̲h̲siyar [ q.v.] in 1125/1713 his name was included among those listed for execution but on the intercession of the (Bārha) Sayyid brothers, ʿAbd Allāh Ḵh̲ān and Ḥusayn ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, known as king-makers ( Bāds̲h̲āh-gar ), he was spared, promoted to a high office, appointed as basāwal (harbinger) of the army, a…

Dilāwar K̲h̲ān

(622 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, founder of the kingdom of Mālwa [ q.v.], whose real name was Ḥasan (Firis̲h̲ta, Nawalkishore ed., ii, 234); or Ḥusayn (Firis̲h̲ta, Briggs’s tr., iv, 170; so also Yazdani, op. cit. below); or ʿAmīd S̲h̲ah Dāwūd ( Tūzuk-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī . tr. Rogers and Beveridge, ii, 407, based on the inscriptions of the D̲j̲āmiʿ masd̲j̲id (= Lāt́ masd̲j̲id) in Dhār, cf. Zafar Hasan, Inscriptions of Dhār and Mānḍū , in EIM, 1909-10, 11-2 and Plates III and IV). He was believed to be a lineal descendant of ¶ Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn G̲h̲ūrī, and this belie…

Munʿim K̲h̲ān

(296 words)

Author(s): Athar Ali, M.
or Munʿim Beg , K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān (902-83/1497-1575), a leading Tūrānī noble of the Indian Mug̲h̲al emperors Humāyūn and Akbar, was the son of Mīram Beg Andid̲j̲ānī. As a foster-brother of Bābur’s son ʿAskarī, he was counted among the important nobles of Humāyūn as early as 940/1534. Humāyūn appointed him governor of K̲h̲ōst [ q.v.] in 952/1545, and he accompanied his master on the Balk̲h̲ campaign of 956/1549. In 960/1553 he was appointed ataliḳ (principal adviser) of Akbar, and a year later of Akbar’s brother Muḥammad Ḥākim [ q.v. in Suppl.] at Kābul. In 967/1560 Akbar recalled …

Ag̲h̲a K̲h̲ān

(382 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, properly āḳā ḵh̲ān , title applied to the Imāms of the Nizārī [ q.v.] Ismāʿīlīs. It was originally an honorary title at the court of the Ḳād̲j̲ār S̲h̲āhs of Persia, borne by Ḥasan ʿAlī S̲h̲āh, who, after the murder of his father Ḵh̲alīl Allāh in 1817, gained the favour of Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh and received the hand of one of his daughters in marriage. ¶ In consequence of intrigues at the court under the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh, Ḥasan ʿAlī S̲h̲āh revolted in 1838 in Kirmān, but was defeated and fled in 1840 to Sind, where he rendered valuable services to Sir Ch.…

Bak̲h̲tāwar K̲h̲ān

(513 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, a favourite eunuch, confidant and personal attendant of Awrangzīb [ q.v.] who entered his service in 1065/1654 while the latter was still a prince. In 1080/1669 he was appointed Dārōg̲hā-i Ḵh̲awāṣṣān . He died after a short illness at Aḥmadnagar on 15 Rabīʿ I, 1096/168 5 after faithfully serving Awrangzīb for 30 years. His death was personally mourned by the Emperor who led the funeral prayers and carried the bier for some paces. His dead body wa brought to Delhi where he was buried in a tomb that he had built for himself in…

Yulbārs K̲h̲ān

(357 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the Uyg̲h̲ur Turkish leader of a Muslim rebellion at Ḳomul [ q.v. in Suppl.] in Eastern Turkistan or Sinkiang [ q.v.] during the 1930s, b. 1888, d. ? in the mid-1970s. In 1928 the second Republican Chinese governor of Sinkiang, Chin Shu-jen, overthrew the last autonomous k̲h̲ānate of Central Asia, that of Ḳomul in the extreme eastern end of the province, adjacent to the frontiers ¶ with Mongolia and Kansu. His anti-Muslim policies provoked a rebellion there in April 1931 of the Uyg̲h̲urs, and possibly some of the Tungans [ q.v.], under the joint leadership of Yulbārs K̲h̲ān, who had…
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