Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(524 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Ḵh̲yber Pass , one of the principal passes (together with the Kurram, Tochi, Gomal and Bolan Passes) through the mountain barrier separating the Indus valley plains from Afg̲h̲ānistān. The pass runs northwestwards for ca. 33 miles/50 km. from the Shadi Bagiar opening 3 miles/5 km. beyond Fort Jamrud, itself 7 miles/12 km. from Peshawar, to the barren plain of Loi Dakka, which then stretches to the Kabul River banks. The highest point of the pass is at Landi Kotal (3,518 ft/1,280 m.), an important market centre for the region,…


(6,335 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, the name of a famous oasis, and of its principal settlement, about 95 miles/150 km. from Medina; the district owes its renown to events which took place there in the years 7 and 20 A.H., not to natural features which distinguish it from other oases in the region. For this reason the ¶ ancient Arab geographers, although they do mention it, provide only the briefest of information about it, giving special praise to the abundance of its palm trees. 1.— Geographical information. Only al-Bakrī and Yāḳūt have devoted to K̲h̲aybar as much as two pages in their Muʿd̲j̲am s: th…


(620 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, Banu ’l- , one of the two main Jewish tribes of Medina, settled in Yat̲h̲rib from Palestine at an unknown date, as a consequence of Roman pressure after the Jewish wars. Al-Yaʿḳūbī (ii, 49) says they were a section of the D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām Arabs, converted to Judaism and first settled on Mount al-Naḍīr, whence their name; according to the Sīra Ḥalabiyya (Cairo, iii, 2) they were a truly Jewish tribe, connected with the Jews of K̲h̲aybar [ q.v.]. This seems the more probable, but a certain admixture of Arab blood is possible; like the other Jews of Medina, they bore Arabic na…


(1,353 words)

Author(s): Gräf, E.
, a very ancient, but still existing, Arab tribe. The classical genealogical scheme ʿAnaza b. Rabīʿa (Wüstenfeld, Tab. A 6) has in recent times been changed in the same way as in the case of other tribes such as the Banū ʿAṭiyya in Northern Ḥid̲j̲āz and Wāʾil, the ancestor of the Bakr and Tag̲h̲lib, is taken to be their tribal ancestor; in the most recent genealogies Ḳurays̲h̲ appears above Wāʾil. Whether or not the Rabīʿa groups are inter-related, as implied in the genealogy, they were in any c…


(734 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V. | Roded, Ruth
bt. Ḥuyayy b. Ak̲h̲ṭab . Muḥammad’s eleventh wife, was born in Medina and belonged to the Jewish tribe of the Banu ’l-Naḍīr [see al-naḍīr ]; her mother Barra bt. Samawʾal, the sister of Rifaʿa b. Samawʾal, was of the Banū Ḳurayẓa [ q.v.]. Her father and her uncle Abū Yāsir were among the Prophet’s most bitter enemies. When their tribe was expelled from Medina in 4 A.H., Ḥuyayy b. Ak̲h̲ṭab was one of those who settled in K̲h̲aybar [ q.v.], together with Kināna b. al-Rabīʿ, to whom Ṣafiyya was married at the end of 6 or early in 7 A.H.; her age at this time was about 17. The…


(2,417 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an ancient small town in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz, near K̲h̲aybar and, according to Yāḳūt, two or three days’ journey from Medina. This place-name having disappeared, Ḥāfiẓ Wahba in his Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab (Cairo 1956, 15) identified the ancient Fadak with the modern village of al-Ḥuwayyiṭ (pron. Ḥowēyaṭ), situated on the edge of the ḥarra of K̲h̲aybar. Inhabited, like K̲h̲aybar, by a colony of Jewish agriculturists, Fadak produced dates and cereals; handicrafts also flourished, with the weaving of blankets with palm-leaf borders. Fadak owes its fame in the history of Islam to…

Bis̲h̲r b. al-Barāʾ

(205 words)

Author(s): ʿArafat, W.
, Medinese Companion, of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite clan of Banī Salima. Both he and his father al-Barāʾ b. Maʿrūr [ q.v.] accepted Islam early and were among the seventy odd Medinese who were present at the second ʿAḳaba meeting with the Prophet. Later, Bis̲h̲r fought at Badr, Uḥud, the siege of Medīna, (Battle of the Ditch), and at Ḵh̲aybar in 7/628. There he ate from a poisoned sheep which a Jewess offered to the Prophet in an attempt to venge her lost relatives. The Prophet tasted the poison and spat out the meat, but…

Safīd Kūh

(222 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), in Pas̲h̲to Spīn G̲h̲ar (“The White Mountain”), the name of a mountain range falling mainly in eastern Afghānistān. According to Bābur, it derives its name from its perpetual covering of snow; from its northern slopes, nine rivers run down to the Kābul River ( Bābur-nāma , tr. Beveridge, 209, cf. Appx. E, pp. xvii-xxiii). The Safīd Kūh, with its outliers, runs from a point to the east of G̲h̲azna [ q.v.] in a northeasterly and then easterly direction almost to Attock [see atak ] on the Indus (approx. between longs. 68° 40′ E. an…


(892 words)

Author(s): Rentz, G.
is properly the name of a pariah tribe with its main centre in northwestern Arabia, but Hutaym is also used imprecisely at times as a designation for any of the pariah tribes in the eastern Arab lands. The definite article prefixed to the name Hutaym in some Arabic and Western sources is incorrect; the initial radical is h, not as in EI 1, iv, 512; the usual pronunciation in Arabia is ihtēm ; and the plural is Hitmān rather than the forms given in EI 1, ii, 348. None of the many versions explaining the origin and lineage of Hutaym seems particularly plausible. About the only state…

ʿUyayna b. Ḥiṣn

(545 words)

Author(s): Lecker, M.
, the charismatic chief of the Fazāra [ q.v.] at the time of the Prophet Muḥammad. ʿUyayna (“one having prominent eyeballs”) was a nickname, his real name being Ḥud̲h̲ayfa. ʿUyayna b. Ḥiṣn b. Ḥud̲h̲ayfa b. Badr b. ʿAmr descended from famous warriors: his father led the Asad [ q.v.] and Ghaṭafān [ q.v.]; his grandfather, great-grandfather and great-great-grandfather commanded the forces of their own tribe, the Fazāra, and those of other tribes belonging to the Ghaṭafān group. ʿUyayna was called wat̲h̲t̲h̲āb or “leaper, jumper” since before the advent of…


(801 words)

Author(s): Løkkegaard, F.
, in pre-Islamic times used for chattels taken as booty, like g̲h̲anīma [ q.v.], to be divided between victors, either in fifths ( e.g., Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , ed. Lyall, 599, 1) or in fourths ( Ḥamāsa , ed. Freytag, 458, 18, Cairo 1335, i, 428; G. Jacob, Altarabisches Beduinenleben , Berlin 1897, 215), the leader being entitled to one of the parts. This custom was upheld by the Prophet after the battle of Badr, and Sūra VIII, 42 mentions five employments for the Prophet’s ¶ one fifth ( k̲h̲ums ), to figure in future budgets. The old use of the word fayʾ never became completely …

Ḥamḍ, Wādī Al-

(304 words)

Author(s): Mandaville, J.
, Iḍam of the classical Arab geographers, a seasonal watercourse in northwestern Arabia which enters the Red Sea 50 km. south of al-Wad̲j̲h. Wādī al-Ḥamḍ is one of the major physiographic features of western Arabia; it and its tributaries drain a basin 455 km. long lying between the mountain chain of al-Ḥid̲j̲āz and the ḥarra capped plateau to the east. Wādī al-D̲j̲izl, the main tributary of the system in the north, drains the southern and western slopes of Ḥarrat al-Raḥāh and Ḥarrat al-ʿUwayrid. Tributaries in the south-east …

ʿAḳīl b. Abī Ṭālib

(411 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, elder brother of ʿAlī, who was 20 years his junior. After fighting against the Muslims at Badr, where he was taken prisoner and ransomed by al-ʿAbbās, he became a convert to Islām. The sources give contradictory information as to the date of this event (after the capture of Mecca, according to al-Balād̲h̲urī; shortly before or after the pact of al-Ḥudaybiya, according to Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, etc.), as well as on his participation in the Ḵh̲aybar and Mūta expeditions, the capture of Mecca, and the bat…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa

(433 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians, conformably to the Prophet’s wish, had chosen. When Muḥammad had emigrated to Medīna, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammad appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After th…


(964 words)

Author(s): King, G.R.D.
or ruma, wādī , the main regional drainage system of north Arabia, running over 1,000 km/620 miles from the Ḥarrat K̲h̲aybar in the Ḥid̲j̲āz, to the north-east of Medina through al-Ḳaṣīm to run out in southern al-ʿIrāḳ. Al-Hamdānī (ed. Müller, i, 144) mentions Baṭn al-Rumma flowing between two mountain areas in the neighbourhood of the lands of the tribe of al-Ṭayyiʾ and the fertile land of al-Ḳaṣīm to the south. He also mentions (i, 145) Wādī Sarīr as being the name of the lo…


(1,459 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Bosworth, C.E.
, a city of Muslim India, in the northwestern part of the subcontinent, now in Pakistan (lat. 34° 01′ N., long. 71° 40′ E., altitude 320 m/1,048 ft.). In modern Pākistān, it is also the name of various administrative units centred on the city (see below). The district is bounded on the east by the river Indus, which separates it from the Pand̲j̲āb and Hazāra, and on the south-east by the Nīlāb G̲h̲as̲h̲a range which shuts it off from the district of Kō…

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(458 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, with the kunya Abu ’l-Faḍl, half-brother of Muḥammad’s father, his mother being Nutayla bint ¶ Ḏj̲anāb of al-Namir. The ʿAbbāsid dynasty took its name from him, being descended from his son ʿAbd Allāh. Consequently there was a tendency for historians under the ʿAbbāsids to glorify him, and in his case it is particularly difficult to distinguish fact from fiction. He was a merchant and financier, more prosperous than his half-brother Abū Ṭālib, who, in return for the extinction of a debt, surrendered to him the office of providing pilgrims to Mecca with water ( siḳāya


(464 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J.
, a powerful Arab tribe of Yemenī origin in the Ḥid̲j̲āz between Mecca and Medina. They are divided into two great bodies, the Banū Sālim and B. Muṣrūḥ. To the B. Sālim belong amongst other clans, al-Ḥamda, al-Ṣubḥ, ʿAmr, Muʿara, Walād Salīm, Tamīm (not the celebrated great tribe of this name), Muzayna, al-Hawāzim (Awāzim, Hāzim), and Saʿdīn (Saadīn, sing. Saadanī); to the Muṣrūḥ, amongst others: Saʿdī (Saʿadī), Laḥabba, Bis̲h̲r, al-Ḥumrān, ʿAlī, al-D̲j̲ahm, Banū ʿAmr. Doughty gives amongst others the following villages of the B. Sālim (between Medina and Yanbuʿ and o…

Kaʿb b. Mālik

(484 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , one of the poets supporting Muḥammad, was an Anṣārī of the clan of Salima of the tribe of al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ [see al-anṣār ]. He must have been born before 600 A.D., since he is said to have taken part in the internal fighting in Medina before the Hid̲j̲ra, and to have been present at the second ʿAḳaba [ q.v.], when allegiance was sworn to Muḥammad. He was not present at Badr, but took part in most of the subsequent expeditions led by Muḥammad. At Uḥud he received several wounds and was the first to recognize Muḥammad after the rumour ¶ that he had been killed. S…

Kūh-i Bābā

(445 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the mountain massif of central Afg̲h̲ānistān, being the westwards and southwards extension of the Pamirs “knot” and the Hindū Kus̲h̲ [ q.v.] of north-eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān. The name Kūh-i Bābā is properly given to the east-west chaîne magistrale running westwards from Kābul and lying to the south of the upper Herī Rūd, with outliers running southwards and westwards through the regions of the G̲h̲ōrāt and Hazārad̲j̲āt [see g̲h̲ūr and hazārad̲j̲āt in Suppl.] between such river valleys as those of the Helmand, Arg̲h̲andāb and Tarnak. On the northern side of the He…
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