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Karrāmiyya

(2,685 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a sect which flourished in the central and eastern parts of the Islamic worlds, and especially in the Iranian regions, from the 3rd/9th century until the Mongol invasions. (1). Origins. The founder, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Karrām (thus vocalized by Samʿānī, who says that his father was a vine-tender, karrām , but there is some support for the readings Karām or Kirām), is known from biographies, in e.g. Samʿānī, Ansāb , fols. 476b-477a; D̲h̲ahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl , Cairo 1325/1907, iii, 127; idem, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Islām , sub anno 255/869 (abridged version in Leiden Ms. 1721, fols…

Karrāmiyya

(2,845 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, secte florissante dans les contrées centrales et orientales du monde musulman, et notamment dans les régions iraniennes, du IIIe/IXe siècle aux invasions mongoles. 1. — Origines. Le fondateur de cette secte, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Karrām (ainsi vocalisé par al-Samʿānī parce que son père aurait été vigneron, karrām, mais on peut également lire Karām ou Kirām), nous est connu par les biographies que l’on trouve notamment dans al-Samʿānī ( Ansāb, 476b477a), al-Ḏh̲ahabī ( Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, Caire 1325/1907, III, 127, et Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Islām, s.a. 255/869, version abrégée dans le…

kayfūfiyya

(35 words)

kayfūfiyya (A) : philosophical-theological term used by the Karrāmiyya for ‘the quality of God’. Ano…

ʿaṣaba

(86 words)

ʿaṣaba (A) : male relations in the male line, corresponding to the agnates. ʿAṣā; Ḳarāba; Mirʾāt ʿaṣabiyya

Biyār, al-Biyār

(551 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
(a. “wells, springs”), modern Biyārd̲j̲umand, a small town on the northern edges of the Great Desert, the Das̲h̲t-i Kavīr, of Persia. The mediaeval geographers describe it as being three days’ journey from Bisṭām and 25 farsak̲h̲s from Dāmg̲h̲ān, and as falling administratively within the province of Ḳūmis [ q.v.], although in Sāmānid times (4th/10th century) it seems to have been attached to Nīs̲h̲āpūr in Ḵh̲urāsān. It was the terminus of an only-moderately frequented route across the northeastern corner of the desert to Turs̲h̲īz in Ḳūhistān. We have in Muḳaddasī, 356-7, 372, …

al-D̲h̲ammiyya

(246 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, “the people of the blame”, is a name given by heresiographers to those who held certain disapproved doctrines. S̲h̲ahrastānī (134) and Maḳrīzī ( K̲h̲iṭaṭ , Būlāḳ 1270 A.H., ii, 353) apply it to S̲h̲īʿīs who claimed that Muḥammad was originally an agent of ʿAlī (the real prophet) but blameably summoned men to himself instead—a position noted (without a name) by As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn , ed. Md. Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Cairo 1950, 82), and ascribed also to al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. Maḳrīzī explains that ʿAlī was silenced by being given Fāṭima. S̲h̲ahrastānī s…

Ḥas̲h̲wiyya

(270 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ḥas̲h̲awiyya, Ḥus̲h̲wiyya, or Ahl al-Ḥas̲h̲w), a contemptuous term derived from ḥas̲h̲w (“farce” and hence “prolix and useless discourse”) and with the general meaning of “scholars” of little worth, particularly traditionists; this term is sometimes associated with g̲h̲ut̲h̲āʾ and g̲h̲ut̲h̲ar , and even with raʿāʿ , “the scum of the populace” (Ibn Ḳutayba, Muk̲h̲talif , 96; tr. Lecomte, 90), and used by some Sunnis of extremist traditionists or those whose researches are of very little value. Fairly close to Nābita [ q.v.] and to Mud̲j̲bira [ q.v.], it is used, in a narrower se…

Abū Isḥāq al-Isfarāyīnī

(736 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Abū Isḥāq al-Isfarāyīnī (or Isfarāʾīnī), Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Mihrān al-Mihrjānī al-Nīsābūrī al-Shāfiʿī (d. Muḥarram 418/February 1027), was, along with Abū Bakr b. Fūrak (d. 406/1015), the leading representative of the Ashʿarī school of theology in Nishapur in the late fourth/tenth and early fifth/eleventh centuries. Born in Isfarāyīn, al-Isfarāyīnī studied ḥadīth with Daʿlaj al-Sijzī (d. 351/962), Abū Bakr al-Shāfiʿī (d. 384/458), and Abū Bakr al-Ismāʿīlī (d. 371/981). In 351/962 at the latest he moved to Baghdad and completed his …
Date: 2018-07-12

Ḥas̲h̲wiyya

(260 words)

Author(s): Réd.
(Ḥas̲h̲awiyya, Ḥus̲h̲wiyya ou Ahl al-Ḥas̲h̲w), terme injurieux tiré de ḥas̲h̲w («farce» et, de là, «discours prolixe et inutile») et désignant d’une façon générale des «savants» de bas étage, tout particulièrement des traditionnistes; ce terme est parfois associé à g̲h̲ut̲h̲āʾ et g̲h̲ut̲h̲ar, voire à raʿāʿ «lie du peuple« (Ibn Ḳutayba, Muk̲h̲talif, 96; trad. Lecomte, 90), et employé par des Sunnites pour désigner des traditionnistes extrémistes ou dont les recherches ne présentent guère d’utilité. Assez voisin de Nābita [ q.v.] et de Mud̲j̲bira [ q.v.], il s’applique, dans un…

al-Ḏh̲ammiyya

(253 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M. G. S.
, «les gens du blâme», nom donné par les hérésiographes aux tenants de certaines doctrines suspectes. Al-S̲h̲ahrastānī (134) et al-Maḳrīzī ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, Būlāḳ 1270, II, 353) l’appliquent à des S̲h̲īʿites qui prétendaient que Muḥammad était à l’origine un représentant de ʿAlī (le prophète véritable), mais qu’il encourut le blâme pour avoir au contraire prêché aux hommes en son propre nom — attitude signalée (sans indication de nom) par al-As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-islāmiyyīn, éd. Md. Muḥyī l-dīn Abd al-Ḥamīd, Caire 1950, 82) et attribuée aussi à al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. Al-Maḳrīzī exp…

al-Nīsābūrī

(383 words)

Author(s): Malti-Douglas, Fedwa
, al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb b. Ayyūb , Abu ’l-Ḳāsim, was a famous littérateur and Ḳurʾānic scholar who died in either D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a or D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda, 406/1015-16. One of the most learned men of Nīs̲h̲āpūr, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim was considered the leader of his time in Ḳurʾānic sciences. He was not only a grammarian but was also knowledgeable in mag̲h̲āzī (the accounts of the expeditions and raids of the Prophet) [ q.v.], stories, and biography-history. Al-Nīsābūrī was a Karrāmī [see karrāmiyya ], who later became a S̲h̲āfiʿī. He transmitted ḥadīt̲h̲ s [ q.v.] on the authority of, am…

al-Nīsābūrī

(345 words)

Author(s): Malti-Douglas, Fedwa
, al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb b. Ayyūb Abū l-Ḳāsim, littérateur et spécialiste du Ḳurʾān, qui mourut en d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda ou d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 406/avril-juin 1016. Il possédait un savoir étendu et était considéré comme le plus fort de son temps en matière de sciences kur’âniques, mais il était aussi grammairien et connaisseur en mag̲h̲āzī [ q.v.], en histoires et en biographie. Il faisait partie des Karrāmiyya [ q.v.], avant de devenir shāfiʿite. Il transmit des ḥadīt̲h̲s sous l’autorité, entre autres, du fameux traditionniste s̲h̲āfiʿite de Nīsābūr, Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Aṣ…

K̲h̲ānḳāh

(2,085 words)

Author(s): Chabbi, J.
, a composite word of Persian origin meaning a building usually reserved for Muslim mystics belonging to a dervish order. The terms ribāṭ , tekke and zāwiya [ q.vv.] refer to establishments with similar aims. After an early period of evolution which is still imperfectly known, these all became widespread throughout the Islamic world down to modern times. The usual translation of “monastery” does not, however, convey the complexity of the institution. Etymology. From the outset, k̲h̲ānḳāh appears in two forms, sometimes in the same author: (1) the Persian form k̲h̲ānagāh

al-Isfarāyīnī

(671 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Mihrān al-Mihrd̲j̲ānī , As̲h̲ʿarī theologian and S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, was along with Ibn Fūrak [ q.v.], the chief propagator of As̲h̲ʿarī theology in Nīs̲h̲āpūr at the turn of the 5th/11th century. Originating from Isfarāyīn, he studied mainly in Bag̲h̲dād, where he must have arrived before 351/962. He attended the lectures of Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Bāhilī in As̲h̲ʿarī theology at the same time as al-Bāḳillānī [ q.v.] and Ibn Furāk. After leaving Bag̲h̲dād, he taught in Isfarāyīn. Later he accepted an invitation to Nīs̲h̲āpūr, where a madrasa

Ibn Fūrak

(642 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. Fūrak al-Anṣārī al-Iṣbahānī , As̲h̲ʿarite theologian and traditionist, was born about 330/941, perhaps in Ispahan. In ʿIrāḳ, both at Basra and at Baghdad, he studied As̲h̲ʿarite kalām under Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Bāhilī along with al-Bāḳillānī [ q.v.] and al-Isfarāʾinī [ q.v.], and also traditions under ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Iṣbahānī. From ʿIrāḳ he went to Rayy, then to Nis̲h̲āpūr, where a madrasa was built for him beside the k̲h̲ānḳāh of the ṣūfī al-Būs̲h̲and̲j̲ī. He was in Nīs̲h̲āpūr before the death of the ṣūfī Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān …

Fikr

(772 words)

Author(s): Gardet, L.
, pl. afkār , thought, reflection. The Ḳurʾān employs the 2nd and 5th forms of the root fkr , to urge men “to reflect”. In the vocabulary of falsafa and ʿilm al-kalām , the maṣdar fikr denotes the intellectual faculty in the act of thought, reflecting upon an object of intellection. It is distinguished from idrāk , the intellectual faculty of grasping, of perception. The result of the operation of fikr is expressed by the noun of unity fikra . In taṣawwuf , fikr is used habitually in contrast to d̲h̲ikr [ q.v.], recollection. Fikr can thus be translated by reflectio…

al-Dārimī, Abū Saʿīd

(564 words)

Author(s): Abrahamov, Binyamin
Abū Saʿīd ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. Khālid b. Saʿīd al-Sijistānī al-Dārimī (b. 200/815, d. between 280 and 282/893–5) was a prominent traditionist, jurist, and theologian. His teachers were Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 241/855), ʿAlī b. al-Madīnī (d. 234/848), Isḥāq b. Rāhawayh (d. 237/851), and Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn (d. 233/847) in the science of traditions, al-Buwayṭī (d. 231/846) in jurisprudence, and Ibn al-Aʿrābī (d. 231/846) in adab (belles-lettres). He composed two polemical treatises, al-Radd ʿalā l-Jahmiyya (“Refutation of the Jahmites”) and al-Radd ʿalā Bishr al-Marīsī (“Refutation of Bis…
Date: 2018-07-12

Biyār

(558 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, al-Biyār (a. « puits, sources »), aujourd’hui Biyārd̲j̲umand, petite ville sur les confins septentrionaux du Grand Désert, le Das̲h̲t-i Kavīr, de Perse. Les géographes médiévaux disent qu’elle est à trois jours de voyage de Bisṭām et à 25 farsak̲h̲s de Dāmg̲h̲ān, et qu’elle appartient administrativement à la province de Ḳūmis [ q.v.] mais, à l’époque sāmānide (IVe/Xe siècle), elle semble avoir été rattachée à Nīs̲h̲āpūr, au Ḵh̲urāsān. C’était le terminus d’une route modérément fréquentée qui traversait l’angle Nord-est du désert, vers Turs̲h̲īz, au Ḳūhistān. On trouve chez al-…

Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī

(802 words)

Author(s): Berger, Lutz
Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī (d. c.165/781–2) was an ascetic from Kufa, in southern Iraq. As with many early Islamic religious figures, sources on his life and thought are late and contradictory in detail but nonetheless allow a general appraisal of his personality. Dāwūd al-Ṭāʾī was part of the Kufan Murjiʾa circle, which is associated with the name of Abū Ḥanīfa (d. 150/767), the eponymous founder of the Ḥanafī school of law (the Murjiʾa was an early theological school opposed to the Kharijīs on questions related to sin and definitions of what is …
Date: 2018-07-12

Abū Ḥafṣ al-Ḥaddād

(1,321 words)

Author(s): Chabbi, Jacqueline
Abū Ḥafṣ ʿAmr b. Salma al-Ḥaddād (d. c. 270/883) is thought to have been an ascetic from Nīshāpūr, Khurāsān, in eastern Iran. Abū Ḥafṣ could be termed a quietist, since he allegedly refused to perform ascetic and mystical practices in public. This attitude of withdrawal to an inner spirituality that is not divulged except to disciples is believed to have been a mystical trend prevalent in the urban environment of craftsmen working in the bazaars. Judging from the professional names borne by several presumed ascetics,…
Date: 2018-07-12
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