Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(139 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
a title (originally ḳag̲h̲an or k̲h̲ag̲h̲an ) borrowed by the Turks from the Juan-juan and meaning “[supreme] ruler”. It was applied by the heathen Turks themselves and the mediaeval Muslim geographers and historians not only to the heads of the various Turkish confederations but also to other non-Muslim rulers such as the Emperor of China. In the form ḳāʾan it was borne by the successors of Čingiz-K̲h̲ān [ q.v.], the Mongol Great K̲h̲āns in Ḳaraḳorum and Peking. Adopted by the Ottoman Sulṭāns, the title, first brought to Europe by the Avars in the 6th century A.D. (the kaganus


(7 words)

[see fatḥ ʿalī s̲h̲āh ]

Ibn K̲h̲āḳān

(413 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, name of several secretaries and viziers of the ʿAbbāsid period. (1) Yaḥyā b. K̲h̲āḳān , secretary of K̲h̲urāsānī origin, was in the service of al-Ḥasan b. Sahl [ q.v.] under the caliphate of al-Maʾmūn and became, under al-Mutawakkil, secretary to the office for land-taxes, and then director of the maẓālim -court, when his son ʿUbayd Allāh became vizier. (2) ʿUbayd Allāh b. Yaḥyā was the first member of the family to become a vizier. Patronized by the caliph al-Mutawakkil, who had appointed him as his private secretary, he succeeded i…

al-Fatḥ b. K̲h̲āḳān

(342 words)

Author(s): Pinto, O.
was the son of K̲h̲āḳān b. ʿUrṭūd̲j̲ (or G̲h̲urṭūd̲j̲) of the Turkish ruling family at Farg̲h̲ānā and chief of the Turkish soldiers from Central Asia who formed part of the troops of the guard of the caliph al-Muʿtaṣim. Biographical information concerning him is scarce: he must have been born ca. 200/817-8, because he was probably the same age as al-Mutawakkil, son of al-Muʿtaṣim, with whom he was educated since infancy at the court of the caliph, who had adopted him at the age of seven. Hardly had al-Mutawakkil been elected caliph in 232/846-7 when he made him his secretary ( kātib , and not wazī…

al-Fatḥ b. Muḥammad b. ʿUbayd Allāh b. K̲h̲āḳān

(838 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, M. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Naṣr al-Ḳaysī al-Is̲h̲bīlī , an Andalusian anthologist whose history is somewhat obscure. We do, however, know that he studied seriously under well-known teachers and that he led an adventurous life, travelling through much of Muslim Spain and enjoying to the full pleasures strictly forbidden by the laws of Islam. Despite this, he obtained a position as secretary to the governor of Granada, Abū Yūsuf Tās̲h̲fīn b. ʿAlī, but did not keep it and went to Marrākus̲h̲ where, at …

Muḥammad b. Ṭug̲h̲d̲j̲ b. D̲j̲uff b. Yiltakīn b. Fūrān b. Fūrī b. K̲h̲āḳān, Abū Bakr, al-Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd

(806 words)

Author(s): Bacharach, J.L.
(268-334/882-946), governor in Egypt and Syria during the 4th/10th century. He was the third generation of his family to serve the ʿAbbāsid dynasty. He was officially designated by the caliph al-Rāḍī with the title al-Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd in 327/939 after having requested it the preceding year. The dynasty which he established is known as the Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īdids. Born in Bag̲h̲dād on 15 Rad̲j̲ab 268/8 February 882, Muḥammad b. ṭug̲h̲d̲j̲ spent part of his youth in Ṭūlūnid [see aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn ] lands in Syria and Palestine, gaining military and administrative expe…


(5 words)

[see k̲h̲aḳān ].

Ibn al-Imām al-S̲h̲ilbī

(285 words)

Author(s): Monés, Hussain
, Abu ʿAmr ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAlī b. ʿUt̲h̲mān , an Andalusī man of letters, biographer and historian of the 6th/12th century; born in Silves, he studied in Cordova and Seville, where he became a disciple of Abū Bakr Ibn al-ʿArabi. As an admirer of his contemporaries Ibn Bassām [ q.v.] and Ibn K̲h̲āḳān [see al-fatḥ ibn k̲h̲āḳān ], he decided to write a sequel to their works, and to include the biographies that they had omitted and those of his contemporaries, as far as 550/1155-6 (he died shortly after that date). His work is now lost, but later compilers …


(236 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
, a Turkish title ( k̲h̲an or ḳan ) first used by the Tʿu-chüeh apparently as a synonym of ḳag̲h̲an , the later k̲h̲āḳān [ q.v.], with which its relationship is obscure; it was afterwards normally applied to subordinate rulers. The title is first recorded in Muslim lands on the coins of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids or Ilek K̲h̲āns [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs and K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, k̲h̲ān was the highest title of the nobility taking precedence over malik and amīr . It was applied by the Mongols to the head of an ulus [ q.v.], ḳāʾan , i.e. k̲h̲āḳān, being reserved for the Great K̲h̲ān in Ḳaraḳorum o…

Ibn Abī Zamanayn

(175 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĪsā al-Murrī , Andalusian poet and particularly jurist, born at Elvira in 324/936, died in the same town in 399/1009. The few verses of his which we have are of a somewhat religious nature and show a rather pessimistic attitude and a leaning to asceticism which is expressed in his Ḥayāt al-ḳulūb . However, he is principally known as an independent Mālikī jurist and author of several works, in particular a commentary on the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Mālik, a summary of Saḥnūn’s Mudawwana , a Kitāb Aḥwāl al-sunna and a formulary which has …

al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Surayd̲j̲

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Kister, M.J.
(or ʿUmayr ) b. Yazīd b. Sawā (or Sawwār ) b. Ward b. Murra b. Sufyān b. Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿ , Abū Ḥātim , leader of a rebellious movement in K̲h̲urāsān against the Umayyad administration. His father, Surayd̲j̲, had his abode in the quarter of the Banū Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿ in Baṣra and received a yearly ʿaṭāʾ of 700 dirhams. Al-Ḥārit̲h̲ is mentioned as one of the courageous warriors in the battle against the forces of the K̲h̲āḳān at Paykand in n 1/729. He was flogged on the order of the governor of K̲h̲urāsān, al-Ḏj̲unayd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Murrī, having oppos…


(423 words)

Author(s): Fück, J.W.
, abū ʿalī al-fadl b. ḏj̲aʿfar b. al-faḍl b. yūnus al-anbārī al-nak̲h̲aʿī al-kātib , poet and letter-writer of the first half of the 3rd/9th century. He was born in Kūfa in a family of Persian origin which had been living in al-Anbār, but moved to Kūfa and settled in the quarter of the Yemenite tribe al-Nak̲h̲aʿ. On account of his blindness he ¶ was nicknamed al-Baṣīr and al-Ḍarīr ( per antiphrasin, see A. Fischer, ZDMG 61, 430). When Sāmarrā was built in 221/836 he went to the new capital and in spite of his strong and even extreme S̲h̲īʿite leanings he eulogised al-…


(539 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(d. probably after 998/1590), Ottoman historian. Practically nothing is known about Seyfī aside from the fact that he compiled a unique historiogeographical work on the rulers of Asia and China contemporary with Murād III, and the possibility that he may have been a defterdār in the Ottoman bureaucracy. Neither he nor his work is mentioned in the standard Ottoman bio-bibliographical sources. Seyfī’s history has been published by J. Matuz, L’ouvrage de Seyfī Čelebī : historien ottoman du XVI e siècle; édition critique, traduction et commentaires, Paris 1966. Its title, added pos…

al-Aʿmā al-Tuṭīlī

(191 words)

Author(s): Stern, S.M.
, "the blind man of Tudela", abu ’l-ʿabbās (or abū ḏj̲aʿfar ) aḥmad b. ʿabd allāh b. hurayra al-ʿutbī (or al-ḳaysī ), Hispano-Arabic poet, b. in Tudela, but brought up in Seville; d. 525/1130-1. MSS of his dīwān , containing classical poetry, are to be found in London and Cairo (see Brockelmann, I, 320, S I, 480), but he is mainly famous as one of the great masters of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥ poetry. His muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥs are preserved, apart from occasional quotations in general works, in such special anthologies of the genre as Ibn Sanāʾ al-Mulk’s Dār al-Ṭirāz (ed. Rikaby, nos. 1, 30, 34), Ibn Bus̲h̲rā’s ʿ…

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Ḥusayn

(265 words)

Author(s): Canard, M.
al-S̲h̲īrāzī , Abu ’l-Faḍl , vizier. At the death of al-Muhallabī in 352/963, al-ʿAbbās, head of the Dīwān of Expenses, was charged by the Būyid Muʿizz al-Dawla with the functions of a vizier, together with another secretary, Ibn Fasānd̲j̲as, but without succeeding to the title. After the death of Muʿizz al-Dawla in 356/967, he was appointed vizier by the son and successor of Muʿizz al-Dawla, Bak̲h̲tiyār. He succeeded in suppressing the rebellion of another son of Muʿizz al-Daw…


(757 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(in the texts usually Kīmāk, often wrongly vocalised Kaymāk), an early Turkish people living in western Siberia on the lower course of the Irtis̲h̲ River and on its tributaries the Is̲h̲im and Tobol, possibly as far north as the confluence of the Irtis̲h̲ and Ob and as far west as the Ural Mts. ; they are mentioned in Islamic sources from the 3rd/9th century onwards. The most detailed accounts of the Kimäk and their territories are in the anonymous Ḥudud al-ʿālam (begun 372/982-3), tr. Minorsky, 99-100, 304-10, and in Gardīzī’s Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār , ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥayy …

Ibn Ḥazm

(683 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, patronymic of an Andalusian family, several members of which played an important rôle during the Umayyad caliphate. The most famous of them is without doubt Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī Ibn Ḥazm [see the following article], but some brief details on the Banū Ḥazm are given here, since confusions often arise. (1) ʿAlī’s father was Abū ʿUmar Aḥmād b. Saʿīd b. Ḥazm b. G̲h̲ālib b. Ṣāliḥ b. K̲h̲alaf . A dignitary at the court of the ḥād̲j̲ib al-Manṣūr Ibn Abī ʿĀmir and that of his son al-Muẓaffar, he was greatly affected by the serious events which occurred in 399/1009 [see al-andalus …

al-Muʿtamid ʿAlā ’llāh

(587 words)

Author(s): Kennedy, H.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. D̲j̲aʿfar, ʿAbbāsid caliph (256-79/870-92), son of al-Mutawakkil [ q.v.] and a slave-girl from Kūfa called Fityān. He seems to have had no political experience before being chosen as caliph in Rad̲j̲ab 256/June 870 on the ¶ death of his nephew al-Muhtadī [ q.v.] and he was never able to build up an independent power base. For most of his reign he remained a figurehead in Sāmarrāʾ while effective power was exercised by his brother Abū Aḥmad, who took the quasi-caliphal title of al-Muwaffaḳ [ q.v.]. Al-Muʿtamid was able to appoint his own wazīr , …


(733 words)

Author(s): Abdesselem, A. Ben
bt. Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , poetess and littérateuse of the Spanish Umayyad family, d. Ṣafar 480/May-June 1087 or 484/1091. Her father was placed on the throne with the laḳab of al-Mustakfī, but reigned for sixteen months only 414-16/1024-5, being killed shortly afterwards. Hence Wallāda’s childhood and youth coincided with the particularly troubled and confused end of the Umayyad caliphate in Spain. Aged about sixteen at this time, and the offspring of a slave mother of European origin ( d̲j̲āriya ), she was able now to exercise a relatively f…

Ibn K̲h̲afād̲j̲a

(674 words)

Author(s): Granja, F. de la
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Abi ’l-Fatḥ al-K̲h̲afād̲j̲ī . famous Andalusian poet, born in 450/1058 at Alcira (D̲j̲azīrat S̲h̲uḳr), in the present province of Valencia, whence his nisbas of al-D̲j̲azīrī and al-S̲h̲uḳrī. Born into a wealthy family which owned property in the district, he did not seek favours nor respond to those who invited him to join their entourage, although he followed the custom of the time in singing the praises of important men, such as the Almoravid prince Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Tās̲h̲fīn, on the occasion of ʿīd al-fiṭr in the year 510/1117. Nev…
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