Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(3,946 words)

Author(s): Levi Della Vida, G.
( al-K̲h̲awārid̲j̲ , sing. K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ī ), the members of the earliest of the religious sects of Islam, whose importance lies particularly, from the point of view of the development of dogma, in the formulation of questions relative to the theory of the caliphate and to justification by faith or by works, while from the point of view of political history the principal part they played was disturbing by means of continual insurrections, which often ended in the temporary conquest…


(5 words)

[see k̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites ].


(7 words)

[see k̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites ; taḳiyya ]


(5 words)

[see k̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites ].


(58 words)

(a., pl. kabāʾir ), a term of Islamic theology meaning “grave [sin]”, occurring in Ḳurʾān, II, 42/39, 138/143 and passim . It was the stimulus for much discussion amongst theologians and sectaries like the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites [ q.v.] on what constituted a grave sin and how committing one affected a man’s salvation. For a discussion, see k̲h̲aṭīʾa .

Dayr Mūsa

(62 words)

Author(s): Ali, Saleh A. el-
, a place near Kūfa on the way to Surā (Ṭabarī, ii, 644). Al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ chose it as an assembly point for his troops after ʿAlī had sent him to fight the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites (Ṭabarī, i, 3422-4). Al-Muk̲h̲tār reached this Dayr in his bidding farewell to Yazīd b. Anas whom he sent to occupy Mosul (Ṭabarī, ii, 644). (Saleh A. El-Ali)

Dayr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(75 words)

Author(s): Ali, Saleh A. el-
, a place in the vicinity of Kūfa, next to Ḳanāṭir Rās al-D̲j̲ālūt (Ṭabarī, ii, 701), near Ḥammām Aʿyun (Ṭabarī, ii, 703). It was the assembly point of the Kūfan army which was sent by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ under the command of al-D̲j̲azl against the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites (Ṭabarī, ii, 902) ¶ and of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ (Ṭabarī, ii, 930). Al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Abī Rabīʿa encamped there in his revolt against al-Muk̲h̲tār (Ṭabarī, ii, 759). (Saleh A. El-Ali)


(231 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Veccia Vaglieri, L.
(cf. Αδροα), more rarely uḏh̲ruḥ , a place between Maʿān and Petra, a magnificent Roman camp (the surviving monuments are described by Brünnow and Domaszewski), supplied by a gushing spring. This place, situated in pre-Islamic times in the Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām country, was visited by the Ḳurays̲h̲ite caravans. It submitted to Muḥammad on payment of tribute during the expedition to Tabūk (9/631); the treaty of capitulation handed down by our authorities is probably authentic. Muʿāwiya is s…


(218 words)

Author(s): Frye, R.N.
, a fertile, high lying district of Kirmān with a city of the same name south-west of Bam and separated from it by the Bārid̲j̲ān Mountains. There is no record of the city in pre-Islamic times and the first mention of the city is when D̲j̲īruft was captured by Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿ b. Masʿūd in 35/655 (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 391). Thereafter the city is mentioned many times, especially in the Arabic geographies. The K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites were active in D̲j̲īruft but nothing is known of the history of the city. The geographer al-Muḳaddasī (461) praises the district highly in de…

al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Ḳays al-S̲h̲aybānī

(635 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite leader, opponent of Marwān b. Muḥammad ( — Marwān II). During the disturbances which followed the murder of the Caliph al-Walīd II, the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites resumed their campaign in Ḏj̲azīra and pushed forward into ʿIrāḳ, their leader at first being the Ḥarūrite Saʿīd b. Bahdal, and, after his death of the plague, al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Ḳays al-S̲h̲aybānī, an adherent of the above-mentioned Ibn Bahdal. Several thousand fighters assembled under the standard of al-Ḍaḥḥāk; there were even among them Ṣufrites from S̲h̲ahrazūr. who, at that time, according to al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ

ʿUbayd Allāh b. Bas̲h̲īr

(321 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
(or Bus̲h̲ayr) b. al-Māḥūz, leader of the Azāriḳa [ q.v.] sect of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites. (Al-)Māḥūz was the nickname of Yazīd b. Musāḥiḳ of the Banū Salīṭ b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Yarbūʿ of Tamīm. Several of the Banu ’l-Māḥūz, among them ʿUbayd Allāh, were among the Baṣran Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites who went to Mecca to support ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] in 64/683 but deserted him when he would not denounce the caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān. They returned to Baṣra together with Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ [ q.v.] and then joined his revolt. After Nāfiʿ was killed during fighting at Dūlāb (Ḏj̲umādā II 65/Dec.-Jan. …


(1,492 words)

Author(s): Rubinacci, R.
, One of the main branches of the Ḵh̲arid̲j̲ites [ q.v.]. The name is derived from that of its leader Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥanẓalī, who, according to al-As̲h̲ʿarī, was the first to cause disputes among the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites by supporting the thesis according to which all adversaries should be put to death together with their women and children ( istiʿrāḍ ). As regards the man himself, it is known that he was the son of a manumitted blacksmith of Greek origin and that in 64/683 he came to the aid of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, be…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya

(519 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, ʿAlid rebel. After the death of Abū Hās̲h̲im, a grandson of ʿAlī, claims were laid to the Imamate from several quarters. Some asserted that Abū Hās̲h̲im had formally transferred his right to the dignity of Imām to the ʿAbbāsid Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Others said that he had spoken in favor of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr al-Kindī and wanted to proclaim him Imām. As he, however, did not come up to the expectations of his followers, they turned from him and declared ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya, a great-grandson of ʿ…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Wahb

(187 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
al-Rāsibī , Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite leader, a tābiʿī of the Bad̲j̲īla tribe, noted for his bravery and piety and surnamed d̲h̲u ’l-t̲h̲afināt , "the man with the callosities", on account of the callosities on his forehead etc. resulting from his many prostrations. He fought under Ṣaʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ in ʿIrāḳ and under ʿAlī at Ṣiffīn, but broke with him over the decision to arbitrate and joined the dissidents at Ḥarūraʾ. Shortly before their final departure from Kūfa in S̲h̲awwāl 37/March 658, the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites elected ʿAbd Allāh as their commander ( amīr , not k̲h̲alīfa , as…

Ayman b. K̲h̲uraym

(242 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. fātik b. al-ak̲h̲ram al-asadī , Arab poet of the Umayyad period, son of the Companion of the Prophet Ḵh̲uraym al-Nāʿim, whose ḥadīt̲h̲s he has handed down. After settling at Kūfa, he composed, like many of the poets of that town g̲h̲azal poems, but also panegyrics on the Umayyad princes ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz and Bis̲h̲r, son of Marwān; although he contracted tubercular leprosy ( abraṣ ), his poetry allowed him to enjoy their intimate friendship, and this favour won him the surname of k̲h̲alīl al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ (the friend of caliphs). In some of his poems he touch…

Abū Salama Ḥafṣ b. Sulaymān al-K̲h̲allāl

(269 words)

Author(s): Moscati, S.
, vizier. A freed slave from Kūfa, he was sent in 127/744-5 to Ḵh̲urāsān with ample powers, as one of the chief ʿAbbāsid emissaries. He took part in the armed insurrection which put an end to the Umayyad dynasty, and was appointed governor of Kūfa. At the culminating point of the revolution he inclined towards the ʿAlids and seems to have attempted to set up an ʿAlid caliphate. In this, one can perhaps see a consequence of the deliberate ambiguity about the rights of the "house of the Prophet", …


(291 words)

Author(s): Herzfeld, E.
of Bawāzīd̲j̲ al-Malik, in ʿAbbāsid times a town in the province of Mosul on the right bank of the Lesser Zāb, not far from its mouth. The name is the Syriac Bēt̲h̲ Wāzīḳ, “the house of the toll-collector”. As the Sāsānid name, there appears occasionally Ḵh̲unyā-Sābur “S̲h̲āpūr’s song”, after the usual style of the poetical names of towns common in the Sāsānid period. In the older geographers and historians the place is only briefly mentioned along with Takrīt, Ṭīrhān and Sinn. Some one with an accurate knowledge of the …


(211 words)

Author(s): Blachère, R.
, “the deaf”, a soubriquet applied to several people, notably: 1. sufyān b. al-abrad al-kalbī , called al-Aṣamm, an Umayyad general famous for his eloquence, who led several campaigns against the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites, the most notable of which, about 78/677 or 79/678, led to the crushing defeat and death of the Azraḳī Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite Ḳaṭari b. al-Fud̲j̲a’a [ q.v.]. (R. Blachère) Bibliography al-Ṭabari, Annales, ed. by de Goeje, ii, 1018 (Cairo ed. v, 126) Ḏj̲āhiẓ, Bayān, ed. by Hārūn, i, 61, 407 and iii, 264. 2. abu ’l-ʿabbās muḥammad b. yaʿḳūb al-nīsābūrī , called al-A…


(1,475 words)

Author(s): Rubinacci, R.
, K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite sub-sect which was especially widespread in Baḥrayn and Yamāma. The name derives from that of its founder Nad̲j̲da b. ʿĀmir al-Ḥanafī al-Ḥarūrī. It is known of him that he rebelled in Yamāma at the time of al-Ḥusayn’s death in battle (61/680) and that in 64/683 he gave military help to ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr when he was besieged in Mecca by the Syrian army. Once the siege was raised, Nad̲j̲da, in company with other K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite chiefs, including Nāfiʿ b. al-Azraḳ and ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ,…

S̲h̲abīb b. Yazīd

(664 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Robinson, C.F.
b. Nuʿaym al-S̲h̲aybānī, K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite leader of the early Umayyad period. A tribesman of the Banū Hammām b. Murra b. D̲h̲uhl lineage of the S̲h̲aybān, S̲h̲abīb’s father Yazīd b. Nuʿaym emigrated from al-Kūfa to the region of al-Mawṣil, and participated in Salmān b. Rabīʿa al-Bāhilī’s raids along the northern frontier; during one of these Nuʿaym is said to have taken a wife, and the union produced S̲h̲abīb in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a of year 25 (September/October 646) or 26 (September/October 647). S̲h̲abīb seems to have grown up in al-Mawṣil, ¶ perhaps in the town of Sātīdamā (on th…
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