Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(4,299 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
b. D̲j̲aʿfar al-Kātib al-Bag̲h̲dādī , Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ , philologist, historian, and one of the first scholars to introduce the systematic study of the figures of speech in Arabic literature. The date of his birth is nowhere mentioned and may have been as early as around the year 260/873-4. He died at an uncertain date which is variously given as “during the reign of al-Muḳtadir” (i.e. not later than 320/932), 328/939-40, and 337/948. The dates “shortly after 300” and 310 cannot be correct (see below). Almost every aspect of Ḳudāma’s biography, his work, and his personality as a…

Ibn Ḳudāma al-Maḳdīsī

(714 words)

Author(s): Makdisi, G.
, Muwaffaḳ al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad , Ḥanbalī ascetic, jurisconsult and traditionalist theologian. He was born in Ḏj̲ammāʿīl, near Jerusalem (Bayt al-Maḳdis, whence his ethnic name) in S̲h̲aʿbān 541/Jan.-Feb. 1147, and died in Damascus on 5 or 6 D̲j̲umāda II 620/6 or 7 July 1223. In 551/1156, the Banū Ḳudāma moved from Ḏj̲ammāʿil to take up residence in Damascus. The chroniclers explain this exodus as caused by the bad treatment the Muslims were receiving at the hands of the Franks. From the sources available to us at the present time it is possible to…

D̲j̲āriya b. Ḳudāma

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Kister, M.J.
b. Zuhayr (or: b. Mālik b. Zuhayr) b. al-Ḥuṣayn b. Rizāḥ b. Asʿad b. Bud̲j̲ayr (or: S̲h̲ud̲j̲ayr) b. Rabīʿa, Abū Ayyūb (or: Abū Ḳudāma, or: Abū Yazīd) al-Tamīmī , al-Saʿdī , nicknamed “al-Muḥarriḳ”, the “Burner”—was a Companion of the Prophet (about the identity of D̲j̲āriya b. Ḳudāma with D̲j̲uwayriya b. Ḳudāma see Tahd̲h̲īb , ii, 54, 125, and Iṣāba , i, 227, 276). D̲j̲āriya gained his fame as a staunch supporter of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. According to a tradition quoted by Ibn Saʿd ( Ṭabaḳāt , vii/1, 38) D̲j̲āriya witnessed the attempt at the assassination of ʿ…

Abu ’l-Nad̲j̲m al-Faḍl (al-Mufaḍḍal) b. Ḳudāma al-ʿId̲j̲lī

(319 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Arab poet of the 1st/7-8th century (d. after 105/724). Although he composed several ḳaṣīda s, he owes his celebrity to his verses in rad̲j̲az in which he treats of beduin subjects (descriptions of camels, horses, ounces, etc.), and eulogizes the Umayyads ʿAbd al-Malik, His̲h̲ām, ʿAbd al-Malik b. Bis̲h̲r, and the governor al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲. The critics, who include him among the four best rud̲j̲d̲j̲āz (with his fellow-tribesman al-Ag̲h̲lab and the two Tamīmites of al-Baṣra, al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ and his son Ruʾba), rank him highest for…


(1,532 words)

Author(s): Schoeler, G.
(a.), a figure of speech in Arabic (later also Persian, Turkish, etc.) rhetoric. General notion Non-technically tarṣīʿ means “the act of setting, fixing, or putting together (jewels, precious stones, etc.); the act of making (a thing) according to a measure; the act of forming (it) by the inserting of one part within another” (cf. Lane, s.v. r-ṣ-ʿ ). Tarṣīʿ al-ʿiḳd , according to the rhetoricians, means “that the same pearls are on one side of the necklace as are on the other” (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, al-Mat̲h̲al , i, 361). Description , definition , and examples Tarṣīʿ is …


(147 words)

Author(s): Wiet, G.
, name of an Egyptian province in the eastern region of the Delta. It owes its name, which is an Arabicized form of the Coptic Tkehli, to the town called Daḳahla which was situated between Damīra and Damietta, a little closer to the latter than the former. At one time famous for its paper mills, it is now but an insignificant village. The province was created at the end of the 5th/11th century and it has survived till today with some changes in its boundaries. At present it extends along the eastern bank of the Damietta branch of the Nile, which marks its …


(147 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
verbal noun of the fourth form of the root w.g̲h̲.r . (?), meaning here an exemption or a privilege with respect to taxes. The classical ʿAbbāsid administration used This term both for the privilege, and for the land which was covered by This privilege, of having to pay only one single tax payment, directly to the Treasury and not through tax-collectors. The districts of Mard̲j̲ and Karad̲j̲ in western Iran are regularly referred to as al-Ig̲h̲ārayn even after they had lost the official status which earned them This name. In the following centuries the term īg̲h̲ār d…


(278 words)

Author(s): Izzi Dien, Mawil Y.
(a.), lit. “abode”. This is a Ḳurʾānic legal term referring to a women’s right upon her husband to provide shelter for her (XL, 6). It also refers to her right to stay in the matrimonial house during her waiting period following divorce or death (XL, 1). A famous statement of Fāṭima bt. Ḳays is recorded by al-Buk̲h̲ārī and Muslim in their collections of ḥadīt̲h̲ , that suknā and nafaḳa were not granted to her by the Prophet when she was irrevocably ¶ divorced. Her statement lead to a disagreement among scholars. Ḥanafīs follow the view of ʿUmar and ʿĀʾis̲h̲a who rejected Fāṭ…

Ibn Wahb

(398 words)

Author(s): Shinar, P.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn Isḥāḳ b. Ibrāhīm b. Sulaymān b. Wahb al-Kātib , scion of an old and distinguished secretarial family and author of a remarkable S̲h̲īʿī work on Arabic rhetoric, style and the secretary’s art, the K. al-Burhān fī wud̲j̲ūh al-bayān . His grandfather Sulaymān was vizier to al-Muhtadī and al-Muʿtamid, fell in disgrace under al-Muwaffaḳ and died in his prison in 292/905. About his father and himself we know almost nothing. His floruit belongs to the first half of the 4th/10th century. His book must have been composed in or after 335/946-7, since it mentions the vizier ʿAlī b. ʿIsā [ q…


(148 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a station on the Kūfa to Mecca Pilgrimage route, the so-called Darb ¶ Zubayda [ q.v. in Suppl.]. It lay in Nad̲j̲d in what is now the northeastern corner of Saudi Arabia, towards the ʿIrāḳī border, in approx. lat. 28° 50′ N., long. 43° 20′ E. some 180 km/112 miles north-north-east of Fayd [ q.v. in Suppl.]. It is mentioned by such geographers as Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Rusta, Ḳudāma and al-Muḳaddasī, and such pilgrims as Ibn D̲j̲ubayr and Ibn Baṭṭūṭa passed through it. It was the birthplace of the 2nd/8th century poet Ibn Mutayr [ q.v.]. Today, the site of al-T̲h̲aʿlabiyya is in the s…


(171 words)

Author(s): Streck, M.
, one of the sub-districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, according to the Sāsānid division adopted by the Arabs, belonging to the district (P. astān , A. kūra ) Ḵh̲usra S̲h̲ād̲h̲ Bahmān (the district of the Tigris) and comprising a tract of land along the western frontier of Ḵh̲uzistān, between Wāsiṭ and Baṣra. The name is derived from the Sāsānid king Kawād̲h̲ (Ḳubād̲h̲) I. The first part of the name is probably Abar (P. abar or abr "cloud" is often seen at the beginning of place-names) and not Abaz or Abād̲h̲ as the Arab geographers have it. Some Arab authors give A…


(160 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, S.H.
is, on the authority of the geographers Ḳudāma and al-Masʿūdī, the name used in the 3rd-4th/3th-10th centuries for the western branch of the Euphrates, between its bifurcation at or near the modern Hindiyya Barrage (44° 16’ E, 36° 40’ N) and its loss in the medieval Great Swamp. The proportion of Euphrates water using this or the eastern (al-Sūrāʾ, or modern Ḥilla) channel, has ¶ varied from period to period thoroughout medieval and modern times: the western branch has finally been dominant, and the eastern merely a controlled canal, since the early 20th cen…


(372 words)

Author(s): Herzfeld, E.
, also called birs nimrūd , in the older literature burs , a ruined site 9 miles S.W. of the town of Ḥilla on the Euphrates, about 12 miles S.S.W. of Babylon on the eastern shore of the Lake of Hindiyya. The place is the ancient Borsippa, the sister town of Babylon. Its immense ruins, the largest that have survived from the Babylonian period, were thought by the Arabs to be the palace of Nimrūd b. Kanʿān ( ṣarḥ Nimrūd , Yāḳūt, i, 136) or of Buk̲h̲tnaṣṣar (Yāḳūt, i, 165). Even in modern times they were thought to be the ruins of the Tower of Babel and t…


(372 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
1. The name of a land and a city in China mentioned in the mediaeval Arabic geographer Ḳudāma b. D̲j̲aʿfar [ q.v.], 264, here borrowing material from the lost part of his predecessor Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih [ q.v.]. According to Ḳudāma, Alexander the Great, in company with the Emperor of China, went northwards from China and conquered the land of S̲h̲ūl, founding there two cities, K̲h̲.mdān and S̲h̲ūl and ordering the Chinese ruler to place a garrison ( rābita ) of his troops in the latter place. K̲h̲umdān is well-attested in other Islamic sources (e.g. Gardīzī; Marwazī, tr. Minors…


(1,744 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A. | Grunebaum, G.E. von
(a.), Abstract noun, from balīg̲h̲ effective, eloquent (from balag̲h̲a “to attain something”), meaning therefore eloquence. It presupposes faṣāḥa , purity and euphony of language, but goes beyond it in requiring, according to some of the early definitions, the knowledge of the proper connexion and separation of the phrase, clarity, and appropriateness to the occasion. Even though those definitions are not infrequently attributed to foreign nations such as the Persians, Greeks or Indians, the demand for skill in improvisation and the recurring references to the Ḵh̲aṭīb

Būṣīr or Abūṣīr

(449 words)

Author(s): Wiet, G.
, the name of several places in Egypt, which is not unnatural since it refers to places in which the god Osiris was the object of special veneration. The name Abūṣīr is found in the large suburban area west of Alexandria, a memory of the site of Taposiris Magna . Būṣīr, on the west bank of the Damietta branch of the Nile, in the province of al-G̲h̲arbiyya. In the middle ages this small town was connected to a neighbouring seulement, Banā, so that one spoke of Būṣīr-Banā. Famous in antiquity, Būṣīr was an episcopal seat and the administrative centre of the pagarchy ( kūra ). Būṣīr al-Sidr, in the pr…


(636 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y.
, an agreement which cancels, wholly or in part, a previous agreement between the same parties. The question is treated by the fuḳahaʾ in the chapter on sale; the authors devote to it long expositions, because of the favour with which fiḳh regards all methods of mitigating the obligatory nature of a contract. As is said in a ḥadīt̲h̲: “For him who annuls ( aḳāla ) a sale which the other party regrets [having concluded], God will annul his sins on the day of the Resurrection”. When Muslim jurists consider the subject of sale, they ask the…


(539 words)

Author(s): Izzi Dien, Mawil Y.
(a.), lit. “pre-emption”, the right of the co-owner to buy out his partner’s share which is for sale. Should the property be sold without his approval to a third party, the partner has the privilege to purchase the property, even against the will of the new owner, who should be reimbursed with the price paid. Both Ḳurʾān and Ḥadīt̲h̲ are cited by books of fiḳh in support of the concept, though the former seems to provide only indirect reference. The Ḥanafīs grant this privilege to the owners of adjacent properties and make it valid not …

Ibn al-Ḥaḍramī

(481 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr (or ʿĀmir) b. al-Ḥaḍramī , an agent of Muʿāwiya who is remembered for an incident in 38/658, during the period which followed the battle of Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] and the arbitration. After the occupation of Egypt by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀs [ q.v.], Muʿāwiya, turning his attention towards ʿIrāḳ, realised that he had to begin with Baṣra, where he could count on more adherents than in Kūfa. After consulting ʿAmr, he then decided to send Ibn al-Ḥaḍramī to Baṣra and gave him precise instructions: his agent was to base his propaganda on the …


(492 words)

Author(s): Dien, Mawil Y. Izzi
(a.), verbal noun from the form II verb saʿʿara which means, according to Lane, “to assign a known and fixed price”; hence siʿr is “that upon which the value ( t̲h̲aman ) is established”. The particle “that” gives siʿr a wider breadth than the concept of monetary value. In fact, a similar usage of “that” was included in the UAE Civil Code defining “price”, which is presumably t̲h̲aman and not siʿr, as follows: “that which the parties have agreed in consideration of the sale, whether it is greater or less than the [true] value” (art. 503). In Islamic law, the distinction between siʿr and t̲h̲aman a…
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