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(222 words)

كمزار [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] A small town on the coast of the 'Omān Sultanate, the capital of the Bani Shatair section of the Shihūh tribe, situated at the bottom of a cove in the northern face of the Ruūs-al-Jibāl promontory; it stands at the mouth of a gloomy valley or gorge in the hills which is named Wādi Marwāni مرواني. There is no route by land from Kumzār to any other place. Kumzār consists of about 600 low stone houses of Shihūh of the Bani Shatair section: there are two large whitewashed mosques. The people are fishermen and have no cultivation of a…


(98 words)

جزيرة الغنم [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] An island off the western coast of the Ruūs-al-Jibāl district of the 'Omān Sultanate near its northern extremity: it is separated from the mainland by Khor Quwai. Its length north and south is 2½ miles, its breadth ¾ of a mile; low in the north it rises to 600 feet in the southern part, and the shore at nearly all points is precipitous. Jazīrat-al-Grhanam is totally barren and devoid of water; but the people of Kumzār , to whom it belongs, send goats here for grazing after rain.


(204 words)

بيعه [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] A village on the coast of the Ruūs-al-Jibāl District in the 'Omān Sultanate; the mountains rise behind it at a distance of about 1½ miles. It consists of about 450 houses of Shihūh , nearly all of the Bani Shatair, but a few of the BaniHadīyah section, and is situated in Dibah bay about 1 mile north of Hisn-ad-Dibah حصن الدبه or Dihah proper, but it is sometimes regarded as a part of Dibah . From the sea the two places appear to form one town with a background of date palms, but in reality they are separated by a watercourse up…


(217 words)

[title note] 1 سلامه وبناتها [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] "Salāmah and her daughters," known to Europeans as "the Quoins," a remarkable group of 3 rocky islets lying in the entrance of the Persian Gulf north of Musandam island. Salāmah or the Great Quoin, 540 feet high, is 7 miles from Rās Musandam and visible, in clear weather, 27 miles. It is half a mile across, and in profile wedge-shaped, having the perpendicular fall on the south-east side: the north-west side alone is accessible: there is a small detached fragment of rock in th…


(1,477 words)

[title note] 1 شحوحشحييّن [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] Singular, Shihhi شحّي. A peculiar tribe who inhabit the, 'Omān Promontory from Bai'ah northwards on the eastern, and from Khor Khuwair northwards on the western coast. The whole of the Ruūs-al-'Jibāl district of the 'Omān Sultanate is in their occupation, except a few villages which belong to the Dhahūriyīn. They also form the population of the three northernmost places in the Shārjah Principality, viz., Sha'am, Ghalīlah and Khor Khuwair, and of the village of Hail in Sīr; they are found, too, at Saham Town in Bātinah. Th…


(256 words)

ظهوريين [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] A tribe of the Ruūs-al-Jibāl district in the 'Omān Sultanate, numbering about 1,750 souls, to whom belong the villages of Film(60 houses), Habalain(25 houses), Mansal(6 houses) and Maqāqah (100 houses) in Ghubbat Ghazīrah ; Midah(1 house), Qānah(40 houses), Sham(25 houses) and Sībi(7 houses) in Khor-ash- Sham; Balad(20 houses) in Ghubbat Shābūs; and Muntaf(15 houses) and Shīsah(15 houses) in Ghubbat Shīsah: Lārak island also is inhabited by about 200 souls of Dhahūriyīn who are closely connected with the people of Kumzār . In the c…


(321 words)

كنگ [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] Kumzār. (HERR H. BURCHARDT.) A small town on the coast of the Lingeh District in Persia, about 4 miles north-east of Lingeh Town; it stands on a sandy shore along which it extends about half a mile. At the west end of the place is a large, white, ruined factory which once belonged to the Portuguese with a round fort opposite it that is surrounded by the sea at high Water; there are also many ruined water-reservoirs and the remains of some old docks. Behind the village is a lar…


(3,443 words)

[title note] 1 رؤوس الجمال [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] The name of a mountainous district in the ' Omān Sultanate, forming the northern part of the great ' Omān Promontory: the name is practically a synonym for the country of the Shihūh tribe. Limits.—The coast of Ruūs-al-Jibāl may be considered to begin at Dibah bay in the Gulf of 'Omān and to terminate after running round Rās Musandam, at Rās Sha'am in the Persian Gulf. The inland boundary of Ruūs-al-Jibāl between Dibah and Ras Sha 'am has not been determined; but the route which runs from Dibah by Khatt to Rās-al- Khaimah Town i…

2.Annex 3: History of Ruūs-al-Jibāl

(3,152 words)

Chapter 2. THE OMAN SULTANATE The internal history of the remarkable mountainous headland of Ruūs-al-Jibāl, tenanted entirely by the semi-barbarous tribes of Shihūh and Dhahūriyīn, is almost unknown. Its external history may be divided into three periods: an early period, during which the external relations of the district were chiefly with the Qāsimi Shaikh of Shārjah; a middle period, from 1864 to 1868, during which a British telegraph station existed in Khor-ash-Sham or Elphinstone Inlet and direc…

Raʾs Musandam

(1,282 words)

Author(s): King, G.R.D.
, a rocky peninsula that lies at the northernmost point of the promontory that terminates the D̲j̲abal Ḥad̲j̲ar mountain range, the spine of the Oman Peninsula. It is attached to the mainland by the narrow Maḳlab isthmus. The Peninsula is deeply indented by creeks, of which the most important are K̲h̲awr al-S̲h̲amm, K̲h̲awr Ḥabalayn and K̲h̲awr G̲h̲ubb ʿAlī. K̲h̲awr al-S̲h̲amm is known as Elphinstone Inlet after Mountstuart Elphinstone, Governor of Bombay when the Court of Directors of the East …


(710 words)

[title note] 1 لارک [return to Geographical Dictionary terms] Also pronounced Lārach and in English formerly spelt "Larrack." An island in the Persian Gulf, 20 miles south by east of Bandar 'Abbās and partially closing the marine approach to that place from the south between Qishm and Hormūz. The channel between Lārak and Qishm to the north-west of it is 6 miles, and that between Lārak and Hormūz to the north-north-east 11 miles broad. Lārak is oval in shape and measures 6 miles from east-north-east to west-south-west by about 4 miles across; the chief irregula…

Raʾs Musandam

(1,317 words)

Author(s): King, G. R. D.
, péninsule rocheuse située au point le plus septentrional du promontoire qui termine la chaîne montagneuse du Ḏj̲abal Ḥad̲j̲ar, épine dorsale de la péninsule du ʿUmān. Elle est rattachée au continent par l’étroit isthme de Maḳlab. La péninsule est profondément creusée d’anses dont les plus importantes sont Kiiawr al-S̲h̲amm, Ḵh̲awr Ḥabalayn et Ḵh̲awr G̲h̲ubb ʿAlī. Ḵh̲awr al-S̲h̲amm est connue sous le nom d’Elphinstone Inlet, du nom de Stuart Elphinstone, gouverneur de Bombay au moment où la Com…

Geographical and Statistical Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, 'Omān, and Central Arabia

(1,405 words)


3. Population

(4,576 words)

MILITARY REPORT on the Arabian Shores of the Persian Gulf, Kuwait, Bahrein, Hasa, Qatar, Trucial Oman and Oman. 1933. Kuwait. 1. Ethnography.—The population of Kuwait town which represents practically the entire settled population of the Principality is made up of a large majority of Arabs of the Awazim, Ajman, Mutair, Rashaidah, Beni Khalid, Dawasir, Anizah Dhafir and other tribes, besides Hasawiyah or Arabs from Hasa, Baharinah from Bahrein, and Nejdis from Nejd. There are also a large number of Persians, some Jana'at, many Negroes, some Jews and a few Indians. 2. Characteristies.—T…

4. Entrance of the Persian gulf.—Ruus al Jabal and the Persian coast, including Bandar 'Abbas and Qishm island.—Dibah to Ras ash Sha' am and Jask to Chárak

(28,356 words)

PERSIAN GULF PILOT ENTRANCE OF THE PERSIAN GULF—RUUS AL JABAL AND THE PERSIAN COAST, INCLUDING BANDAR 'ABBAS AND QISHM ISLAND—DIBAH TO RAS ASH SHA'AM AND JASK TO CHÁRAK. Chart 753. RUUS AL JABAL.—Aspect.—This great and mountainous promontory, the northern end of which is the Musandam peninsula, is situated on the western side of the entrance of the Persian gulf. The coast is everywhere precipitous, the cliffs in most places overhanging, their bases having been eroded by the action of the sea. There are many small sandy bays at…

3.5: Period from the perpetual treaty of peace to the exclusive agreement, 1853-92

(8,498 words)

Chapter 3. TRUCIAL 'OMAN British Relations with Trucial 'Omān 1853-92. The term "maritime irregularity", which after 1853 generally figures in official correspondence in place of the word "piracy" , is significant of the great and peaceful revolution which, by the firmness and moderation of the British political officers, had been gradually brought about in the Persian Gulf On his first visit to the Trucial Coast after the conclusion of the Perpetual Peace, the Resident, Captain Kemball, found the Shaikhs confirmed in their "attachment and devotion to…

Lār, Lāristān

(11,440 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J.
, a Persian toponym which, in various forms (Lār, Lād, Lād̲h̲, Lāz, Alār, etc.) ¶ denotes an important town of Fārs and its surrounding region (Lār and Lāristān), an island and an islet in the Persian Gulf, and various villages and a region of pastures in southern Persia (Lār and Larid̲j̲ān). 1. The town of Lār (lat. 27° 42′ N., long. 54° 20′ E.) is the chef-lieu of a s̲h̲ahristān (which has become a farmāndārī see Lāristān , below) of the province of Fārs ( ustān-i Fārs ). It is situated on one of the roads connecting S̲h̲īrāz [ q.v.] with the Persian Gulf ports and the Sea of ʿUmān (Daryā-y…

Muscat and Oman

(14,857 words)

MILITARY REPORT AND ROUTE BOOK The Arabian States of the Persian Gulf 1939 CHAPTER I. HISTORY, ADMINISTRATION AND POPULATION. 1. General.—The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is a sovereign state, the independence of which Great Britain and France undertook to respect in 1862. Since 1916 the authority of the Sultan of Muscat and Oman has been limited to his capital and a narrow strip along the coast from Shinas in Western Hajar to Salala in Dhofar on the southern coast of Arabia. He further, controls an area at the northern extremity of the …

3.4: Period from the first maritime truce to the perpetual treaty of peace, 1835 - 1853

(11,545 words)

Chapter 3. TRUCIAL 'OMAN The Maritime Truce and Restrictive Line, 183536. The insufficiency of the General Treaty of Peace for the purpose of maintaining security at sea was now fully apparent; for it did not prohibit regular maritime warfare, and experience had shown that in the Persian Gulf such warfare must usually be expected to degenerate into indiscriminate piracy. The need of further restrictions seems to have been felt even by the chiefs themselves. The Shaikh of Shārjah, in 1827, and the Shaikh of Bahrain, in 1828, argued earnestly that under A…

Appendix. C: The Pearl and Mother-of-Pearl Fisheries of the Persian Gulf

(28,539 words)

[title note] 1 APPENDICES Pearl fishing is the premier industry of the Persian Gulf; it is, besides being the occupation most peculiar to that region, the principal or only source of wealth among the residents of the Arabian side. Were the supply of pearls to fail, the trade of Kuwait would be severely crippled, while that of Bahrain might—it is estimated—be reduced to about one-fifth of its present dimensions and the ports of Trucial 'Omān, which have no other resources, would practically cease to …
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