Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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Lār, Lāristān

(11,440 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J.
, a Persian toponym which, in various forms (Lār, Lād, Lād̲h̲, Lāz, Alār, etc.) ¶ denotes an important town of Fārs and its surrounding region (Lār and Lāristān), an island and an islet in the Persian Gulf, and various villages and a region of pastures in southern Persia (Lār and Larid̲j̲ān). 1. The town of Lār (lat. 27° 42′ N., long. 54° 20′ E.) is the chef-lieu of a s̲h̲ahristān (which has become a farmāndārī see Lāristān , below) of the province of Fārs ( ustān-i Fārs ). It is situated on one of the roads connecting S̲h̲īrāz [ q.v.] with the Persian Gulf ports and the Sea of ʿUmān (Daryā-y…

Lār and Lārīd̲j̲ān

(8,014 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J.
Broadly attested outside southern Iran, the toponym Lār is applied to a characteristic region of northern Iran known by the name of Lārīd̲j̲ān. Lār itself is the name of a watercourse, of its valley and of the pasture-lands ¶ which surround it. In different forms and local variants, it also refers to other sites or urban settlements of the Iranian lands. 1. The high valley of the Lār. On the barren slope of the Elburz, not far from the conurbation of Tehran, the valley of the Lār constitutes one of the high points of nomadism. Situated at the foot of Mt. Damāvan…


(695 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p., lārī ), a silver coin current in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean in the 16th and 17th centuries. It takes its name from the town of Lār [ q.v.], the capital of Lāristān at which it was first struck; cf. Pedro Texeira ( Travels , Hakluyt Soc, London 1902, 341): “There is also the city of Lar... whence are called laris, a money of the finest silver, very well drawn and current throughout the East”, and Sir Thomas Herbert speaking of Lār in 1627 ( Some yearstravels , London 1665, 130): “near this byzar the lames are coyned, a famous sort of money.” The lar…


(584 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a minor seaport, modern Bandar-i Linga, on the northern shore of the Persian or Arab Gulf, in lat. 26° 34′ N. and long. 54° 53′ E., to the south of Lāristān [see lār , lāristān ] and facing the islands of Ḳis̲h̲m [ q.v.] and the Ṭūnbs. Linga has a harbour of some depth, allowing traffic by dhows and coastal craft; behind the town lies a salt marsh, and then the Band-i Linga mountains, which rise to 3,900 ft./1,190 m. The population, formerly largely Arab, is now predominantly Persian, but with strong admixtures of Arabs, Baluchis, India…

Beg or Bey

(624 words)

Author(s): Bazin, L. | H. bowen
, a Turkish title, “lord”, used in a number of different ways. The various dialect forms ( bäg , bäk , bek , bey , biy , , pig , etc.) all derive from the old Turkish bäg as seen from the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions (8th Century) and the Chinese transcriptions concerning the Turks of Mongolia of the same period. The word has no Altaic origin (Mongol begi being a later loanword from Turkish; the series Turkish bärk , bäk/Mongol bärka , bäki “strong, sound”, etc., owes nothing to the old Turkish bäg and should be dissociated from it; the same is true of the series: Turkish bögü , bög

Muḥammad b. Zayd

(502 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl... b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, Zaydī Imām who reigned over Ṭabaristān [ q.v.] and D̲j̲urd̲j̲ān [see [ gurgān ] ¶ for some years during the second half of the 3rd/9th century. As the brother of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [ q.v.] al-dāʿī al-kabīr , he succeeded him in 270/884 and received the title of al-dāʿī al-ṣag̲h̲īr and the laḳab or honorific title of al-Ḳāʾim bi ’l-Ḥaḳḳ. It is above all from this point that he is heard of, since before his assumption of power he seems to have lived in his brother’s shadow. The latter, howe…


(1,786 words)

Author(s): Matthee, R.
(p.), lit. “harbourmaster”, an official of the ports in Ṣafawid Persia and one also known on other shores of the Indian Ocean. A lack of information from before the advent of the European maritime companies notwithstanding, it is likely the office of s̲h̲āhbandar first appeared in Persia, and from there spread throughout the Indian Ocean basin. The precise status of the s̲h̲āhbandar remains unclear for the early period. Moreland concluded that, while elsewhere around the Indian Ocean the term had a wide range of meaning in the 10th/16th century, in Hurmuz [ q.v.] it clearly referred to…

Luṭf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān

(747 words)

Author(s): Perry, J.R.
, the last ruler of the Zand dynasty of Iran. He was born in 1183/1769, the son of D̲j̲aʿfar K̲h̲ān soil of Ṣādiḳ, younger brother of the founder of the dynasty, Karīm K̲h̲ān [ q.v.]. During his father’s reign, when the Ḳād̲j̲ār armies had overrun most of northern Iran, Luṭf ʿAlī subjugated Lār and Kirmān and for the last time retook Iṣfahān, but was soon forced back to S̲h̲īrāz. When his father was killed in 1204/1789 in a coup led by Ṣayd Murād K̲h̲ān Zand, Luṭf ʿAlī fled to Bushire (Būs̲h̲ahr), where he was- assisted by the g…


(703 words)

Author(s): Andrews, P.A.
(t.) (from yurt “tribal territory, camp site, tent site”, a general term in the Turkic languages, ¶ cf. Türkmen yūrt ~ yuvi̊rt , Ḳaraḳalpaḳ, Ḳazaḳ and Ḳi̊rg̲h̲i̊z žurt ; see k̲h̲ayma . iv, to whose Bibl . should be added G. Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen , Wiesbaden 1965-70, iv, 212-16 no. 1914), Pers. yūrtd̲j̲ī , the salaried officer responsible for choosing camp sites for the army or court, organising them, and supervising their use. Ḏj̲uwaynī’s use of yūrt for the appanages granted by Činggiz Ḳan to his brother, sons and grandsons demonstrates that yurt


(633 words)

Author(s): Sohrweide, H.
, Muḥammad b. Ṣalāḥ b. D̲j̲alāl b. Kamāl al-Anṣārī (or al-Nāṣirī), known as Muṣliḥ al-Dīn al-Lārī, Persian scholar and historian, was born ca. 1510 in Lār, to the south of S̲h̲īrāz. Following his family’s tradition, he entered upon a scholarly career and studied under Mullā Ṣadrā’s son Mīr G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ b. Ṣadr al-Dīn S̲h̲īrāzī and Mīr Kamāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn, a pupil of D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn [see al-dawānī ]. It is transmitted that Lārī’s father proceeded openly against the S̲h̲īʿī heretics ( rawāfiḍ ). During his later journeys, al-Lārī was at first received honourably by the Mug̲h̲al…

Türkmen Čay (i̊)

(575 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, conventionally Turkomanchai, a village in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, famed as the site for the treaty which ended the Russo-Persian War of 1826-7. The modern village of Turkamān (lat. 37° 35ʹ N., long. 47°, 42ʹ E.) is on the Tabrīz-Miyāna main road 40 km/25 miles to the west of Miyāna. In the 8th/14th century, Mustawfī calls the village Turkmān Kandī and says that it was once a town ( Nuzha , 183, tr. 174). A few decades later, Clavijo calls it Tucelar and Tunglar (evidently a corruption of Türk-lär) and says that it is inhabited by Turkmens ( Travels , ed…


(2,041 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), “shame, opprobrium, dishonour”, has undergone in North Africa a semantic evolution ¶ analogous to that of the root d̲h̲.m.m . of classical Arabic, arriving at a sense close to that of d̲h̲imma [ q.v.], that is to say, of “protection”, with nuances which should be taken into account. A formula such as ʿārī ʿalayk/ʿalīk , “my shame upon you”, contains visibly a threat against the person to whom it is addressed and means in effect “the shame shall be yours if you do not grant my request” (cf. W. Marçais, Textes arabes de Takroûna , Paris 1925, 200, 215-6, where th…


(2,406 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
1. A town in the Caspian coastal province of Gīlān [ q.v.] in north-western Persia, in long. 50° 0′ 20″ E. and lat. 37° 12′ 30″ N. It is situated on the plain to the east of the lower reaches of the Safīd-Rūd and to the north of the Dulfek mountain, and on the small river Čom-k̲h̲ala or Purdesar, but at some 14 miles/20 km. from the Caspian Sea shore. Lāhīd̲j̲ān does not seem to have been known as such to the earliest Arabic geographers, though legend was to attribute its foundation to Lāhīd̲j̲ b. Sām b. Nūḥ. It does, however, appear in the Persian Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (372/982) as L…

Bandar ʿAbbās

(971 words)

Author(s): Lockhart, L.
, a Persian port situated in the VIIIth. ustān (which comprises part of Fārs and Kirmān). The town, which is on the coast of the mainland 16 km. north-west of the island of Hormuz [ q.v.], stands on bare, sandy ground rising gradually to the north; it has a frontage of 2 km. along the shore. The position of Bandar ʿAbbās at the entrance to the Persian Gulf and the fact that it is the terminal point of trade-routes from Yazd and Kirmān to the north and Lār, S̲h̲īrāz and Iṣfahān to the north west have made it a place of some strate…

Luṭf ʿAlī Beg

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
b. Āḳā K̲h̲ān , Persian anthologist and poet, who is also known by his penname Ād̲h̲ar which he adopted after having used the names Wālih and Nak̲h̲at previously. He was descended from a prominent Turcoman family belonging to the Begdīlī tribe of Syria (Begdīlī-i S̲h̲āmlū) which had joined the Ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ movement [ q.v.] in the 9th/15th century. Afterwards, the family settled down in Iṣfahān. Many of his relatives served the later Ṣafawids and Nādir S̲h̲āh as administrators and diplomats. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg was born on Saturday 20 Rabīʿ II 1134/7 F…

Baḥr al-Hind

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R. | Dunlop, D.M.
is the usual name amongst the Arabs for the Indian Ocean, which is also called Baḥr al-Zand̲j̲ from its W. shores or—the part for the whole—al-Baḥr al-Ḥabas̲h̲ī. The expression Baḥr Fāris also sometimes includes the whole ocean. According to Ibn Rusta, 87, its E. shores begin at Tīz Mukrān, its W. at ʿAdan. Abuʾ l-Fidāʾ, Taḳwīm , transl, ii, 27 = text, 22, gives Baḥr al-Ṣīn as its E boundary, al-Hind as the N. and al-Yaman as the W., while the S. is unknown. The various parts of the ocean bear special names derived from various lands and islands. If we neglect the N. arms, Baḥr…


(1,090 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, Muḥammad b. Asʿad D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn , was born in 830/1427 at Dawān in the district of Kāzarūn, where his father was Ḳāḍī; he claimed descent from the Caliph Abū Bakr whence his nisba al-Ṣiddīḳī. He studied with his father and then went to S̲h̲īrāz where he was a pupil of Mawlānā Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Gūs̲h̲a Kinārī and Mawlānā Humām al-Dīn Gulbārī and Ṣafī al-Dīn Īd̲j̲ī. He held the office of Ṣadr under Yūsuf b. D̲j̲ahāns̲h̲āh, the Ḳarā Ḳoyūnlū, and after resigning this office became Mudarris of the Begum Madrasa, also known as the Dār al-Aytām . Under the Āḳ Ḳoyūnlū he beca…


(1,167 words)

Author(s): J.R. Perry
, an Iranian pastoral tribe of the eastern central Zagros, from which sprang a dynasty that ruled western Persia 1164-1209/1751-94. The Zand belonged to the Lakk group of Lurs [see īlāt ], centred on the villages of Parī and Kamāzān near Malāyir. In 1144/1732 Nādir S̲h̲āh [ q.v.] launched punitive raids on several Zagros tribes and deported thousands of Bak̲h̲tiyārī and a number of Zand families to northern K̲h̲urāsān. After Nādir’s assassination in 1160/1747, they made their way home, the Bak̲h̲tiyārī under ʿAlī Mardān K̲h̲ān and the Zand u…

Baḥr Fāris

(1,700 words)

Author(s): Beckingham, C.F.
, the Persian Gulf, in which Masʿūdī includes the Gulf of ʿUmān; Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and Ibn Ḥawḳal apply the name to the whole Indian Ocean (Baḥr al-Hind). The Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam distinguishes the Ḵh̲alīd̲j̲-i ʿIrāḳ, the Persian Gulf, from the Ḵh̲alīd̲j̲-i Pārs, the Gulf of ʿUmān and the Arabian Sea. Masʿūdī gives its width at the narrowest place as 150 mīl the Strait of Hormuz is actually some 29 miles across. In the Muslim geographers the modern al-Aḥsāʾ was called Baḥrayn, the name Uwāl being given to onf of the islands now called Baḥrayn,…


(7,117 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Vasmer, R.
, a province to the south of the Caspian Sea bounded on the west by Gīlān [ q. v.] and on the east by what was in Ḳad̲j̲ār times the province of Astarābād [ q.v., formerly Gurgān); Māzandarān and Gurgān now form the modern ustān or province of Māzandarān. 1. The name. If Gurgān to the Iranians was the "land of the wolves" ( vәhrkāna , the region to its west was peopled by "Māzaynian dēws" (Bartholomae, Altir . Wörterbuch , col. 1169, under māzainya daēva ). Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta , ii, 373, n. 32, thought that Māzandarān was a "comparative of direction" (* Mazana-tara ; c…
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