Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Mīr

(228 words)

Author(s): Levy, R. | Burton-Page, J.
, a Persian title abbreviated from the Arab amīr and approximating in meaning both to it and to the title mīrzā [ q.v.]. (For the dropping of the initial alif cf. Bū Sahl for Abū Sahl, etc.). Like amīr the title is applied to princes (Manūčihrī, ed. A. de Biberstein-Kazimirsky, ¶ Menoutchehri , poète persan du onzième siècle de notre ère , Paris 1886, 96, speaks of Sultan Masʿūd of G̲h̲azna, as “Mīr”), but it is also borne by poets and other men of letters (e.g. Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, Mīr K̲h̲wānd, Mīr Muḥsin; cf. the following arts.). In India and Pakistan, Sayyids sometimes call themselv…

Mīr Taḳī Mīr

(9 words)

[see mīr muḥammad taḳī ].

Amān, Mīr

(367 words)

Author(s): Inayatullah, Sh.
, (commonly spelt in English Mir Amman, an Indian writer, born at Delhi, who was active at the beginning of the 19th century at the Fort William College, Calcutta. His fame as a graceful writer of Urdu prose rests almost entirely on Bāg̲h̲ o-Bahār , which is an adaptation of the story of the four Dervishes, entitled Ḳiṣṣa Çahār Darwīs̲h̲ in its Persian original. It was completed in 1217/1802; and thanks to its plain and perspicuous style, has been widely used as a text-book by Western students of Urdu, and has in consequence been r…

Mīr Muḥannā

(11 words)

[see ḳurṣān . iii. In the Persian Gulf].

Mīr Amān

(8 words)

[see amān , mīr ].

Mīr-Āk̲h̲ūr

(2,088 words)

Author(s): Murphey, R.
(p.) In the Ottoman empire, the mīr-āk̲h̲ūr or Master of the Stables was the official given charge of all aspects relating to the supply and maintenance of the Ottoman sultan’s stables, the iṣṭabl-i ʿāmire . The wide-ranging services connected with the imperial stables were divided between two chief officials, the küčük mīr-āk̲h̲ūr or Master of the Lesser Stable, and the büyük mīr-āk̲h̲ūr or Master of the Great Stable, both of whom were high officers in the Palace Outer Service with the rank of Ag̲h̲as of the Stirrup ( rikāb ag̲h̲alari̊ ) (Gibb and Bowen, i, 82-…

Mīr D̲j̲umla

(395 words)

Author(s): Hidayet Hosain, M. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Muḥammad Saʿīd , prominent minister and military commander in 11th/17th century Muslim India, first in the service of the Ḳuṭb-S̲h̲āhī ruler of Golkond́ā ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad [see ḳuṭb-s̲h̲āhis ] and then in that of the Mug̲h̲als S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān and Awrangzīb [ q.vv.], died in 1073/1663. Stemming originally from Persia, he was at the outset a diamond merchant and accumulated a vast private fortune in the Carnatic, the region around Madras, from these dealings and from Hindu temple treasures, having his own private army of 5,000 cavalryme…

Amman, Mir

(7 words)

[see amān, mīr ].

Ḥasan, Mīr

(8 words)

[see mīr g̲h̲ulām ḥasan ].

Mīr Lawḥī

(1,982 words)

Author(s): Hairi, Abdul-Hadi
, Sayyid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī , referred to also by his nickname as “muṭahhar” and nom-de-plume as “Naḳībī”, a noted S̲h̲īʿī religious scholar of Sabzwārī origin, but resident in Iṣfahān during the Ṣafawid period, flor . during the 11th/17th century. He has not received any attention from biographers (and Muḥammad ʿAlī Mudarris, who secured him an entry of a few lines in his Rayḥānat al-adab fī tarād̲j̲im al-maʿrūfīn bi ’l-kunya aw al-laḳab , vi, Tabrīz n.d., 235-6, seems to be an exception), because Mīr Lawḥī proved to be an outspoke…

Mīr D̲j̲aʿfar

(8 words)

[see d̲j̲aʿfar , mīr ].

Mīr Ḏj̲aʿfar

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
or Mir Muḥammad D̲j̲aʿfar K̲h̲ān ( Siyar al-mutaʾak̲h̲k̲h̲irīn , vol. ii in both the text and rubrics, and not D̲j̲aʿfar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān), son of Sayyid Aḥmad al-Nad̲j̲afī, of obscure origin, rose to be the Nawwāb of Bengal during the days of the East India Company. A penniless adventurer, like his patron Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī entitled ʿAlīwirdī K̲h̲ān Mahābat D̲j̲ang (see the article ʿalī werdi k̲h̲ān ), he married a step-sister, S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ānim, of ʿAlīwirdī and served his master and brother-in-law as a commandant, before the latter ascended the masnad of Bengal i…

Mīr Ḳāsim ʿAlī

(336 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Indo-Muslim commander and Nawwāb [ q.v.] of Bengal 1760-4, died in 1777. ¶ Mīr Ḳāsim’s rise to power was an episode in the British East Indian Company’s extension of power in eastern India in the latter decades of the 18th century. Since the Nawwāb of Bengal Mīr D̲j̲aʿfar [see d̲j̲aʿfar , mīr ] was unable to fulfill financial obligations contracted to the Company, he was in October 1760 deposed in favour of his son-in-law Mīr Ḳāsim, who now became Nawwāb but had to cede the districts of Burdwan, Midnapur and Chittagong to the British. However, he now attempted to build up…

Ḥasan, Mīr G̲h̲ulām

(979 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J. A.
(1140-1201/1727-86), Urdu poet noted for his mat̲h̲nawī s, was born in Dihlī, the son of Mīr Ḍāḥik, a poet of modest attainments who was satirised by Sawdā. Mīr Ḥasan had a liberal education, which included the Persian language, but apparently not Arabic. He learned the poetic art from his father and from Mīr Dard. After the sack of Dihlī in 1739 by Nādir S̲h̲āh, he emigrated with his father to Faizabad (or Fayḍābād [ q.v.]), the capital of Oudh or Awadh [ q.v.]. En route, they stayed at Dig, near Bharatpur, and joined the pilgrimage procession to the festival of the saint S̲…

Mīr-i Mīrān

(151 words)

Author(s): Yasamee, F.A.K.
(p.) “supreme commander”, a military and political term used in 18th century Ottoman Turkish administrative practice as being virtually synonymous with beglerbegi [ q.v.] “provincial governor”, and then increasingly used to denote the honorary rank of beglerbegi, although this last title was considered as somewhat superior to that of mīr-i mīrān . Holders of the rank of mīr-i mīrān enjoyed the designation of Pas̲h̲a, and were entitled to be addressed as ¶ Saʿādetlü Efendim Ḥaḍretleri . In the 19th century, it also became a civil service rank. Befo…

Mīr G̲h̲ulām Ḥasan

(10 words)

[see ḥasan , mīr g̲h̲ulām ].

Mīr Muḥammad Maʿṣūm

(158 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, known as Nāmī , historian of Sind in the Mug̲h̲al period. He was the son of a s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām from the island in the Indus river in Sind of Bhakkar [see bakkar ], born in the middle years of the 10th/16th century. After a stay in Gud̲j̲arāt, he entered the service of the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar [ q.v.] in 1003-4/1595-6 and received a manṣab [ q.v.] or land-grant of 250, being employed on a diplomatic mission to the court of the Ṣafavid S̲h̲ah ʿAbbās I of Persia. He returned to Bhakkar in 1015/1606-7 and died there soon afterwards. His Persian Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Sind , often referred to as the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i…

Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr Nawāʾī

(4,025 words)

Author(s): Subtelny, M.E.
, Niẓām al-Dīn ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, later called Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr or ʿAlī S̲h̲īr Beg, with the pen-name ( tak̲h̲alluṣ ) of Nawāʾī (844-906/1441-1501), outstanding 9th/15th century Čag̲h̲atāy poet and important Central Asian cultural and political figure of the reign of the Tīmūrid sulṭān Ḥusayn Bāyḳarā (873-911/1469-1506 [ q.v.]). He was born in Harāt (Herat) on 17 Ramaḍān 844/9 February 1441, the scion of a cultured Turkic family of Uyg̲h̲ūr bak̲h̲s̲h̲īs, hereditary chancellery scribes, who had long been in the service of the Tīmūrid family. ʿAlī S̲h̲īr’s father, G̲h̲iyā…
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