Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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Manāra, Manār

(11,039 words)

Author(s): Hillenbrand, R. | Burton-Page, J. | Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
(a.) minaret. 1. In the Islamic lands between the Mag̲h̲rib and Afg̲h̲anistan. Unlike the other types of Islamic religious building, such as the mosque and the madrasa , the minaret is immediately and unambiguously recognisable for what it is. The reasons for this are worth investigating. It seems on the whole unrelated to its function of the ad̲h̲ān [ q.v.] calling the faithful to prayer, which can be made quite adequately from the roof of the mosque or even from a house-top. During the lifetime of the Prophet, his Abyssinian slave Bilāl [ q.v.], was responsible for making the call to …

Manār, Manāra

(2,084 words)

Author(s): Sadan, J. | Fraenkel, J.
(a), “lighthouse”, an elevated place where a light or beacon is established; the means of marking (with fire, originally) routes for caravans or for the army in war; lampstand (“candelabrum”, archaic meaning); minaret (in this sense normally in the fern., manāra , whereas for “lighthouse”, in both the masc. and fem., manār , manāra). In some modern Arabic dictionaries we also find fanār . It is by chance that this latter word resembles phare (French), faro (Italian, Spanish, which derive their origin from Pharos = the islet situated at the entranc…


(5 words)

[see manāra ].


(183 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, a settlement on the East African coast. It lies on the Tanzanian coast north of Dar es Salaam, and has a ruined Friday mosque of 14th or ¶ 15th century date divided into two aisles by three central pillars. There is an extensive cemetery, with tombs, some highly decorated with elaborate carvings, of the past five centuries. It includes a pillar tomb [see manāra. 3. In East Africa] decorated with green celadon plates, of date ante 1350. A small tomb has an inscription commemorating Masʿūd b. Sulṭān S̲h̲afīʿ ʿAlī b. Sulṭān Muḥammad al-Barāwī, who d…


(157 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town and district of South India, now in the Gulbargā division of the Indian Union state of Karnataka, before 1947 in the Ḥaydarābād princely state of British India (lat. 16° 15′ N., long. 77° 20′ E.). An ancient Hindu town formerly part of the kingdom of Warangal, it passed to the K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī Sultans of Dihlī in the 8th/14th century, then to the Bahmanīs and, after Awrangzīb’s Deccan conquests, to the Mug̲h̲als. Rāyčūr has interesting Islamic monuments. The Bahmanī Ek mīnār kī masd̲j̲id has its minaret in the corner of the courtyard [see manāra. 2. In India]. The fortifications and gat…


(735 words)

Author(s): Huici Miranda, A.
(Spanish: Cádiz; English: Cadiz; French: Cadix), the capital (pop. 117, 871) of the province of the same name, the most southerly ¶ in Spain; it prides itself on being the oldest town in the West, since it is said to have been founded by the Phoenicians in about 1500 B.C.; in Phoenician, it is named Gad(d)ir [cf. agadir], from which the Greeks derived the name Γάδειρα, the Romans Gadir and Gades, and the Arabs Ḳādis. Under the domination first of the Greeks and later the Carthaginians (after 500 B.C.), it became the most important place in the south o…


(446 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, the name of a harbour up a creek, Mcho [Mto] wa Hori, in Somalia, in 1° 15’ S. and 41° 50’ E., 260 miles north of Mombasa. The anonymous Kitāb al-Zūnūd̲j̲ , a 19th-century compilation from other local works, claims it as the epicentre for the dispersal of ten Bantu tribes in Kenya and Tanzania. Whereas a tradition of kingship and of Islam is alleged for S̲h̲ungwaya, one would expect these to be reflected among those tribes. Only the S̲h̲ambaa among them formed a kingdom 200 years after the alleged 16th-…

Maslama b. Muk̲h̲allad

(407 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. al-Ṣāmit al-Anṣārī , Abū Maʿn or Saʿīd or ʿUmar ), Companion of the Prophet who took part in the conquest of Egypt and remained in the country with the Muslim occupying forces. Subsequently, loyal to the memory of ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān and hostile to ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, whose accession to the caliphate he had not recognised (see al-Ṭabarī, i, 3070), he opposed, with Muʿāwiya b. Ḥudayd̲j̲ [ q.v.], the arrival of Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr [ q.v.] who, having had a hand in the murder of the third caliph, had been appointed governor of Egypt, and it is probable that he was involve…

Ibn ʿĀs̲h̲ūr

(714 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
, patronymic of a family of Idrīsid descent and Moroccan origin which settled in Muslim, Spain. It is said that ʿĀs̲h̲ūr, fleeing from religious persecution, came to settle in Morocco. His son Muḥammad was born at Salé in about 1030/1621 and it was with him that the family’s importance in the history of Tunisia began, at first in the field of “mysticism”, then in those of fiḳh , of teaching and of religious offices. Muḥammad b. ʿĀs̲h̲ūr, who was initiated into mysticism in Morocco by the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad al-Kud̲j̲ayrī, distinguished himself at Tunis as the leader of a religiou…


(883 words)

Author(s): Kane, Ousmane
, a town of the mediaeval Islamic Sahara. Various hypotheses have been put forward regarding the name S̲h̲inḳīṭ/S̲h̲ind̲j̲īṭ, of which the following two merit discussion. The first gives to it the meaning “source of horses”, with sen = “sources” and gīti = “horses”. According to the various proponents of this etymology, the word’s origin could be either from Azayr or Azer (a Soninké tongue, now extinct, formerly spoken in the Western Sahara) or else Zenāga Berber. The second hypothesis derives the name from s̲h̲in , said to be a deformation of sen or sin , which in …


(1,664 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ebba
(a.), “octagon, octagonal”, describes in architecture plan figures and buildings of eight equal sides. The irregular octagon with four longer and four shorter sides—which may assume the shape of a square or rectangle with chamfered corners—was termed mut̲h̲amman bag̲h̲dādī (“Bag̲h̲dādī octagon”) in Mug̲h̲al architecture, where it enjoyed a particular popularity. With the Ḳubbat al-Ṣak̲h̲ra [ q.v.] or Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem (72/691-2) the octagon made an impressive entry into Islamic architecture and, thereafter—true to the commemorative chara…


(1,201 words)

Author(s): Richter, A.
, a moderate-sized town in Lower Egypt with a railway station, 10 miles north of the central station at Cairo on the Cairo-Alexandria railway. The town proper lies about a mile west of the station and about 3 miles from the right bank of the Nile, on the Turʿat al-Sardūsiyya. Down to the middle of last century, Ḳalyūb was the capital of the Mudīriyya al-Ḳalyūbiyya, but then in 1871 under the Khedive Ismāʿīl, the Dīwān of the Mudīriyya was moved to Benhā. Since that date Ḳalyūb has been a markaz (district capital). Branch lines run to Zaḳāzīḳ and the Barrage du …


(1,302 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, a river in Central Asia, 1090 km. long, but not navigable because of its strong current. It is now known as S̲h̲u (Barthold, Vorl . 80) by the Kirgiz who live there (and it probably had this name when the Turks lived there in the Middle Ages); Chinese: Su-yeh or Sui-s̲h̲e . modern Chinese: Čʿuci (for the problem of the indication of Ču = Chinese ‘pearl’ with the ‘Pearl River’ [Yinčü Ögüz] in the Ork̲h̲on Inscriptions, cf. the article Si̊r Daryā ). The river Ču has its source in Terskei Alaltau, and then flows to the north-east until 6 km. from the western end of the Issik Kul [ q.v.], known as Ḳočḳar …


(2,160 words)

Author(s): Viguera, M.J.
, Saragossa , a town situated on the river Ebro in Spain, regional capital of its eponymous province and of the current Communidad Autónoma de Aragón . Founded in 24 B.C. by Augustus as a Roman military colony, on the Iberian site of Salduba, it was called in Latin Caesarea Augusta , a name corrupted into the form Cesaragosta , which was adopted, virtually unchanged, by the Muslims after their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula; it is transcribed into Arabic as Saraḳusta ( nisba: Saraḳusṭī ). The correspondences s > z and > g and the current assimilation -st- > -z- explain its modern form in S…


(2,133 words)

Author(s): Honigmann, E.
, a place in ʿIrāḳ some 60 miles SSW of Bag̲h̲dād celebrated by the fact that the Prophet’s grandson al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī was killed and his decapitated body buried there ( Ḳabr al-Ḥusayn ). For all these events, see al-ḥusayn b. ʿalī . When it became a place of pilgrimage, Karbalāʾ became known as Mas̲h̲had (al-) Ḥusayn. The name Karbalāʾ probably comes from the Aramaic Karbelā (Daniel, III, 21) and from the Assyrian ¶ Karballatu, a kind of headdress; see G. Jacob, Türkische Bibliothek , xi, 35, n. 2. It is not mentioned in the pre-Islamic period. K̲h̲ālid b…


(2,273 words)

Author(s): C.C. Berg-[Ed.]
(a.), with Ṣiyām , maṣdar from the root s-w-m; the two terms are used indiscriminately. The original meaning of the word in Arabic is “to be at rest” (Th. Nöldeke, Neue Beiträge zur sem. Sprachw ., Strassburg 1910, 36, n. 3; see previously, S. Fränkel, De vocab. ... in Corano peregrinis, Leiden 1880, 20: “quiescere” ). The meaning “fasting” may have been taken from Judaeo-Aramaic and Syriac usage, when Muḥammad became better acquainted with the institution of fasting in Medina; This is the sense of the word in the Medinan sūras. Origin ofthe rite. That fasting was an unknown practice …


(2,694 words)

Author(s): Ed. | J. Sourdel-Thomine
, the (modern) Arabie name for art. Individual treatment of aspects of the art of Islam will be found in articles under the following headings; ¶ the examples are given as a guide and are not intended to be exhaustive. 1. Techniques, e.g., architecture, bināʾ (building), fak̲h̲k̲h̲ār (the potter’s craft), fusayfisāʾ (mosaic), ḳalī (carpets), k̲h̲aṭṭ (calligraphy), ḳumās̲h̲ (textiles), metalwork, taṣwīr (painting), etc. 2. Materials, e.g., ʿād̲j̲ (ivory), billawr (crystal), d̲j̲iṣṣ (plaster), k̲h̲azaf (pottery and ceramics), ʿirḳ al-luʾluʾ (mother-of-pearl), libās …


(5,740 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
(Gabès), a town in Tunisia on the gulf of the same name (the Little Syrte of antiquity), 404 km. to the south of Tunis and 150 km. from Gafsa [see ḳafsa ]; it has 40,000 inhabitants, of whom 1,200 are Europeans, and is the chief town of a governorate with a population of 204,000 (1966 census). The town of Gabès, divided since 1957 into four districts, includes the old townships of Manzil, situated higher up the Oued-Gabès, and D̲j̲āra, situated downstream, localities which have always been divided by fie…


(4,558 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Holt, P.M. | Chalmeta, P. | Andrews, P.A. | Burton-Page, J.
(a.), lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shade, ẓill ,” apparently synonymous with the s̲h̲amsa , s̲h̲amsiyya , lit. “an instrument or apparatus for providing shelter from the sun”, probably therefore referring to the sunshade or parasol born on ceremonial occasions and processions [see mawākib ] over early Islamic rulers. 1. In the ʿAbbāsid and Fāṭimid caliphates. The historical sources provide a few references on practice in the ʿAbbāsid caliphate. Thus the official Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Zayyāt [see ibn al-zayyāt ] was responsible in al-Muʿtaṣim’s time fo…
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