Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(1,043 words)

Author(s): Hillenbrand, Carole
, a dynasty of Kurdish origin who, having ousted the Ḥamdānids [ q.v.], ruled Diyār Bakr from 380/990-1 to’478/1085. The founder of the dynasty, a Kurdish chief named Bād̲h̲, seized the city of Mayyāfāriḳīn [ q.v.] after the death of the Būyid ruler ʿAḍud al-Dawla (373/983), and then took Amid, Naṣībīn and Ak̲h̲lāṭ (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 25; Ibn al-Azraḳ, 49-52). Bad̲h̲ successfully fended off attacks both from a Būyid army sent against him and from the Hamdānids, but was killed by a coalition of Ḥamdānid and ʿUḳaylid forces after his unsuccessful attempt to take Mawṣil (380/990). The dynast…


(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam, who formed the second, and most long-lasting line of this dynasty, the first line being that of Sufyānids, that of Muʿāwiya I b. Abī Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], his son and his grandson (41-64/661-83). With the death of the child Muʿāwiya II b. Yazīd [ q.v.], the caliphate passed to Muʿāwiya I’s second cousin Marwān b. al-Ḥakam b. Abi ’l-ʿĀṣ, of the parallel branch of the Aʿyāṣ [ q.v. in Suppl.]. Marwān and his descendants now formed the Marwānid line of the Umayyads (64-132/684-750), his son and successor ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] being t…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam who formed the first and shorter-lasting line of the dynasty, being predecessors of the Marwānids [ q.v.]. The line took its name from Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], whose son Muʿāwiya I became caliph in 41/61, to be followed briefly by his son Yazīd I and the latter’s young son Muʿāwiya II, who died in 64/683. The succession was then taken up by the parallel branch of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam [ q.v.]. For the general history of the Sufyānids, see umayyads and the articles on the individual rulers, and for the post-132/750 eschato…


(240 words)

Author(s): Frye, R.N.
This name was formerly used for the ill-defined province of Persian Kurdistān, the major part of which at present is the district ( s̲h̲ahristān ) of Sanandad̲j̲ (formerly Senna). For the geography see kurdistān (Persian). Usually the name refers to the Banū Ardalān who were rulers of much of Kurdistān from the 14th century A.D. The origin of this extended family is unknown, but according to the S̲h̲araf-nāma , Bābā Ardalān was a descendant of the Marwānids of Diyār Bakr, who settled among the Gūrān in Kurdistān. Another source (B. Nikitine, Les Valis ) says Ardalā…

al-Malik al-ʿAzīz

(194 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Manṣūr K̲h̲usraw-Fīrūz , eldest son of D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla S̲h̲īrzīl. Būyid prince (407-41/1016 or 1017-1049). In the lifetime of his father D̲j̲alal al-Dawla [ q.v.], ruler of Bag̲h̲dād, he was governor of Baṣra and Wāsiṭ and latterly heir to the throne, but when his father died in S̲h̲aʿbān 435/March 1044, K̲h̲usraw-Fīrūz was away from the capital in Wāsiṭ, and superior financial resources enabled his more forceful cousin ʿImād al-Dīn Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār Marzubān [ q.v.] to secure the loyalty of the Būyid troops in Bag̲h̲dād and to establish himself firmly in ʿIrāḳ. …

Ismāʿīl b. Yasār

(398 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Nisāʾī , Medinan poet, who died at a very advanced age some years before the end of the Umayyad dynasty (132/750). The descendant of an Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ānī prisoner, he was a mawlā of the Taym b. Murra of Ḳurays̲h̲ and it is said that he owed his nisba to the fact that his father prepared meals—or sold carpets—for weddings, but this interpretation should be treated with caution. At Medina, where he lived, he had become a supporter of the Zubayrids, but his friendly relations with ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] (in whose company he went to the court of ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān after the…


(308 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a component group of the Meccan clan of Umayya or ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, the term being a plural of the founder’s name, a son of Umayya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Ḳuṣayy called al-ʿĪṣ or Abu ’l-ʿĪṣ or al-ʿĀṣ(ī) or Abu ’l-ʿĀṣ(ī) or ʿUwayṣ, these being given in the genealogical works as separate individuals, but doubtless in fact one person (on the two orthographies al-ʿĀṣ and al-ʿĀṣī, the former explicable as an apocopated Ḥid̲j̲āzī form, see K. Vollers, Volksprache und Schriftsprache im alten Arabien , Strassburg 1906, 139-40). The group formed a branch of th…


(405 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a small and ancient town situated on the north-eastern bank of Lake Van, which in the Middle Ages was still called the Lake of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲. Its existence seems to be vouched for since the Urartaean period, and more expressly by the Graeco-Roman geographers. It was occupied for a time by the Arabs during the time of ʿUt̲h̲mān, but remained an integral part of the Armenian principalities up to the 8th century A.D.; from 772 onwards, it was incorporated into the Ḳaysite emirate of Ak̲h̲lāṭ [ q.v.]. In the 10th century A.D., it belonged to the Marwānids, but about 1025 it was taken…

al-ʿAbbās b. al-Walīd

(412 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Gabrieli, F.
, Umayyad general, son of the caliph al-Walīd I. Al-ʿAbbās owes his celebrity principally to the energetic part he took in the continual struggles of the Umayyads with the Byzantines. Concerning the details, the Arabic and Byzantine sources do not always agree. In the early part of the reign of al-Walīd I, he and his uncle Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, took Ṭuwāna, the most important fortress of Cappadocia. The Muslims had begun to be discouraged and ʿAbbās had to display the greatest energy to succ…


(340 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an Arab tribe which in Umayyad times claimed descent from Kahlān b. Sabaʾ of Yemen and relationship with Lak̲h̲m and ʿĀmila; this certainly corresponded with the prevailing political alliances. However, the North Arab tribes claimed that D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām, Ḳuḍāʿa and Lak̲h̲m were originally of Nizār but had later assumed Yemenī descent. D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām were among the nomads who had settled in pre-Islamic times on the borders of Byzantine Syria and Palestine; they held places like Madyan, ʿAmmān, Maʿān a…

Sallāma al-Zarḳāʾ

(383 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
(the "blue" Sallāma) was the star among the slave singing-girls ( ḳayna [ q.v.]) of Kūfa in the last years of the Umayyads and in the caliphate of al-Saffāḥ. She belonged to the local "master of singing-girls" ( ṣāḥib ḳiyān ; muḳayyin ) Ibn Rāmīn, a mawlā of the Marwānids, who ran an establishment offering the pleasures of musical entertainment and wine-drinking. His house was frequented mainly by the ẓurafāʾ (sing, ẓarīf ) of Kūfa. Among them were the poets Ismāʿīl b. ʿAmmār and Muḥammad b. al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ al-Zuhrī, who eulogised Sallāma in the…


(346 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
bt. al-Mahdī , a daughter of the caliph, gifted musician and a poet. She was born in 160/777 and died in 210/825. Her mother Maknūna had been a d̲j̲āriya and professional singer in the service of the Marwānids in Medina before she was sold to the ʿAbbāsid prince in Bag̲h̲dād. Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī [ q.v.] and the later caliph Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd were ʿUlayya’s half-brothers. In her youth, she was married to one of her ʿAbbāsid relatives, Mūsā b. ʿĪsā, who had served as a governor in different places before settling in Bag̲h̲dād, three years before he d…


(1,201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Banu ), one of the families of government contractors characteristic of their period who almost completely monopolized the caliph’s vizierate during the protectorate of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳids, and deriving their particular importance from that fact. The founder of the political fortunes of the dynasty, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr, born in al-Mawṣil in 398/1007-8 of a family of rich merchants, entered the service of the S̲h̲īʿī ʿUḳaylid princes of that town; then, after one of them, Ḳirwās̲h̲, fell …


(629 words)

Author(s): Lecker, M.
, a tribe of the so-called Northern Arabian federation Ḳays ʿAylān [ q.v.], more precisely, of the Hawāzin [ q.v.]. Before Islam the T̲h̲aḳīf controlled the walled town of al-Ṭāʾif [ q.v.]; groups of the T̲h̲aḳīf, some settled and some nomadic, still live in al-Ṭāʾif and its vicinity. In the early Islamic period, the T̲h̲aḳīf were divided into two rival subdivisions, the less prestigious Aḥlāf or “allies” and the Mālik. The Aḥlāf included the ʿAwf branch of T̲h̲aḳīf as a whole and a group from the D̲j̲us̲h̲am branch, while the Mālik were the …


(676 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an Arab dynasty of northern ʿIrāḳ and al-Ḏj̲azīra which flourished from ca. 380/990 to 564/1169. The family stemmed from the North Arab tribe of ʿUḳayl [ q.v.]. In the 4th/10th century, the ‘Uḳayl in Syria and northern ʿIrāḳ were dependents of the Ḥamdānids [ q.v.] of Mawṣil and Aleppo. When the last Ḥamdānids of Mawṣil, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusayn and Abū Ṭāhir Ibrāhim, were threatened by the Kurdish chief Bād̲h̲, founder of the Marwānid line [see marwānids ] in Diyār Bakr, they appealed for help to the ʿUḳaylid chief Abu ’l-Ḏh̲awwād Muḥammad b. al-Musayyab. But after def…

Ṣamṣām al-Dawla

(529 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār Marzubān, S̲h̲ams al-Milla (353-88/964-98), Buyid amir and eldest son of ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.]. On his father’s death in S̲h̲awwāl 372/March 983, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla succeeded to power as amīr al-umarāʾ , but his position was immediately disputed by another brother, S̲h̲araf al-Dawla S̲h̲īrzīl, who seized Fārs and Ḵh̲ūzistān. From his base in ʿIrāḳ, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla had also to combat the Kurdish chief Bād̲h̲, ancestor of the Marwānid dynasty [see marwānids ] of Diyār Bakr, who had seized various towns in al-Ḏj̲azīra and who even for a while held Mawṣil.…


(580 words)

Author(s): Crone, P.
, members of a Baṣran family of the tribe of S̲h̲aybān of the confederacy of Bakr b. Wāʾil, prominent in the Umayyad period. They traced their ancestry to D̲j̲aḥdar b. Ḍubayʿa, a participant in the war of Basūs [ q.v.] (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Ǧamharat an-nasab , i, table 155; Ḥamāsa , ed. Freytag, i, 252 ff.; Ag̲h̲ānī 3, v, 43 f., 48 ff,’ 55). But apart from the report that Mismaʿ b. S̲h̲ihāb died as an apostate from Islam in eastern Arabia (according to the poetry cited by al-Balād̲h̲ūrī, Futūḥ , 84; differently al-Ṭabarī, i, 1971), little is heard of them until…

ʿIzz al-Dawla

(761 words)

Author(s): Busse, H.
, an honorary title ( laḳab [ q.v.], pl. alḳāb ) of the kind which came into being at the beginning of the 4th/10th century, conferred by caliphs and later also by other sovereigns. The first person to receive an honorary title composed with dawla was the vizier of the caliph al-Muktafī (902-8), al-Ḳāsim; in 289/902 he was entitled Walī al-Dawla (Friend of the Dynasty). Originally dawla [ q.v.] signified: turn, reversal (especially in battle), then it became the designation of the old Mahdī propaganda, and from the middle of the 3rd/9th century attained the mean…

Diyār Bakr

(4,093 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Yinanç, Mükrimin H. | Sourdel-Thomine, J.
, properly “abode of (the tribe of) Bakr”, the designation of the northern province of the D̲j̲azīra. It covers the region on the left and right banks of the Tigris from its source to the region where it changes from its west-east course to flow in a south-easterly direction. It is, therefore, the upper basin of the Tigris, from the region of Siʿirt and Tell Fāfān to that of Arḳanīn to the north-west of Āmid and Ḥiṣn al-Ḥamma (Čermük) to the west of Āmid. Yāḳūt points out that Diyār Bakr does not extend beyond the plain. Diyār Bakr is so called because it became, during the 1st/7th century…


(905 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Sourdel-Thomine, J.
, the principal residence of the amīrs of G̲h̲assān, and for that reason known as “D̲j̲ābiya of kings”, situated in D̲j̲awlān [ q.v.], about 80 km. south of Damascus, not far from the site of the modern Nawā. It extended over several hills, hence perhaps the poetic form of plural D̲j̲awābī, with an allusion to the etymological sense of “reservoir”, the symbol of generosity (cf. Ag̲h̲ānī , xviii, 72). It was the perfect type of ancient bedouin ḥirt̲h̲ā/ḥīra , a huge encampment where nomads settled down, a jumble of tents and buildings; there is even a…
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