Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Pāra

(316 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p. ‘‘piece, fragment”), a Turkish coin of the Ottoman and early Republican periods. It was originally a silver piece of 4 aḳčes , first issued early in the 18th century; it soon replaced the aḳče as the monetary unit. The weight, originally 16 grains (1.10 grammes), sank to one-quarter of this weight by the beginning of the 19th century and the silver content also depreciated considerably. The multiples of the silver pāra were 5 ( bes̲h̲lik ) pāras ; 10 ( onli̊ḳ ); 15 ( onbes̲h̲lik ); 20 ( yigirmiparali̊ḳ ); 30 ( zolota ) and 40 ( g̲h̲urūs̲h̲ or piastre). Higher denominations: 60 ( altmi̊s̲h̲li̊ḳ

Para

(1,613 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A.
(Gk. Paros ), Turkish name of an important Aegean Cycladic island, west of Naḳs̲h̲e and north-east of the once-attached Antiparos (1981 pop.: 8,516), celebrated since Antiquity for its marble, still popular in the 15th century according to the Italian travellers Buondelmonti (ed. Legrand, 53 ff.) and Cyriacus of Ancona (cf. Miller-Lampros [ = M-L], ii, 380, 397), and rich in Byzantine, post-Byzantine and Catholic (Capuchin) monuments. The Byzantine period (to 1207) saw the island’s incorporation in the Aegean maritime theme after ca. 843 (see Malamut, Les îles

S̲h̲ire

(577 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A.
, the Turkish name of the Aegean Greek island of Syros, vernacular Syra, Ar. S̲h̲ira, an important island of the Cyclades lying south of Andros/Andire and northwest of Para. Mentioned by al-Idrīsī (tr. Jaubert, ii, 127) when it was under Byzantine control, it was captured by the Venetians after the Fourth Crusade and became part of the Archipelago Duchy after 1207. Renamed Lasudha (la Souda), it experienced a long Latin period, and over the centuries, the majority of the population became Latin Catholics (see G. Hoffmann, Vescovadi catolici della Grecia . III. Syros, Rome 1937; A. Siga…

Naḳs̲h̲e

(1,655 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A.
(Gr. Naxos/Axia ), Turkish name of the largest Aegean Cycladic island (1981 pop.: 14,037), east of Para [ q.v.] and north-west of Amorgos, celebrated since Antiquity and the Middle Ages for its products (wine, olive oil, dairy ones: cf. Vakalopoulos, ii2, 492-3; iv, 473-4); in mid-12th century, al-Idrīsī refers to its extensive cattle raising ( Opus geographicum , 642: Naḳsiyya). Its chief port and capital, Naxos or “Chora”, on the western coastal ancient and mediaeval settlements, became a centre of commerce in the Latin and Tur…

S̲h̲eytānli̊ḳ

(218 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A.
(Grk. Gýaros, vernacular Gioúra), the Tkish. name (lit. “devilry, craftiness”) for an island of the Aegean Cyclades group, lying to the northwest of Syros or S̲h̲ire [ q.v.]. From Roman times onwards, up to the period 1936-74, it has served as a place of exile and imprisonment for political prisoners, but may also have acquired its name from its great vulnerability to pirate attacks. In Byzantine times, as in Antiquity, shells for purple dye were fished for there (see K.R. Setton, in Speculum , ¶ xix [1944], 196). From 1206 to 1566 it was part of the Archipelago Duchy of Naxos (see naḳs̲h̲e …

ʿAbd Allāh b. Wahb

(187 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
al-Rāsibī , Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite leader, a tābiʿī of the Bad̲j̲īla tribe, noted for his bravery and piety and surnamed d̲h̲u ’l-t̲h̲afināt , "the man with the callosities", on account of the callosities on his forehead etc. resulting from his many prostrations. He fought under Ṣaʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ in ʿIrāḳ and under ʿAlī at Ṣiffīn, but broke with him over the decision to arbitrate and joined the dissidents at Ḥarūraʾ. Shortly before their final departure from Kūfa in S̲h̲awwāl 37/March 658, the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites elected ʿAbd Allāh as their commander ( amīr , not k̲h̲alīfa , as…

Irsāliyye

(762 words)

Author(s): Shaw, S.J.
or māl-i irsāliyye , an Ottoman financial term applied to the annual “remittances” of cash and kind sent to the personal treasury of the sultan ( Ḏj̲eyb-i hümāyūn or Ḥarem-i Hümāyūn k̲h̲azīnesi ) in Istanbul by the holders of the non-feudal sand̲j̲aḳ s as well as by the governors of the non-feudal Arab provinces. The former usually were remitted under names such as Nevrūz Irsāliyyesī (New Years Remittance) or Ag̲h̲ustos Irsāliyyesī (August Remittance). The latter were called Irsāliyye Ḵh̲azīnesi (Remittance Treasury), sometimes shortened to Ḵh̲azīne , and c…

Mīrzā Aḥmad K̲h̲ān

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Hasan, Mohibbul
, Indian Muslim noble and traveller to the West, the son of Nawwāb Muʿazzaz K̲h̲ān (Nawwāb in 1769), descended from ʿAbd Allāh Beg, the Mug̲h̲al governor of Broach, a town in Gud̲j̲arat [see bharoč ], situated on the right bank of the Narbada river about 30 miles from its mouth. Since the town of Broach was an important trading and manufacturing centre and the Nawwāb would not allow the English to establish a factory there, the governor of Bombay decided to seize it. Under the pretext that the Nawwāb had violated the treaty with the East India …

Abū ʿUbayda ʿĀmir b. ʿ Abd Allah b. al-Ḏj̲arrāḥ

(388 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, of the family of Balḥārit̲h̲, of the Ḳuras̲h̲ite tribe of Fihr, one of the early Meccan converts to Islām, and one of the ten Believers to whom Paradise was promised (see al-ʿAs̲h̲ara al-Mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ara ). He took part in the emigration to Abyssinia, and is said to have been distinguished for courage and unselfishness and to have been given the title of amīn by Muḥammad for that reason. He was 41 years of age at the battle of Badr, and took part in the later campaigns, distinguishing himself at Uḥud, and as the commander of severai …

Abu ’l-Dunyā

(322 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-Hasan ʿAli b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb (or ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲.), one of those to whom preternatural longevity has been ascribed ( muʿammarun , q.v.); he is also called al-Muʿammar al-Mag̲h̲ribī or al-As̲h̲ad̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Muʿammar. He is said to have been born about 600 A.D. and to have died in 316/928, 327/938-9 or even 476/1083-4. Of the tribe of Hamdān, he drank in his youth from the source of life in the presence of al-Ḵh̲aḍir [ q.v.], then joined ʿAli b. Abī Ṭālib, with whom he fought at Ṣiffīn and from whom he received the name of Abu ’l-Dunyā, after his hors…

Ḳāʾime

(1,312 words)

Author(s): Davison, R.H.
(t., originally a.; cf. Ḳāʾim ), the name formerly used for paper money in Turkey, an abbreviation for ḳāʾime-i muʿtebere . The word ḳāʾime was originally used of official documents written on one large, long sheet of paper; the first paper money was also manuscript on large sheets, and was also known as sehim ḳāʾimesi , ḳāʾime-i naḳdiyye , ewrāḳ-i naḳdiye , and ewraḳ-i muʿtebere . Although in the 20th century bank notes have been called ḳāʾime, this term was not used for notes of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, a private bank under government charter, but only for paper iss…

Ḳaplan Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a

(334 words)

Author(s): de Groot, A.H.
(d. 1091/1680), Ottoman vizier and ḳapudan pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Educated in the palace school at Istanbul, he made his early career in the private household of the sultan or enderūn [ q.v.]. Launched afterwards into a military and administrative career, Ḳaplan Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a was appointed beglerbegi of Damascus before 1076/1666. From 6 February 1666 to April 1672, he served as Grand Admiral ( ḳapudan pas̲h̲a). Under the Grand Vizier and Commander-in-Chief Fāḍi̊l Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a Köprülü, he commanded the main squadron during the War of Candia ( Girid Seferi [see iḳrītis̲h̲ ; ḳandiya …

Bāzahr

(826 words)

Author(s): Ruska, J. | Plessner, M.
, Bezoar, a remedy against all kinds of poisons, highly esteemed and paid for throughout the Middle Ages up to the 18th century, and in the Orient even up to this very day. The genuine (Oriental) Bezoar-stone is obtained from the bezoargoat ( Capra aegagrus Gm.) and, according to the investigations of Friedrich Wöhler, the famous chemist (1800-1882), and others, it is a gall-stone. The stone seems to have been unknown to ancient Arabs, for neither in the lexica nor in A. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch , 1919, is the word …

al-As̲h̲ʿarī, Abū Mūsā

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, ibn ḳays , Companion of the Prophet and military leader. Bornp about 614 A.D., Abū Mūsā, a native of the Yemen, left South Arabia by sea with several of his brothers and members of his tribe (the As̲h̲ʿar) and joined Muḥammad at Ḵh̲aybar at the time of the famous expedition against the Jews of that oasis (7/628) to swear allegiance to him (the information given in some sources [for example Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahdhīb , ii, 1265] according to which he was one of the emigrants who went to Abyssinia, is therefore most unlikely to be authentic; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Ist̄iʿāb , Ḥaydarā…

Imām S̲h̲āh

(285 words)

Author(s): Fyzee, A.A.A.
Imām al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. Ḥasan (b. 856/1452; d. 919/1513), was a saint ( pīr ) of an Ismāʿīlī sect known as Imāms̲h̲āhīs, and better known as sat-panthīs (followers of truth). Sat-panth (the true path) was a term applied originally to Eastern Ismāʿīlīsm in India. Later the sat-panthīs denied all connection with the K̲h̲od̲j̲as, although there is a great similarity in their doctrines. His tomb is at Pīrāna (near Aḥmadābād, Gujarat), where Imām S̲h̲āh lived and taught. It is greatly venerated by his ¶ followers, who are also to be found in Madhya Pradesh, neat Burhānpūr, whe…

al-As̲h̲tar

(969 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Nak̲h̲aʿī, warrior and political agitator of the time of the Caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān and supporter of ʿAlī. He was surnamed al-As̲h̲tar, “the man with inverted eyelids”, as the result of a wound received at the battle of the Yarmūk (15/636). He distinguished himself by his boldness in the campaign against the Byzantines and even dared to venture beyond Darb in enemy territory (see Caetani, Annali , index). He was one of the most persistent agitators against the Caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān and the ruling class of the period and defended the rights—or the claims—of the warriors to the f…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb

(898 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, one of the most prominent personalities of the first generation of Muslims, and of the authorities most frequently quoted for Traditions. He derived his reputation not only from being a son of the Caliph, but also because his high moral qualities compelled the admiration of his contemporaries. At a time when the Muslims were being carried by their passions into civil war, Ibn ʿUmar was able to maintain himself aloof from the conflict; furthermore, he followed the precepts of Islām with such scrupulous ¶ obedience that he became a pattern for future generations, to such a degr…

Adamawa

(1,636 words)

Author(s): Whitting, C.E.J.
, the name—deriving from the local leader of the Fulani d̲j̲ihād in 1809 (see para. 5 below)—given to a region in the hinterland of West Africa, and used: (a) of an area never precisely defined in geographical terms but including the conquests of this d̲j̲ihād and the resulting sphere of Fulani influence in the region, extending from Marua in the north to well beyond Ngaundere in the south and from Rei Buba in the east to west of Yola,—approximately from 11° to 6° N. and 12° to 14° E. With the European occupation of this part of Africa ea…

Walba

(449 words)

Author(s): Castro, Fátima Roldán
, a district of the kūra of Niebla in the southwestern part of al-Andalus, the modern Huelva. The name appears in various forms in the Arabic sources, such as Wānyu in al-ʿUd̲h̲rī (5th/11th century) and Wāniba (Yāḳūt), both going back to Latin Onuba. Its political history is closely linked with that of Niebla [see labla ], even though it was for a while, in the time of the Taifas, separated from Niebla. This was, in fact, a period of prosperity and security for the people there. This was due to the actions of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-B…

Furḍa

(549 words)

Author(s): Shaw, S.J.
, a term used interchangeably in Ottoman documents and Arabic texts with firda , in reference to personal taxes. Attested in Ottoman Egypt after about 1775 as one of the many illegal charges imposed on peasants by soldiers of the provincial governors, in 1792 this tax was legalized under the name Firdat al-taḥrīr , as a comprehensive levy to replace all the previous illegal charges. It was not a regular imposition, nor was it applied everywhere at the same time, but only where and when local authorities needed money for speci…
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