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(533 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
or Sonḳor , the name of a district and of a present-day small town in western Persia (town: lat. 34° 45′ N., long 47° 39′ E.). It lies in the Zagros Mountains between modern Kangāwar [see kinkiwar ] and Sanandad̲j̲ [ q.v.] or Sinna, within the modern province of Kirmāns̲h̲āh. In mediaeval Islamic times, it lay on the road between Dīnawar [ q.v.] and Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, and must correspond approximately to the first marḥala on the stretch from Dīnawar to Sīsar, the name of which is read al-D̲j̲ārbā (al-Muḳaddasī, 382), K̲h̲arbārd̲j̲ān (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 119; Ḳudāma, 212), etc. which was 7 f…

Āḳ Sunḳur

(158 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, “White Falcon”, the name of many Turkish officers, of whom the following are the most important: 1. āḳ sunḳur b. ʿabd allāh ḳasīm al-dawla , known as al-ḥād̲j̲ib , mamlūk of Malik-s̲h̲āh [ q.v.], who appointed him to the government of Aleppo in 480/1087. He at first supported the efforts of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ prince Tutus̲h̲ [ q.v.] to establish himself in Syria, but after Malik-s̲h̲āh’s death he, with the other governors in northern Syria and the Ḏj̲azīra, declared for Barkiyāruḳ, and was defeated and executed by Tutus̲h̲ near Aleppo in Ḏj̲umādā I, 487/May 1094. He was the father of Zankī [ q.v.],…

Āḳ Sunḳur al-Bursuḳī

(421 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( abū saʿīd sayf al-dīn ḳasīm al-dawla ), originally a mamlūk of Bursuḳ [ q.v.], and one of the principal officers of the Sald̲j̲uḳid sultans Muḥammad and Maḥmūd. He became prominent firstly through his activities as military governor ( s̲h̲iḥna ) of al-ʿIrāḳ, and later, at the end of his life, as governor of Mosul, which office he held simultaneously with the former. Appointed s̲h̲iḥna in 498/1105. his main task was to oppose the Mazyadite Arabs of Dubays [ q.v.], who were infesting the environs of Bag̲h̲dād. In his first government of Mosul (507/1113) his chief duty was …


(6 words)

[see aḳ sunḳur ].


(1,093 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a dynasty of princes of Marāg̲h̲a. Distinction must be made between the eponym Aḥmadīl and his successors. Aḥmadīl b. Ibrāhīm b. Wahsūdān al-Rawwādī al-Kurdī was a descendant of the local branch of the originally Arab family of Rawwād (of Azd) established in Tabrīz (see rawwādids ). In the course of time the family became Kurdicized, and even the name Aḥmadīl is apparently formed with an Iranian (Kurdish) diminutive suffix -īl . Aḥmadīl took part in the anti-Crusade of 505/1111. During the siege of Tell Bās̲h̲ir, Jocelyn made an arrangement …


(112 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sunḳur (t.), one of the many words in Turkish denoting birds of prey. In the modern Turkic languages, and probably always, it means the gerfalcon, falco gyrfalco (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dict. of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 838a). Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī says that it was a raptor smaller than the ṭog̲h̲ri̊l ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, iii, 381). The term became frequently used as a personal name in mediaeval Islamic times, both alone and in such combinations as Aḳ/Ḳara Sonḳor “White/Black Gerfalcon”, cf. J. Sauvaget, Noms et surnoms de Mamelouk


(426 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, an Og̲h̲uz (Türkmen) tribe. The Bayat are understood to have taken part in the conquests of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs in Anatolia. The nickname al-Bayātī given to Sunḳur, representative in Baṣra in 512-3/1119 of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid amīr Aḳ Sunḳur al-Buk̲h̲ārī, is quite probably connected with this tribe. There were numerous places called Bayat or Bayad in central and western Turkey in the 9th/15th and 10th/16th centuries of which few survive today. Most of these place-names, no doubt, belonged to the Bayat w…


(5,725 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the old capital of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies in lat. 37° 23′ N. and long 46° 15′ E. at a height of 5,500 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of Mount Sahand (11,800 feet high) which separates it from Tabrīz [ q.v.]. This explains the very considerable difference in climate ¶ between the two towns, which are only 50 miles apart as the crow flies (by the high road 80 miles). The climate of Marāg̲h̲a is mild and rather moist (H̲amd Allāh and Mecquenem, 1904). The plentiful water supply makes the vegetation rich. The fruit of …


(2,248 words)

Author(s): Rabie, Hassanein
, al-Malik al-Manṣūr Sayf al-Dīn Ḳalāwūn al-Alfī al-Ṣāliḥī al-Nad̲j̲mī al-ʿAlāʾī , the fifth Mamūlk sultan, ruler of Egypt and Syria from 678/1279 to 689/1290. One of the most eminent sultans of the Baḥrī [ q.v.] Mamlūk sultanate, he followed the policies of Sultan Baybars I [ q.v.] especially in his campaigns against the Mongols and the Crusaders. Ḳalāwūn was born in the country of the Kipčak Turks on the northern shores of the Black Sea. The date of his birth is unknown and the sources tell us nothing about his childhood. A sla…


(725 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( Lāčīn ), al-Malik al-Manṣūr Ḥusām al-Dīn , alias S̲h̲uḳayr or al-As̲h̲ḳar , Turkish Mamlūk sultan. Originally a mamlūk of al-Malik al-Manṣūr ʿAlī b. Aybak, Lād̲j̲īn was purchased after his master’s deposition in 658/1259 by the future sultan Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.], on whose accession he was raised to the amirate, and sent to Damascus as governor of the citadel (D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 678/April 1280). His appointment alarmed the provincial governor, Sunḳur al-As̲h̲ḳar, who proclaimed himself sultan. The revolt was suppressed by an expeditiona…


(1,273 words)

Author(s): Wittek, P.
, modern Turkish form Niğde, a town of south-central Anatolia in a fertile trough between mountainous regions, hence important in earlier times as a station on the trade route connecting Cilicia with the interior of Anatolia and with Sinope on the Black Sea coast. It lies in lat. 37° 58′ N. and long. 34° 42′ E. at an altitude of 1,250 m/4,100 feet. The town is first mentioned in the Turkish period; previously, the chief town of the district was Tyana (Ar. Ṭuwāna), but it is probable that the striking hill which commands the important road from Cilicia acros…

al-Manṣūr Bi’llāh

(1,268 words)

Author(s): Donzel, E. van
ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥamza b. Sulaymān b. Ḥamza , Zaydī Imām of the Yemen. Born in Rabīʿ I 561/January 1166, he became Imām in 583/1187-8 (some sources have 593/1196-7). He was not a direct descendant of al-Hādī ilā ’l-Haḳḳ Yaḥyā [see zaydids ], but of the latter’s grandfather al-Ḳāsim al-Rassī b. Ṭabāṭabā (Kay, Yaman , 184-5, 314; Van Arendonk, Débuts , 366). Between 532/1137-8 and 566/1170-1, the Imām al-Mutawakkil ʿalā Allāh Aḥmad b. Sulaymān had tried to assure Zaydī power over al-D̲j̲awf, Nad̲j̲rān, Ṣaʿda, al-Ẓāhir and Zabīd (Kay, Yaman, 317; EI 1 s.v. al-mahdī li-dīn allāh aḥmad …

Saʿd (I) b. Zangī

(478 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ ʿIzz al-Dīn , Turkish Atabeg in Fārs of the Salg̲h̲urid line [ q.v.], reigned in S̲h̲īrāz from 599/1202-3 until most probably 623/1226. On the death of his elder brother Takla/Tekele (Degele, etc.?) b. Zangī in 594/1198, Saʿd claimed power in Fārs, but his claim was contested by his ¶ cousin Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l, the son of his father’s elder brother Sunḳur, who had founded the dynasty. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l retained the royal title for nine years, but throughout that period warfare between him and his cousin continued without a decisive result for…


(426 words)

Author(s): Morray, D.W.
(present-day (Arabic) Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn ; Greek Sigon ; Frankish Saône ), a stronghold of the D̲j̲abal al-ʿAlawiyyīn (Nuṣayrī Mountains), situated about 25 km/15 miles north-east of the Syrian port of ¶ al-Lād̲h̲iḳiyya (Latakia), near the town of al-Ḥaffeh. The castle occupies a narrow, east-west running spur, isolated by a rock-hewn fosse on the east, and protected by deep ravines on the north and south. The principal extant constructions are the remains of a Byzantine citadel on the highest, middle point o…


(471 words)

Author(s): Pritsak, O.
(t.), «hero», a figure which played a great role in the warlike ancient Turkish society; synonyms: batur ( bahādur [ q.v.], sökmen , čapar [ qq.v.]).(Turkish heroic tradition survived in an Islamicized form and appears in Anatolia in the stories of Dede Ḳorkud [ q.v.] as well as in the poetry of ʿAs̲h̲iḳ Pas̲h̲a and the history of Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊og̲h̲lu; cf. Fuad Köprülü, Bibl .). The word alp , used since ancient times among the various Turkish peoples either as an element in compound proper names or as a title, occurs frequently in proper na…

Ibn K̲h̲allikān

(833 words)

Author(s): Fück, J.W.
, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , Arabic biographer, b. 11 Rabīʿ II 608/22 September 1211 at Irbil in a respectable family that claimed descent from the Barmakids. At the age of two, he lost his father, who was mudarris in the Muẓaffariyya college founded by the Begteginid [ q.v.] Muẓaffar al-Dīn Gökburi (see Ibn K̲h̲allikān. no. 558). He began his studies under his father’s successor S̲h̲araf al-Dīn al-Irbilī ( ibid., no. 44); he then continued them from 626/1229 in Aleppo under Ibn S̲h̲addād ( ibid., no. 852) and Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ ( i…

ʿĪsā b. Muhannā

(849 words)

Author(s): Şehabeddin Tekindaǧ, M.C.
, d. 683/1248, appointed Amir al-ʿArab by the Mamlūk sultan, was the chief of the Āl Faḍl, a Bedouin clan of Bādiyat al-S̲h̲a’m. His genealogy is usually given as ʿĪsā b. Muhannā b. Mānīʿ b. Ḥadīt̲h̲a b. ʿAṣaba (var. ʿUḳba) b. Faḍl b. Rabīʿa; his laḳab was S̲h̲araf al-Dīn al-Ṭā’ī. The Āl Faḍl, connected to the Rabīʿa and hence to the Tayy (for their early history see Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, al-ʿIbar , Cairo 1284, v, 436 f.; al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , Cairo 1914, iv, 203 f., 206), were very wealthy (see al-ʿUmarī, al-Taʿrīf , Cairo 1312, 79) and ranged from Ḥimṣ as far as Ḳalʿat D̲j̲aʿbar and Raḥba ( Ṣubḥ, iv, 20…

Masʿūd b. Muḥammad b. Malik-s̲h̲ah

(767 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Fatḥ G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dunyā wa ’l-Din , Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan in ʿIrāḳ and western Persia 529-47/1134-52. Like the other sons of Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲ah [ q.v.], Masʿūd was entrusted as a child to the tutelage of Turkish Atabegs [see atabak ], latterly with Ay-Aba D̲j̲uyūs̲h̲ Beg acting thus, and given the appanage of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and al-D̲j̲azīra: at D̲j̲uyūs̲h̲ Beg’s prompting, Masʿūd unsuccessfully rebelled in 514/1120 at the age of 12 against his elder brother Sultan Maḥmūd b. Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.], but was pardoned. When Maḥmūd died in 525/1131, a period of confusio…

Lur-i Buzurg

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a dynasty of Atābegs [see atabak ] which flourished in eastern and ¶ southern Luristān between 550/1155 and 827/1423, the capital of which was Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲ [ q.v.] or Mālamīr. The eponymous founder of the dynasty, also known as Faḍlawī, was a Kurd chief of Syria named Faḍlūya. His descendants (the D̲j̲ihān-ārā mentions 9 predecessors of Abū Ṭāhir) migrated from Syria, and passing through Mayyafāriḳīn and Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān (where they made an alliance with the Amīra Dībād̲j̲ [?] of Gīlān), they arrived about 500/1006 in the plains north of Us̲h̲turān-Kūh (Luristān). Their (1) chief Abū…

Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲āh

(696 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dunyā wa ’l-Dīn, with the Turkish name Tapar “he who obtains, finds” (see P. Pelliot, Notes sur l’histoire de la Horde d’Or, Paris 1950, 182-3), Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan in ʿIrāḳ and western Persia 498-511/1105-18. Born in S̲h̲aʿbān 474/January 1082, he was a half-brother of Malik-S̲h̲āh’s eldest son Berk-Yaruḳ [ q.v.] and a full brother of Sand̲j̲ar [ q.v.]. When Berk-Yaruḳ succeeded his father in 485/1092, he had to leave Muḥammad in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and Arrān, where Muḥammad enjoyed the support of Sand̲j̲ar and of the for…
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