Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(1,516 words)

Author(s): Djebli, Moktar
(a.), arbitration (the maṣdar of the form II verb ḥakkama . It denotes the action of making an appeal to arbitration by someone involved with another in a conflict or in some affair of a conflicting nature by mutual agreement. It also designates someone fulfilling the role of an agent with the power of attorney, or an authorised agent (with full powers to act) in a different or clear matter. This person should be qualified as a muḥakkam , a person who is solicited for arbitration. The ancient Arabs preferred to use the word ḥakam , arbitrator, from the verb ḥakama , to jud…


(7 words)

[see k̲h̲awārid̲j̲ ; taḥkīm ].


(902 words)

Author(s): Tyan, E.
, arbitrator who settles a dispute (from ḥakama : to judge, from whence is derived also ḥākim : any holder of general authority, such as a provincial governor and, more precisely, the judicial magistrate). A synonym, also a technical term and in current use, is muḥakkam (from ḥakkama : to submit to arbitration, whence also taḥkīm , the procedure of arbitration or, more precisely, submission to arbitration). In pre-Islamic Arabia, given the lack of any public authority responsible for the settling of disputes [see diya , ḳiṣāṣ , t̲h̲aʾr ], taḥkīm was the sole judicial procedure availa…

al-Burak al-Ṣarīmī

(328 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(Ṣuraymī in Ibn al-Kalbī), (al-)ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. ʿAbd Allāh (d. 40/660), a Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ī who is said to have been the first to proclaim that “judgement belongs only to God” ( taḥkīm ; cf. al-Mubarrad, Kāmil , Cairo edn., 917), but who is famed in history because of his being one of the three plotters sworn to kill simultaneously ʿAlī b. Abi Ṭālib [see ibn muld̲j̲am ], ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ, [ q.v.] and Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān. Al-Burak accordingly proceeded to Damascus and stabbed Muʿāwiya whilst he was praying, but only managed to wound him in the hip. According to trad…


(1,180 words)

Author(s): Schmucker, W.
(a.), synonym mulāʿana , literally “mutual imprecation, curse” (e.g. “may God’s curse over the one of us who is wrong, who lies”), implies swearing a conditional curse (e.g. “may God’s punishment hit me, may I be cursed if...”) and a purifying oath (cf. b-h-l VIII: nabtahil ). In fact, the term indicates: (1) spontaneously swearing a curse in order to strengthen an assertion or to find the truth; (2) a kind of ordeal, invoked for the same purpose, between disputing individuals or parties, in which the instigation or call to the ordeal is mor…

Bā ʿAlawī

(1,498 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(more precisely: Āl Bā ʿAlawī, cf. art. BĀ; according to al-S̲h̲illī [ Mas̲h̲raʿ. i, 31] ʿalawī is “a well-known bird”; nisba: al-ʿAlawī [also al-Bāʿalawī], not to be confounded with the usual nisba belonging to ʿAlī), a large and influential clan of S. Arabian sayyids and Ṣūfīs, for the most part living in Ḥaḍramawt, in or near the town of Tarīm [ q.v.], and buried in the Zanbal cernetery there. The noble descent of the Bā ʿAlawī sayyids is said to have been checked in the sixth century by the traditionist ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Diadīd (d. 620/1223; Taʾrīk̲h̲ t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ʿAdan , ii, 157; Mas̲…

ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(5,761 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, cousin and son-in-law of Muḥammad, and fourth caliph, was one of the first to believe in Muḥammad’s mission. Whether he was the second after Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a. or the third after Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a and Abū Bakr, was much disputed between S̲h̲īʿites and Sunnīs. He was at that time aged 10 or 11 at most, and Muḥammad had taken him into his own household to relieve the boy’s father Abū Ṭālib, who had fallen into poverty. One narrative, which is open to criticism on several counts, represents ʿAlī as having oc…


(1,945 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(ʿEdrūs, often misunderstood as Idrīs; etymology obscure, cf. S̲h̲illī, Mas̲h̲raʿ , ii, 152) a family of learned sayyid s and ṣūfī s in South Arabia, India and Indonesia, belonging to the Saḳḳāf branch of the Bā ʿAlawī [ q.v.] and still playing an important rôle in Ḥaḍramawt. Wüstenfeld ( Çufiten , 29 ff.) quotes from al-Muḥibbī the details on more than thirty members of the family down to the 11/17th century. In the 19th century there ¶ were in Ḥaḍramawt five ʿAydarūs manṣab s, at Ḥazm, Bawr, Ṣalīla, T̲h̲ibī and Ramla. Among the numerous members of the c…


(3,222 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān ʿAmr b. Baḥr al-Fuḳaymī al-Baṣrī , was a famous Arab prose writer, the author of works of adab , Muʿtazilī theology and politico-religious polemics. Born at Baṣra about 160/776 in an obscure family of mawālī from the Banū Kināna and probably of Abyssinian origin, he owes his sobriquet to a malformation of the eyes ( d̲j̲āḥiẓ = with a projecting cornea). Little is known of his childhood in Baṣra, except that from an early age an invincible desire for learning and a remarkably inquisitive mind urged him towards a life of independence and, m…


(3,013 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
or rustumids, an Ibāḍī dynasty, of Persian origin, which reigned from Tāhart (in what is now Algeria) 161-296/778-909. The birth of the Ibāḍī principality of Tāhart is bound up with the great Berber rising begun by Maysara (called, as a tribute from his enemies, al-Ḥaḳīr “The Vile”) in 122/740. As a result of this rising, the greater part of the Mag̲h̲rib fell away definitively from the control of the caliphate in the East, with the exception of the principality of Ḳayrawān (Kairouan), which only achieved virtual independence with the coming of the Ag̲h̲labids [ q.v.] in 184/800. The Ibā…


(21,303 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A. | Brice, W.C. | Sourdel, D. | Aubin, J. | Holt, P.M. | Et al.
, a sovereign State, of the Muslim religion, for the most part Arabic-speaking, situated at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent. i.—Geography The structure of ʿIrāḳ paradoxically derives its originality from the fact that it forms part of a large geographical block of territory. From the Arabo-Syrian desert tableland which it faces along its south-western flank, it takes its general aspect and its climate. All along its frontiers on the North-East, on the other hand, it shares the orientation and ¶ relief of the folded mountain-chains of western Asia, which give it its t…