Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(15,273 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, one of the main branches of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs [ q.v.], representatives of which are today found in ʿUmān, East Africa, Tripolitania (D̲j̲abal Nafūsa and Zuag̲h̲a) and southern Algeria (Wargla and Mzab). The sect takes it name from that of one of those said to have founded it, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ al-Murrī al-Tamīmī. The form usually employed is Abāḍiyya; this is true not only of North Africa ( e.g., in the D̲j̲abal Natūsa, cf. A. de C. Motylinski, Le Djebel Nefousa , Paris 1898-9, 41 and passim ), where it is attested in the 9th/15th century by the Ibāḍī writer al-Barrādī ( Kitāb Ḏj̲awāhir al-mun…


(6 words)

[see al-ibāḍiyya ] .

Maḥbūb b. al-Raḥīl al-ʿAbdī

(368 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, Abu Sufyān , Ibāḍī theologian and historian, originally from the Arabic tribe of the Banū ʿAbd al-Ḳays, who lived in the 2nd/8th century and who is cited in the Kitāb Ṭabaḳāt al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ of al-Dard̲j̲īnī (d. 670/1227 [ q.v.]) amongst the scholars of the fourth ṭabaḳa or class. His family came originally from ʿIrāḳ (his grandfather al-Malīḥ al-ʿAbdī was one of the close friends of the head of the Ibāḍī community in Baṣra, the famous Abu ʿUbayda Muslim b. Abī Karīma al-Tamīmī [see al-ibāḍiyya ]), and he first lived in ʿUmān. Then he settled in Baṣra, …

D̲j̲ābir b. Zayd

(446 words)

Author(s): Rubinacci, R.
, Abu ’l-s̲h̲aʿthāʾ al-azdī al-ʿumānī al-yaḥmidī al-d̲j̲awfī (al-D̲j̲awf in Baṣra) al-baṣrī , a famous traditionist, ḥāfiẓ and jurist, of the Ibāḍī sect. He was born in 21/642 in Nazwā (in ʿUmān), and, according to tradition, became head of the Ibāḍī community of Baṣra upon the death of ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibāḍ [ q.v.]. He carried on the latter’s policy of maintaining friendly relations with the Umayyads, and kept on good terms with the ruthless persecutor of the Azāriḳa, al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, through whom he even succeeded in obtaining regular payments …


(631 words)

Author(s): Béguinot, F.
, Abū Sahl al-Fārisī , Ibāḍī scholar of the Rustamid family, who lived in Tāhert [ q.v.] in the 3rd/8th century. Some say that he was one of those who by their learning and religious zeal helped to make that town famous. He was a complete master of Berber, and served as interpreter under the imām Aflaḥ b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (on whom see Sezgin, GAS, ¶ i, 586) in the first half of the 3rd/8th century or even till 258/871-2, and under Abū Ḥātim Yūsuf b. Muḥammad who, with a short interruption, was imām 281-94/894-907. This shows that the Rustamid princes of Tāhert spoke Arabic, as was to be e…


(906 words)

Author(s): Izzi Dien, Mawil Y.
(a.), verbal noun of me root s̲h̲-r-y , a technical term of early Islamic religion and, more generally, of Islamic commercial practice and law. The word appears to be one of the aḍdād [ q.v.], words with opposing meanings, in this case, buying and selling; the basic meaning must be to exchange or barter goods. Early theological usage was based on such Ḳurʾānic texts as II, 203/207, “Amongst the people is the one who sells ( yas̲h̲rī ) himself, desiring God’s approval (or: to satisfy God)”; II, 15/16, “These are those who have purchased ( is̲h̲taraw ) error for right g…

Ṭālib al-Ḥaḳḳ

(909 words)

Author(s): Francesca, Ersilia
, “Seeker of the Truth”, the title given to the Ibāḍī K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite leader ʿAbd Allāh b. Yaḥyā , d. end of 130-beginning of 131/August-September 748. According to the chronicler al-S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī (d. 928/1522), the full name of this leader from the Banū S̲h̲ayṭān of Kinda was Abū Yaḥyā ʿAbd Allāh b. Yaḥyā b. ʿUmar b. al-Aswad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Muʿāwiya b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Kindī ( Siyar , 98). He adopted the title of “Seeker of the Truth” at the beginning of the year 129/746 on receiving the oath of allegiance as Imām of the Ibāḍī community of ¶ Ḥaḍramawt and…


(968 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, sulaymān , contemporary Tripolitanian Ibāḍī scholar and politician, who inspired the Arabs of his country in their struggle against Italy. He belonged to an old and influential Berber family of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa (with branches at D̲j̲ādo, Kābaō and Ḏj̲erba, where there is a private bārūniyya library) and was the son of ʿAbd Allāh al-Bārūnī, the theologian, jurist and poet, who taught at the zāwiya of al-Bak̲h̲ābk̲h̲a, near Yefren. Sulaymān was suspected by the Ottoman government ¶ of nurturing separatist ideas and plotting the founding of an Ibāḍite imāmate. Proceedi…


(2,822 words)

Author(s): Béguinot, F.
, in Berber Infūsen , name of a Berber tribe. According to the common genealogical scheme (cf. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, Kitāb al-ʿIbar , i, 107-17), the Nafūsa are one of the four branches of the large body of the Butr, whose name derives from their chief Mādg̲h̲īs al-Abtar. At present, the dwelling place of the Nafūsa is south-west of Tripoli in Libya, on the plateau of the same name [see al-nafūsa , d̲j̲abal ] which from the frontier between Tunisia and Tripolitania tends eastward, and, if taken in the ¶ largest sense, comprises the regions of Nālūt, Fassāṭo and Yefren. The inhabitants of …


(3,013 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
or rustumids, an Ibāḍī dynasty, of Persian origin, which reigned from Tāhart (in what is now Algeria) 161-296/778-909. The birth of the Ibāḍī principality of Tāhart is bound up with the great Berber rising begun by Maysara (called, as a tribute from his enemies, al-Ḥaḳīr “The Vile”) in 122/740. As a result of this rising, the greater part of the Mag̲h̲rib fell away definitively from the control of the caliphate in the East, with the exception of the principality of Ḳayrawān (Kairouan), which only achieved virtual independence with the coming of the Ag̲h̲labids [ q.v.] in 184/800. The Ibā…


(2,950 words)

Author(s): van Ess, Josef
, abū bakr ʿabd al-raḥmān b. kaysān , died 200/816 or 201/817, early theologian and mufassir , commonly counted among the Muʿtazilīs, although always treated as an outsider by the Muʿtazilī ṭabaḳāt . In his youth he served, together with other mutakallimūn like Muʿammar, Ḥafṣ al-Fard and Abū S̲h̲amir al-Ḥanafī, as adlatus ( g̲h̲ulām ) to Maʿmar Abu ’l-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲, a Baṣran physician with certain “philosophical” leanings (cf. Fihrist, ed. Flügel, 100, 11. 28 ff). In the later days of Ḍirār b. ʿAmr [ q.v.], i.e. in the last quarter of the 2nd century A.H., he created in Baṣra a …


(3,470 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W. | Lewinstein, K.
, an early Islamic religious group defined by the heresiographers as the name of a K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite sect arising out of the breakup of the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite community in Baṣra in the year 64/683-4. The heresiographers commonly derive the name from a founder variously called ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Aṣfar, ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ṣaffar al-Saʿdī al-Tamīmī, or Ziyād b. al-Aṣfar, who was active at the time of the breakup. This founder is almost certainly fictitious. The scholars of the Ṣufriyya themselves, according to al-Mubarrad, narrated that the…


(3,132 words)

Author(s): Gilliot, Cl.
(a.), pl. of ṭabaḳa, “everything which is related to another and which is similar or analagous to it, which comes to mean a layer of things of the same sort (Flügel, Classen , 269, n. 1). From this a transition can be made to the idea of a “rank, attributed to a group of characters who have played a role in history in one capacity or another, classed according to criteria determined by the religious, cultural, scientific or artistic order etc.” (Hafsi, i. 229; cf. al-Tahānawī, Kas̲h̲s̲h̲āf , 917), In biographical literature it is the “book of classes” of char…


(4,908 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
(literally “circle”, “gathering of people seated in a circle”, and also “gathering of students around a teacher”), among the Ibāḍī-Wahbīs of the Mzāb [ q.v.] a religious council made up of twelve ʿazzāba (“recluses”, “clerks”; on the exact meaning of this word, see R. Rubinacci, Un antico documento di vita cenobitica musulmana, 47-8), and presided over by a s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ . On the mystical sense of ḥalḳa , the Ḳawāʿid al-Islām of al-Ḏj̲ayṭālī [ q.v.], which is the most complete code of the Ibāḍī sect (written probably in the first half of the 8th/14th century), says: “On…


(25,019 words)

Author(s): Brunschwig, R. | Hafedh Sethom | Ammar, Mahjoubi | Chapoutot-Remadi, Mounira | Daghfous, Radhi | Et al.
, a region of the northeastern part of the Mag̲h̲rib. In mediaeval Islamic times it comprised essentially the province of Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.]. Under the Ottomans, the Regency of Tunis was formed in the late 10th/16th century, continuing under local Beys with substantial independence from Istanbul until the establishment of the French Protectorate in 1881, which in turn gave way in 1957 to the present fully independent Tunisian Republic. I. Geography, Demography and Economy . (a) Geography. Tunisia, situated between 6° and 9° degrees of longitude east, and between 32° and 37…


(573 words)

Author(s): Baer, G.
or Abʿādiyya (pl. abāʿid ) was the term used in 19th century Egypt for land surveyed in 1813 under Muḥammad ʿAlī, but not included in the cadaster and not taxed because it was uncultivated. These lands extended over an area of 0.75 to 1.0 million feddān s (a feddān amounted, at the end of Muḥammad ʿAlī’s rule, to 4,416.5 square metres). To increase the country’s wealth he made free grants of ibʿādiyya to high officials and notables, exempting them from taxes on condition that they improved the land and prepared it for cultivation. The first re…


(143 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in Algeria, founded in 296/908 at 8 km/5 miles to the south-west of Ward̲j̲ilān (Ouargla) in the territory of the confederation of ḳṣūr of the Isedrāten, by the last Rustamid Imām, after the destruction of the principality of Tāhart [ q.v.] by the Fāṭimids. Its fame is linked with the history of the Ibāḍī communities of the Mag̲h̲rib. An Ibādī scholar, Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲ilānī (d. 570/1174-5) compiled there the musnad of al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb, based essentially on the tradition of Abū ʿUbayda (ed. Masḳaṭ 1325/1908 under the title of al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ

Banū K̲h̲arūṣ

(359 words)

Author(s): Rentz, G.
, a tribe which has played an important role in the history of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.] in ʿUmān. Descendants of Yaḥmad, a branch of al-Azd [ q.v.], members of the tribe migrated to ʿUmān in pre-Islamic times and established themselves in a valley which came to bear their name. Wādī Banī K̲h̲arūṣ runs down from the heights of the western mountain range of al-Ḥad̲j̲ar to join Wādī al-Farʿ before debouching on the plain of al-Bāṭina and then ¶ into the Gulf of ʿUmān. On the right bank not far below the juncture of the two valleys is the famous Ibāḍī stronghold of al-Rustāḳ [ q.v.]. Yaḥmad provided most of…


(250 words)

Author(s): Mandaville, J.
( Ḥabsī ), a tribe, for the most part settled, of al-S̲h̲arḳiyya district in ʿUmān, southeastern Arabia. Al-Ḥubūs belong to the Hināwī ¶ political faction (see hinā , banū ) of ʿUmān, and members of the tribe are adherents of the Ibāḍiyya [ q.v.]. They, together with al-Ḥirt̲h̲ and al-Had̲j̲ariyyūn, formed the tribal block upon which the Imāmate relied in al-S̲h̲arḳīyya until the events of 1377/1957 [see ʿumān ]. Al-Ḥubūs are settled in a group of villages, known collectively as Balādīn al-Ḥubūs, in upper Wādī ʿAndām. Their tribal capital is Muḍaybī, which since …
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