Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World


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Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano)

(1,540 words)

Author(s): D Gershon Lewental
Amatus Lusitanus (also Amato Lusitano or Ḥaviv ha-Sephardi) (1511–1568) was a noted Jewish physician and marrano  who achieved renown throughout Western Europe before fleeing antisemitic persecution to settle in the Ottoman Empire toward the end of his life. Born in 1511 in Castel-Branco, Portugal, to marrano parents who had survived severe persecution, he grew up with a knowledge of Jewish religion, culture, and tradition that remained with him throughout his life; he also learned Hebrew from his parents. In his works, he mentions two bro…

Ḥaviv ha-Sephardi

(8 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano)Norman A. Stillman

I (Imre Bina (Words of Understanding, Isaac Farḥi) - Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988))

(1,127 words)

Imre Bina (Words of Understanding, Isaac Farḥi), Judeo-Spanish Literature Imre No‘am (Pleasant Words, Isaiah ben Mordechai Dayan), Dayan Family Imre No‘am (Pleasant Words, Jacob Duwayk-haKohen), Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Imre Qohelet (Ezra Dangoor), Dangoor, Ezra Sasson ben Reuven Imre Sasson (Sasson’s Words, Sasson Shindukh), Shindukh FamilyIMRO seeInternal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization Imru le-Goy Nabal (Say to the Scoundrel Nation, poem, Ben Ḥalfon), Ben Ḥalfon, AbrahamIn Balaam, Judah, Hijā' (Heb. neʿaṣa) In Dioscoridis enarr…

Ibn Yaḥya, Gedaliah ben Jacob Tam

(311 words)

Author(s): Yaron Ben Naeh
Gedaliah ben Jacob Tam ibn Yaḥya (d. 1575), born into a distinguished Sephardi family of rabbis, intellectuals, and literati that originated in Spain, was one of the leading rabbis of Salonica during the second half of the sixteenth century. His father, Rabbi Jacob Tam ben David ibn Yaḥya (ca. 1475–1542) was a notable rabbi and intellectual, and the author of a book of responsa entitled Sheʾelot u-Teshuvot Ohale Tam (Responsa Tents of Uprightness). Both Gedaliah and his brother Joseph (d. 1534) studied medicine, Joseph apparently becoming one of the personal physicians of…

C (courts of law - Czerniewski, Anton)

(1,034 words)

courts of law  of exilarchs, Exilarch and Exilarchate Muslim   discriminatory rules for non-Muslims in, Ottoman Empire  Jews making use of    in Afghanistan, Garjī, Mullah Asher   in Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Empire   for registration of charitable foundations, Heqdesh (Qodesh, Waqf, Ḥabs)   in Yemen, Yemen  see alsorabbinic courts‘couscous literature,’ Francophone Maghrebi Jewish LiteratureCoutinho, Vasco, Arzila (Aṣīla)Covo, Abraham, Covo, Raphael AsherCovo, Asher, Salonica (Thessaloniki; Selanik)Covo, Elias Judah, BalkansCovo, Elijah, Covo Family, Cov…

F (La France Juive (Drumont) - Futūḥ al-Buldān (The Conquest of the Nations, al-Balādhurī))

(1,003 words)

La France Juive (Drumont), Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism, Benchimol, HaïmFranciscan monks, in Palestine, PalestineFranck, Arnold, Ayache, GermainFranck, Emil, BeirutFranco, Abraham, Chios, Rosanes (Rosales) FamilyFranco, Francisco, Larache, SpainFranco, Gad, El NuvelistaFranco, Hizkia, El NuvelistaFranco, Isaac, Kalai, Mordechai Ben SolomonFranco, Milasli Gad, Franco (Franko), Milasli GadFranco, Moïse, Franco, Moïse, La Luz de Israel (Istanbul), Primo, SamuelFranco, Rahamim, Plovdiv (Filibe)Franco, Raḥamim, Rhodes, Mani, Elijah ben SulaymanFran…

C (conversos - kira)

(1,483 words)

conversos, Duran, Simon ben Ṣemaḥ, Sephardim/Sephardi Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano) arrests and trials by Inquisition of, Almosnino, Isaac in Brazil, Brazil, Brazil culture of, Christian influences on, Usque, Samuel emergence of, Perfet, Isaac ben Sheshet European relations of, Sephardi Impact on Islamicate Jewry in Ferrara (Italy), Usque, Samuel, Usque, Solomon in Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar and Hebrew printing in Islamic world, Printing and Printers intellectuals, Amatus Lusitanus (Amato Lusitano) in Izmir, Shabbetay Ṣ…

C (Cenival, Pierre de - Christiani, Pablo (Jacob ben Eli of Carcassonne))

(1,188 words)

Cenival, Pierre de, Ibn Mishʿal, Aaroncensorship  in Europe, Printing and Printers in Jewish communities, Salonica, Printing and Printers in Ottoman Empire, Journalism, Printing and Printers Cent Ans d’histoire (André Chouraqui), Chouraqui, AndréCenter for Advanced Judaic Studies (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), Manuscripts and manuscript collectionsCenter for Iranian Jewish Oral History (United States), Diaspora CommunitiesCenter for Piyyuṭ and Song (Ashdod), Elmaghribi, Samy (Amzallag)Center for the Young Jews of Iran, Levy, ḤabῑbCentral Asia  anti-…

Nasi, Joseph

(947 words)

Author(s): Marianna D. Birnbaum
Joseph Nasi(João Nasi, Nassi, Mykas, Zuan Miques, Juan Sixs) (ca. 1520–1579), the nephew, son-in-law, and business partner of Gracia Nasi, was a powerful banker and trader. For his services as an adviser to two Ottoman sultans, he was awarded the duchy of Naxos in the Cyclades archipelago.The son of a respected physician, Joseph Nasi was one of the most important traders in the Ottoman Empire. Born into a family of conversos, he and his younger brother Bernardo(Samuel, 1524?–159?) joined his uncle Diogo Mendes and his widowed aunt Gracia Na…
Date: 2015-09-03

Z (Zionist colonies, agriculture in - Zylberstein, Elsa)

(589 words)

Zionist colonies, agriculture in, Mikve Israel Agricultural SchoolZionist Congress, First (1897), Zionism Among Sephardi/Mizraḥi Jewry, Gozlan, Élie, Kalef (Kalev), YehoshuaZionist Federation of Algeria, Gozlan, ÉlieZionist Federation of the East (Istanbul), La Nation (Salonica)Zionist Federation of Egypt, Politi, ElieZionist Federation of Morocco, Zionism Among Sephardi/Mizraḥi JewryZionist Federation of Tunisia, Tunisia, TunisiaZionist Organisation of Iran, Levy, ḤabῑbZionist Organization of Alexandria, Pro-Palestina Committee (Alexandria)Zionist Organ…

R (Rolo, Robert S. - Ryvel (Raphaël Lévy): writings of)

(1,383 words)

Rolo, Robert S., Rolo FamilyRolo, Ruben, Rolo FamilyRolo, Simon, Rolo FamilyRolo, Valentine, Rolo FamilyRolo family, Rolo FamilyRoman, Joseph, La Boz del PuevloRoman Empire  art of, influences on Jewish art, Art of Islamic Lands Christian, Jews in, Romaniots (Bene Romania) rule of Anatolia by, AnatoliaRoman script seelatin scriptRomance (medieval Latinate dialects/Mozarabic)   kharjas in, Kharja use of, in al-Andalus, Al-Andalus romancero (ballads), by Ottoman Jews, Judeo-Spanish LiteratureRomanelli, Samuel, Meknes, Mimouna, Music, Romanelli, Samuel, Tangi…

M (Matmata (Tunisia) - Me’ira Dakhya (Pure Enlightening, Hezekiah Isaac Mizraḥi Shar‘abi))

(1,452 words)

Matmata (Tunisia)  Jewish community in, Matmata  merchants/businessmen, Matmata  migration to Israel, Matmata Muslim-Jewish relations in, Matmata Matoq la-Nefesh (Sweet to the Soul, Isaac ben Solomon Farḥi), Farḥi, Isaac Matoq mi-Devash (Sweeter Than Honey, Isaac ben Solomon Farḥi), Farḥi, Isaacmatrimonial diplomacy, of Khazars, Khazars Maṭṭe Shim‘on (The Rod of Simeon, Simeon Bekemoharar), Bekemoharar FamilyMatthews, Felix, Elbaz Familymaturity  age of   for boys, Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah  for girls, Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah   ceremonies for, Life Cycle …

P (poetry - Portugal: trade relations with Morocco)

(1,409 words)

poetry  allegorical styles of, Ibn Mar Saul, Levi ben Isaac, Abi Zimra, Isaac Mandil ben Abraham Arabic   handbooks on, Bible Exegesis   hijā’ (invective poetry), Hijā' (Heb. neʿaṣa)  influence of    on Aleppan/Syrian liturgical music, Aleppo, Pizmon (-im), Pizmonim books   on Andalusian-Hebrew poetry, Dunash ben Labraṭ ha-Levi, Ibn Qapron, Isaac, Ibn Sarūq, Menahem ben Jacob, Kharja, Kharja  by Jews, Literature, Judeo-Arabic, Hebrew Poetry in the Medieval Islamic World, Ben Solomon, Zechariah ha-Rofeh, Ibn al-Muʿallim, Solomon (Abū Ayyūb)  love, influences on He…

D (deportation of Jews - Diqduq (Joseph ibn Nūḥ))

(1,476 words)

deportation of Jews  from Greece, Larissa (Yenishehir-i Fenari) Italian, from Aleppo, Picciotto Family to concentration camps, Jebel Nafusa, Libya, Monastir (Bitola, Manastir), Tripoli, Libya, Cohen-Hadria, Victor, Larissa (Yenishehir-i Fenari)  see alsoexpulsion, of JewsDepré, France, Edirne (Adrianople)Deragobyan, Aram, Beth Israel Synagogue (Şişli, Istanbul)Derby (firm in rubber and chemicals commodities, Turkey), Torel, Rafael Derekh Emuna ( The Way of Truth, Jacob Duwayk-haKohen), Duwayk (Dweck, Dwek, Duek, Douek, Doweck, Dowek) Family Derekh Ereṣ ha-Mes…

P (Pessah, Moshe - pilgrimage: by women)

(1,621 words)

Pessah, Moshe, VolosPessaḥ, Simon, Larissa (Yenishehir-i Fenari), Trikala (Terhala)Petaḥ Tiqva, Jewish community in, dayyanim (judges), Yosef, OvadiaPetahiah of Regensburg, Benjamin ben Jonah of Tudela, Hilla, Mosul, David ben Zakkay II, Petahiah of Regensburg on exilarchate/exilarchs, Exilarch and Exilarchate, Exilarch and Exilarchate, David ben Samuel on geonim of Palestinian academy, Ezra ben Abraham ben Mazhir on Ibn al-Dastūr, Iraq, Ibn al-Dastūr, Samuel ben ʿAlī on Jews   in Damascus, Damascus  in Iraq, Baghdad, Iraq, Iraq, Baghdad  in Iraq and Iran, Iran/…

Usque, Samuel

(965 words)

Author(s): D Gershon Lewental
Samuel Usque, in the mid-sixteenth century, was a noted marrano poet and the author of a classic work of Portuguese literature. He emigrated to the Ottoman Empire and lived in Safed and Istanbul. Few details of his life are known; he belonged to the distinguished Usque family, from the Spanish city of Huesca, and was born in Lisbon around the beginning of the sixteenth century. However, the persecution of marranos and Jews compelled him to settle in Ferrara by mid-life (perhaps the 1540s). He lived there at the same time as Amatus Lusitanu…

A (Almosnino, Abraham - Ancona (Italy): yeshiva)

(1,239 words)

Almosnino, Abraham, Almosnino, IsaacAlmosnino, Isaac, Almosnino, IsaacAlmosnino, Joseph, Serbia, Ibn Ḥayyim, Aaron ben AbrahamAlmosnino, Joseph ben Isaac, Belgrade, Almosnino, Joseph ben IsaacAlmosnino, Moses ben Baruch, Balkans, Judeo-Spanish Literature, Sephardi Jurisprudence in the Past Half-Millennium, Salonica (Thessaloniki; Selanik), Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch writings of, Almosnino, Moses ben BaruchAlmosnino, Samuel, Levi (Le-Vet Ha-Levi) Family, SalonicaAlmosnino family, Almosnino, Moses ben Baruch almoxarife (collector of revenues), Jews as,…

A (anti-dhimmī measures - anti-Jewish violence/agitation: blood libel cases; persecution, of Jews; terrorist attacks)

(909 words)

anti- dhimmī measures  in Fatimid caliphate, Egypt, Palestine, Tustarī Family in Mamluk Egypt, Egyptanti-European violence, in Casablanca (1906), Zagury, Yaḥyāanti-French violence, in Syria (1936), Syriaanti-Greek violence, in Istanbul, Turkish RepublicAnti-Jewish Leagues (Algeria), Oran anti-Jewish measures  in Algeria, Constantine, Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-Zionism of Almohads, Maimonides, Moses of Almoravids, Almoravids, Almoravids in al-Andalus, Al-Andalus, Spain, Niebla in Central Asia   Bukhara, Bukhara  Turkestan, Bukhara in the Crim…

B (Boujenah, Matthieu - Bülbüli, Isaac)

(1,052 words)

Boujenah, Matthieu, Cinema, Arabic, Jews inBoujenah, Michel, Cinema, French, North African Jewish Actors and Characters in, France, Boujenah, MichelBoukhobza, Chochana, Francophone Maghrebi Jewish LiteratureBoumendil, Rosine seeRhaïs, ElissaBourguiba, Habib, Monastir (Tunisia), Tunis, Tunisia, Cohen-Hadria, Elie, Tunis Riots (1967)Bouzaglo, David, Music, Bouzaglo (Buzaglo), DavidBouzaglo, Ḥayyim, Bouzaglo (Buzaglo), Ḥayyim Bouzaglo, Mordecai, Mysticism, Draa (Dar‘a)Bouzet, Charles du, Anti-Judaism/Antisemitism/Anti-ZionismBouzid, Nouri, Cinema, A…

B (biographies - Boujad (Morocco): synagogues)

(1,146 words)

biographies  of Ezra ha-Bavli, Ezra ha-Bavli Hebrew, Literature, Hebrew Prose (medieval) of Maimonides, Moses, Maimonides, MosesBiqqur Ḥolim synagogue (Izmir), Izmir, Synagogues in the Islamic World Bir Şehre Gidememek (Inaccessible City, Mario Levi), Levi, Mariobird motifs  as decorations on marriage contracts ( ketubbot), Ketubba Artistic Traditions in jewelry, Jewelry Smithing Birkat Avraham (Abraham’s Blessing, Abraham ben Moses Maimonides), Maimonides, Abraham ben Moses, Daniel ben Saʿadya ha-Bavlibirth rates, of Jews in Turkey, Turkish Republicbirth ritual…
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