Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(5,996 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
(narrative, talk) with the definite article ( al-ḥadīt̲h̲ ) is used for Tradition, being an account of what the Prophet said or did, or of his tacit approval of something said or done in his presence. K̲h̲abar (news, information) is sometimes used of traditions from the Prophet, sometimes from Companions or Successors. At̲h̲ar , pl. āt̲h̲ār (trace, vestige), usually refers to traditions from Companions or Successors, but is sometimes used of traditions from the Prophet. Sunna (custom) refers to a normative custom of the Prophet or of the early community. I. The development of Ḥadīt̲h̲ Tra…

Ḥadīt̲h̲ Ḳudsī

(676 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
(sacred, or holy tradition), also called ḥadīt̲h̲ ilāhī , or rabbānī (divine tradition), is a class of traditions which give words spoken by God, as distinguished from ḥadīt̲h̲ nabawī (prophetical tradition) which gives the words of the Prophet. Although ḥadīt̲h̲ ḳudsī is said to contain God’s words, it differs from the Ḳurʾān which was revealed through the medium of Gabriel, is inimitable, is recited in the ṣalāt , and may not be touched or recited by the ceremonially unclean. Ḥadīt̲h̲ ḳudsī does not necessarily come through Gabriel, but may have come through inspiration ( ilhām

Dār al-Ḥadīt̲h̲

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Ory, S.
I. Architecture. The first dār al-ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] founded by Nūr al-Dīn in Damascus served as a prototype for similar ¶ establishments set up in Syria, ʿIrāḳ, Egypt and Palestine during the Zangid, Ayyūbid and Mamlūk periods. Unfortunately, this particular building is now virtually a ruin. The façade is completely disfigured by little shops built on the site of the rooms situated to the north of the courtyard. Of the building as a whole, some traces still exist: the walls of a prayer room with some vestiges of the miḥrāb decoration; the façade of this prayer r…

Uṣūl al-Ḥadīt̲h̲

(1,230 words)

Author(s): Dickinson, E.
(principles of ḥadīt̲h̲) refers in a general way to the disparate disciplines the mastery of which distinguished a true scholar of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] from a mere transmitter. The term was never satisfactorily defined nor was it differentiated from similar ones like ʿulūm (or ʿilm ) al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , iṣṭilāh al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , muṣṭalaḥāt al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , etc. It should be noted that the popular division of the study of ḥadīt̲h̲ into riwāya (transmission) and dirāya (intellectual appreciation), with the latter corresponding to the uṣūl al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , is problematic in the…

Ahl al-Ḥadīt̲h̲

(667 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
, also aṣḥāb al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , the partisans of traditions [see ḥadīth]. Traditionalism in Islam manifested itself first in the re-emergence of the old Arabian concept of sunna [ q.v.], the normative custom of the community, which was in due course identified with the sunna of the Prophet. This normative custom found its expression in the "living tradition" of the ancient schools of religious law, which came into being at the very beginning of the second century of Islam. In opposition to the ancient schools and their extensive use of human reasoning and personal opinion [see aṣḥāb al-raʾy and r…

Aṣḥāb al-Ḥadīt̲h̲

(7 words)

[see ahl al-ḥadīt̲h̲ ].

Dār al-Ḥadit̲h̲

(903 words)

Author(s): Sezgin, Fuat
I. Architecture [see supplement]. II. Historical development. The name Dār al-ḥadit̲h̲ was first applied to institutions reserved for the teaching of ḥadīt̲h̲s in the sixth century of the Hid̲j̲ra. The conclusion that until that time ḥadīt̲h̲s were learned through the journeys called ṭalab al-ʿilm , there being no special schools for the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ (cf. Goldziher, Muh . Stud , ii, 186), is not consonant with the results of the study of materials now available. Hence, among other matters connected with ḥadīt̲h̲, the effects of the misunderstanding of the nature and object of the ṭ…

Ahl-i Ḥadīt̲h̲

(927 words)

Author(s): Inayatullah, Sh.
, "the followers of the Prophetic tradition", is a designation used in India and Pakistan for the members of a Muslim sect, who profess to hold the same views as the early aṣḥāb al-ḥadīt̲h̲ or ahl al-ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] (as opposed to ahl al-raʾy ). They do not hold themselves bound by taḳlīd or obedience to any of the four recognized imāms of the fiḳh-schools but consider themselves free to seek guidance in matters of religious faith and practice from the authentic traditions, which together with the Ḳurʾān are in their view the only worthy guide for true Muslims. They disregard the opinions of ¶ th…


(10,078 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), creation. I.— Lexicographical data. K̲h̲alḳ, noun of action of the verb k̲h̲alaḳa , which properly means the act of creating, can also be used to designate Creation in its entirety: wa’l-k̲h̲alḳ yakūn al-maṣdar wa-yakūn al-mak̲h̲lūḳ ( LA). The noun of the agent, al-k̲h̲āliḳ , defined by the article, is applied only to God and is one of His Names. According to the LA, in the speech of the Arabs al-k̲h̲alḳ is used to designate the production of some new thing ( ibtidāʿ ) on a pattern which has not been previously employed ( ʿalā mit̲h̲āl lam yusbaḳ ilayh ). Abū


(5 words)

[see ḥadīt̲h̲ ].


(5 words)

[see ḥadīt̲h̲ ].

Narrator, Narration

(20 words)

[see Ḥadīt̲h̲ , Ḥikāya , Ḳāṣṣ , k̲h̲abar , Ḳiṣṣa , nādira , rāwī , riwāya ].

Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ

(449 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Taḳī ’l-Dīn Abū ʿAmr ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Kurdī al-S̲h̲ahrazūrī , who belonged to the S̲h̲āfiʿī mad̲h̲hab , was born in 577/1181 at S̲h̲arak̲h̲ān, a village in the Irbil district near S̲h̲ahrazūr, and died in Damascus in 643/1245. He studied fiḳh at S̲h̲ahrazūr with his father, who later took him to Mosul where he studied ḥadīt̲h̲ . He continued his studies in a number of centres such as Bag̲h̲dād, Naysābūr, Merv, Damascus, Aleppo, Ḥarrān and Jerusalem, with distinction. Ibn K̲h̲allikān, who studied under him for a ye…


(141 words)

Author(s): Ory, S.
(a., pl. of ṣāliḥ ) "the virtuous, upright ones", cited in the Ḳurʾān at VII, 168, XXI, 105 and LXXII, 11, and 30 other times as ṣāliḥīn . The ṣāliḥ is associated by Ibn Taymiyya [ q.v.] with the ṣiddīḳ s, those asserting the truth, the s̲h̲ahīd s, martyrs and the abdāl , substitutes, as all representing the firḳa nād̲j̲iya , the sect which alone will be saved out of ¶ the 73 into which, according to a ḥadīt̲h̲ , the umma or community will be divided (see H. Laoust, La profession de foi de Ibn Baṭṭa , Damascus 1958, 17 n.). This ḥadīt̲h̲ is to be set by the side of Ḳurʾān, LXXII, 11, "And that so…


(42 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.), technical term used in the science of ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] for a well-known tradition transmitted via a minimum of three different isnād s [ q.v.]. ¶ (G.H.A. Juynboll) Bibliography Nūr al-Dīn ʿItr, Muʿd̲j̲am al-muṣṭalaḥāt al-ḥadīt̲h̲iyya, Damascus 1976, 98, and the literature quoted there.


(288 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Burton, J.
(a.), a religio-legal term. The meaning of the root appears to be “to raise”, especially “to elevate a thing so that it is visible to all”. The word does not occur with this sense in either Ḳurʾān or Ḥadīt̲h̲ , but it may be etymologically connected with naṣaba . In the technical vocabulary of uṣūl al-fiḳh , the term refers to a text whose presence in either Ḳurʾān or Ḥadīt̲h̲ must be demonstrated to justify an alleged ruling. In his Risāla , al-S̲h̲āfiʿī uses it to refer to rulings textually referred to in either Ḳurʾān or Sunna , (81, 83, 88, 138, 149, 158-9, 166, 17…

al-Ḥākim al-Naysābūrī

(303 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad Abū ʿAbd Allāh Ibn al-Bayyiʿ , a traditionist of note, b. 321/933, d. 405/1014. He travelled in various countries to study Ḥādit̲h̲ and heard traditions from about 2000 s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s. Because he held the office of ḳāḍī for a time he became known as al-Ḥākim. He wrote many books, among them Maʿrifat ʿulūm al-ḥadīt̲h̲ , an important work on the science of Ḥadīt̲h̲ , which set a standard for the method of dealing with the subject. Though he was held in high esteem for his scholarship and was visited by many sc…

Aṣḥāb al-Raʾy

(436 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J.
, also ahl al-raʾy , the partisans of personal opinion, a term of deprecation applied by the ahl al-ḥadit̲h̲ [ q.v.] to their opponents among the specialists in religious law. Raʾy [ q.v.] originally meant “sound opinion”, and was used of the element of human reasoning, whether strictly systematic [see ḳiyās] or more personal and arbitrary [see istiḥsān], which the early specialists used in order to arrive at decisions on points of religious law. The ahl al-ḥadīth , however, who rose in opposition to the ancient schools of religious law, regarded this as illegitimate; in…


(182 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, abū zakariyyāʾ yazīd b. muḥ. b. iyās b. al-ḳāsim , historian of Mosul, who died in 334/945-6. While the work on Mosul by Ibrāhīm b. Muḥ. b. Yazīd al-Mawṣilī, who lived a generation before Al-Azdī, appears to have been concerned only with the biographies of religious scholars, al-Azdī wrote both on the "Classes of Mosul ḥadīt̲h̲ Scholars" and on the political history of Mosul, either in one combined or in two separate works. His treatment of ḥadīt̲h̲ scholars is known only from quotations and seems to have been restricted to the limited information usually found in rid̲j̲āl


(207 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), a term with various meanings, of which that of text of a ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] is to be noted. Matn already appears with the sense of “text” in pre-Islamic poetry, and has been used thus in Arabic literature up to the present day. It denotes especially the text of a book as distinguished from its oral explanation or its written or printed commentary. In connection with traditions, matn denotes the content or text itself, in distinction from the chain of traditionists who have handed it down ( isnād [ q.v.]). The choice of this term to designate the body of a ḥadīt̲h̲ led Goldziher to put forwar…
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