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Kösem Wālide

(510 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
also called Māhpeiker, the wife of the Ottoman Sulṭān Aḥmad I [q. v.] and mother of the Sulṭāns Murād IV and Ibrāhīm I. — Kösem (lit.: “bell-wether”, “courageous”) or Māhpeiker was a Greek by birth. In 1637 she was about 45, so must have been born about 1592. Contemporary accounts describe her as a woman, still beautiful even at an advanced age, with fine features, vigorous looking, with an expression of benevolence and superior intelligence. For nearly thirty years this statesmanlike princess exe…

Kösem Sultan

(800 words)

Author(s): Peirce, Leslie
Mahpeyker (Māhpeyker) Kösem Sultan (Sulṭān, d. 1061/1651), who became a favorite concubine of Ahmed (Aḥmed) I (r. 1011–26/1603–17), was the most powerful of the queen mothers exercising authority in the eleventh/seventeenth century, as well as the most controversial. Kösem’s stature and influence were facilitated by her astute grasp of Ottoman politics and the large number of children she bore. Two of her sons required her regency early in their reigns, and her daughters’ marriages to prominent sta…
Date: 2019-02-20

Kösem Wālide

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Baysun, M. Cavid
ou Kösem Sulṭān, nommée Māhpaykar (vers 1589-1651), épouse du sultan ottoman Ahmed Ier et mère des sultans Murād IV et Ibrahim Ier [ q.vv.]. Grecque de naissance, elle acquit son pouvoir par le harem et exerça une influence décisive dans l’État sous le règne de ses deux fils et de son petit-fils Mehemmed IV. Les opinions avancées à propos de son origine et de son premier nom — Nasia < Anastasia (Aḥmed Reflk, Kadinlar saltanati̊, Istanbul 1332, 47-8, d’après Guer, Mœurs et usages des Turcs, Paris 1747, II, 474; voir aussi Pétis de la Croix, Abrégé chronologique de l’empire ottoman, Paris 1768,…

Kösem Wālide or Kösem Sulṭān

(1,316 words)

Author(s): Baysun, M. Cavid
, called Māhpaykar ( ca. 1589-1651), wife of the Ottoman sultan Aḥmad I and mother of the sultans Murād IV and Ibrāhīm I [ q.vv.]. She was Greek by birth, and achieved power in the first place through the harem, exercising a decisive influence in the state during the reigns of her two sons and of her grandson Meḥemmed IV. The views put forward concerning her origin and her first name—Nasya being derived from Anastasia (Aḥmed Refīḳ, Ḳadi̊nlar salṭanati̊ , Istanbul 1332, 47-8, deriving information from Guer, Mœurs et usages des Turcs , Paris 1747, ii, 474, see also Pétis de la Croix, Abrégé chronol…

Māhpaykar

(5 words)

[Voir Kösem ].

Māhpaykar

(5 words)

[see kösem ].

ḳos̲h̲-begi

(37 words)

ḳos̲h̲-begi (T) : the title of high officials in the Central Asian khānates in the 16th to 19th cent…

Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān

(337 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ṭurk̲h̲ān K̲h̲ādid̲j̲e Sulṭān ( ca. 1626-83), mother of the Ottoman sultan Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān entered the Ottoman imperial harem as a slave of the wālide sulṭān Kösem Sulṭān [ q.v.], mother of Murād IV (1623-40) and Ibrāhīm (1640-8) [ q.vv.]. Nothing is known of her background, except that she had a brother, Yūsuf Ag̲h̲a, who died in Istanbul in 1100/1689. She gave birth to sultan Ibrāhīm’s eldest son Meḥemmed in 1641; there may also have been a daughter, Fāṭima Sulṭān, 1642-57. On Ibrāhīm’s deposition in 1648 and he…

Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān

(373 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ṭurk̲h̲ān Ḵh̲ādid̲j̲e Sulṭān (vers 1626-83), mère du Sulṭān ottoman Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān entra dans le harem impérial ottoman comme esclave de la wālide sulṭān Kösem ¶ Sulṭān [ q.v.], mère de Murād IV (1623-40) et d’Ibrāhīm (1640-8) [ q.vv.]. On ne sait rien de ses origines, si ce n’est qu’elle avait un frère, Yūsuf Ag̲h̲a, qui mourut à Istanbul en 1100/1689. Elle donna naissance au fils aîné d’Ibrāhīm, Meḥemmed, en 1641; il y eut peutêtre aussi une fille, Fāṭima Sulṭān, 1642-57. Quand Ibrāhīm fut déposé en 1648, et q…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Efendi

(310 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḳara Čelebī Zāde, ḳaḍī-ʿaskar and historian of the Ottoman empire, the son of Ḥusām. He was nominated Istambol ḳaḍī-si by the sultan Murād IV (1043 = 1633), and then deprived of his office in the same year on account of a famine which he had not remedied; he was put on board a boat to be drowned at Prince’s Island; he was saved through the intercession of the vizier, Bairām Pas̲h̲a, and was banished to Cyprus (Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, ed. Flügel, v. 233). It was on this occasion that he wrote his poem Guls̲h̲an-i niyāz. By his intrigues be succeeded in obtaining the title of honorary muftī (7th Ramaḍān…

Muḥammad IV

(968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, nineteenth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was born on December 30, 1641 and was placed on the throne on August 8, 1648, after the deposition, soon followed by the execution, of his father Sulṭān Ibrāhīm. The power in the slate was at that time divided between the court, where the old wālide Kösem [q. v.] and Sulṭān Muḥammad’s mother, the wālide Tark̲h̲ān, held the reins, and the rebellious soldiery of the Janissaries and the Sipāhīs. The lack of stability in the government at this time is shown by the fact, that, until the nomination of the grand vizier …

Wālide Sulṭān

(1,719 words)

Author(s): Aksan, Virginia H.
(a.), Turkish pronunciation vālide or valde sulṭān , a term meaning “mother sultana”, or “queen mother”. It was used in the Ottoman Empire to refer to the mother of the reigning sultan, and only for the duration of the son’s reign. The history of the position and its occupants, like a great deal of the history of the ḥarīm [ q.v.] and its ¶ influence on the dynastic politics of the Ottomans, is couched in myth and exoticism, and much of its early development is completely obscured. The interference of the royal women in politics, a fact which most Ottoman c…

Ḳāsim Ag̲h̲a

(333 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, called ḳod̲j̲a (the old), an Ottoman court architect. He was appointed court architect in 1032 (began Nov. 5, 1622) in succession to the distinguished architect Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a, who built the Aḥmad mosque in Stambul (on him cf. the Risāla-i miʿmārīye [in MS.] of Ḏj̲aʿfar Ag̲h̲a), relieved of his duties in 1053 (began March 22, 1642; cf. J. von Hammer, G. O. R., v. 335) and his office given to Muṣṭafā Ag̲h̲a, known as Merammetd̲j̲i, lit. “mender”. But after a few months only he was restored to the office as the result of a low estimate (cf. Naʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ii. 46; J. von Hammer, op. cit., v. 338 sq.…

Ahmed I

(880 words)

Author(s): Piterberg, Gabriel
Born in Manisa in western Anatolia, Ahmed I (Aḥmed I, 998–1026/1590–1617) was the fourteenth Ottoman sultan (r. 1011–26/1603–17) and the eldest son of Sulyan Mehmed III (Sulṭān Meḥmed III, r. 1003–12/1595–1603). Ahmed I faced challenges on three fronts during his reign, two external and one internal. In the north-west, he inherited from his father a decade long war with the Habsburg Empire, which had been inconclusive and mutually exhausting. That war was terminated with the Treaty of Zsitva-Torok, negotiated in Cemaziyülahir…
Date: 2019-03-21

Ḳāsim Ag̲h̲a

(486 words)

Author(s): Parmaksizoǧlu, İsmet
, b.? 978/1570 architect-in-chief at the Ottoman court. His proper name was Meḥmed Ḳāsim but he was known as Ḳod̲j̲a. He was born in a village between Awlonya (Valona) and Berat (Byelograd) in Albania (Ewliyā Čelebi, Seyāḥatnāme , viii, 695). Collected through the devs̲h̲irme and brought to the Imperial Palace, he was accepted in the courts of gardeners of the Imperial Household ( k̲h̲āṣṣ-bāg̲h̲če g̲h̲ulāmi̊ ) where he grew up. During the great promotion ( Či̊ḳma ) which took place at Meḥemmed III’s accession to the throne, he was made an apprentice with the court architects (Zarif Orgun, Ha…

Ḳāsim

(490 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
, the name of several Ottoman princes. 1. ḳāsim , son of the second ruler of the Ottoman dynasty, Ork̲h̲ān. All that is known of him is that he died in 748/1347. 2. ḳāsim čelebi or Ḳāsim Yūsuf, one of the seven sons of Bāyezīd I, b. 792/1390. Since he was too young to take part in the battle of Ankara (1402), he remained at Bursa. After the defeat and capture of his father there began a struggle for power amongst his elder sons, Sulaymān, ʿĪsā, Muḥammad and then Mūsā. When Sulaymān retreated towards the Ott…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Sulṭān Zāde

(459 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Sulṭān Ibrāhīm, was born about 1600 as son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bey, son of the former grand vizier Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a (under Murād III), and by his mother a grandson of a princess of the imperial house, whence his surname Sulṭān Zāde. After having been ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ in the palace, he adopted a military career, became already in 1630 ḳubbe wezīri and was appointed in 1638 governor of Egypt. In 1642 he was made ¶ commander of the expedition against Azof [q. v.] which town he rebuilt after it had been burned by the Cossacks before its surrender. On his return he formed with the silaḥ…

Meḥemmed IV

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, nineteenth sultan of the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey, known as awd̲j̲i̊ "the hunter" from his excessive passion for the chase, reigned 1058-99/1648-87. Born on 30 Ramadan 1051/2 January 1642, he was the son of Sultan Ibrāhīm [ q.v.] and Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a Turk̲h̲ān Sulṭān. He was placed on the throne in Istanbul at the age of seven after the deposition in 18 Rad̲j̲ab 1058/8 August 1648 of the sensualist and possibly mentally deranged “Deli” Ibrāhīm, at a moment when Ibrāhīm was the sole surviving adult male of the house of ʿOt̲h̲mān, but i…

Hadice Turhan Sultan

(1,052 words)

Author(s): Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne
Hadice Turhan Sultan (Khadīja ṭurkhān Sulṭān) (d. 10 Şaban (Shaʿbān) 1094/4 August 1683) was the favourite consort, or haseki (khāṣekī), of the Ottoman sultan İbrahim (İbrāhīm) I (r. 1049–58/1640–8) and the mother of Sultan Mehmed (Meḥmed) IV (r. 1058–99/1648–87). There are no records of her early life prior to entering the Ottoman harem, but she was most likely captured during a slave raid into the Russian steppes and entered the harem of Sultan İbrahim in 1049/1640, when she was approximately twelve years old. A…
Date: 2019-03-21
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