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(1,121 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self-designation: Laḳ, Laḳuču; Russian variants: Lak(tsi), Kazikumuk̲h̲(tsi); Avar: Tumaw, pl. Tumal; Lezg: Yak̲h̲ols̲h̲u: Dargin: Vuluguni, Vulečuni; other: Ḳaziḳumuk̲h̲ [from Arabic G̲h̲āzī, warrior for the faith, and Ḳumuk̲h̲, the political and cultural centre of the Laḳ territory, see Ḳumuḳ]), a Muslim people of the Caucasus. The Laḳ language belongs with Dargin, Ḳaytaḳ and Ḳubači [ q.vv.] to the Dargino-Laḳ (Laḳ-Dargwa) group of the Northeast-Caucasian language family. There are five dialects of the Laḳ language, As̲h̲ti Ḳuli, Balk̲h̲ar, Vits…


(986 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
1. The most southern group of Kurd tribes in Persia. According to Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn, their name (Läk, often Läkk) is explained by the Persian word läk (100,000), which is said to have been the original number of families of Lak. The group is of importance in that the Zand dynasty arose from it. The Lak now living in northern Luristān [ q.v.] are sometimes confused with the Lur (Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn), whom they resemble from the somatic and ethnic point of view. The facts of history, however, show that the Lak have immigrated to their present settlements from lan…


(158 words)

Author(s): Carrère-d'Encausse, H.
, ( ars̲h̲as̲h̲dib ), a small Caucasian nation of Upper Dāg̲h̲istān, ethnically akin to the Awar [ q.v.], but distinct from the Ando-Dido group [see andi, dido]. In 1933 it comprised 1,930 people, living in the high valley of the Kara-Koysu (Soviet Autonomous Republic of Dāg̲h̲istān). The Arči have their own language, which belong to the Dāg̲h̲istān branch of the Ibero-Caucasian languages, and which represents an intermediate stage between Awar [ q.v.] and Lak [ q.v.]; it is not fixed by writing, and the Arči use Awar and, less commonly, Russian and Lak, as the languag…


(294 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
, self-designation, Urbug̲h̲; Russian, Kubačintsi̊; Arabie and Persian, Zirihgarān), a people of the eastern Caucasus. The Ḳubači inhabit the single aul of Ḳubači, located in Dak̲h̲adaev rayon , Dāg̲h̲istān. They are a Caucasie people whose language belongs with Ḳaytaḳ and Dargin to the Dargino-Lak (Lak-Dargwa) group of the Ibero-Caucasian language family. Ḳubači is now regarded as a dialect of the Dargin language, and they are considered in the Soviet Union as a sub-group of Dargins rather than as a…


(773 words)

Author(s): Heffening, W.
, the name of two families of Ḥanafī lawyers; the nisba comes from their native town and the scene of their activities, Marg̲h̲īnān [ q.v.] in Farg̲h̲āna. I. 1. The most important was Burhān al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl al-Farg̲h̲ānī al-Marg̲h̲īnānī , the author of the ¶ celebrated Hidāya . He acquired his knowledge on his travels, then still the usual way of studying in Islam. His principal teachers were Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Nasafī (d. 537/1142-3), al-Ṣadr al-S̲h̲ah…


(318 words)

Author(s): MacKenzie, D.N.
Both surviving branches of this formerly larger tribe are now settled in ʿIrāḳ. The main branch occupies the area of Bin Ḳudra and Ḳuratū, north of Ḵh̲ānaḳīn. An offshoot, known variously as Bad̲j̲lān, Bād̲j̲wān or Bēd̲j̲wān, is to be found in the S̲h̲abak [ q.v.] area on the left bank of the river Tigris opposite Mawṣil. Although the tribehas always been known as a Kurdish one this is only so in the wide sense that all nomads of the Zagros area, including the Gūrān [ q.v.] and the Lurs, are considered by their neighbours to be Kurds. In fact, all Bād̲j̲alānīs appear to speak a …


(706 words)

Author(s): Wixman, R.
(self designation, Kaydaḳlan, pl. Kaydaḳ: Russ. K̲h̲aydaki, Kaytagi, Kaytaki, Karakaytaki; other forms, K̲h̲aytaḳ, Ḳaytak̲h̲, Ḳara Ḳaytak̲h̲), a small Dāg̲h̲istān [ q.v.] group, which forms with Ḳubači [ q.v.] and Dargin [ q.v.] the Dargin division of the Dargino-Lak group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages. ¶ According to the census of 1926, ethnically there were 14,430 Ḳaytaḳs, and 14,469 claiming Ḳaytaḳ as their mother tongue: in 1930 (estimation by Grande) there were 14,470 Ḳaytaḳs. The Ḳaytaḳs inhabit ten aul s in the Kaytak district, and the sou…


(654 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, M.
(a., pl. alg̲h̲āz ) “enigma”, muʿammā (pl. muʿammayāt ) “word puzzle, verbal charade”, uḥd̲j̲iyya (pl. aḥād̲j̲ in) “riddle, conundrum”, three Arabic terms often used in a figurative sense, but basically referring to three kinds of literary plays upon words which are fairly close in type to each other. The enigma is generally in verse, and characteristically is in an interrogative form. Thus for falak “heavenly firmament”: mā ʿadam un fi ’l-ḥaḳḳi , lākin tarā ‖ min-hū wud̲j̲ūd an ḥayt̲h̲umā staḳbalak ‖ [...] fa-in ḳaṭaʿnā raʾsahū fahwa lak


(6,018 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Persian Lor with o short), an Iranian people living in the mountains in southwestern Persia. As in the case of the Kurds, the principal link among the four branches of the Lurs (Mamāsanī, Kūhgīlūʾī, Bak̲h̲tiyārī and Lurs proper) is that of language. The special character of the Lur dialects suggests that the country was Iranicised from Persia and not from Media. On the ancient peoples, who have disappeared, become Iranicised or absorbed in different parts of Luristān, see luristān . The name. Local tradition ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i guzīda ) connects the name of the …


(2,345 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Kermani, David K.
(variant: Ḳumiḳ) a people of the eastern Caucasus. The Ḳumuḳs belong to the Ḳipčaḳ Turkic ethnic group, along with the Nog̲h̲ay, Karačay and Balkar. They live north of the main chain of the Great Caucasus, on the northern, north-eastern and eastern slopes of the Dāg̲h̲istānian Caucasus between the foothills and the Caspian Sea, from Derbend to Adz̲h̲i-Su (near the lower Terek River). Although confined to a narrow strip of land in the south, they inhabit a wider area near the Terek in the north. The Ḳumuḳs are bordered by the Nog̲h̲ays in the north, the Avars [ q.v.] and Darg̲h̲ins [ q.v.] in th…


(714 words)

Author(s): Marçais, Ph.
, “evil eye”. Belief in the evil eye is well established in Islam. According to Abū Hurayra, the Prophet said al-ʿayn u ḥaḳḳ un “The evil eye is a reality” (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, commentary of al-Ḳasṭallānī on the Ṣaḥīḥ , viii, 390, 463); it is the evil action of an envious glance which is envisaged by the recommendation given in the Kurʾān, cxiii, 5. Orthodoxy, however, makes the Prophet condemn this belief ( Muntak̲h̲ab Kanz al-ʿUmmāl , iv, 22; Nihāya fī G̲h̲arīb al-Ḥadīt̲h̲ , iv, 202). This superstition, universally current, dates from before Islam in the Mu…


(4,740 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Bennigsen, A.
“land of the mountains”; this name is an unusual linguistic phenomenon, since it consists of the Turkish word dāg̲h̲ , mountain, and of the suffix which, in the Persian language, distinguishes the names of countries; this name seems to have appeared for the first time in the 10th/16th century). An autonomous Republic of the R.S.F.S.R. with an area of 19,500 sq. miles and a population of 958,000 inhabitants (1956), it is made up of two quite distinct parts: the Caucasian Range and the cis-Casp…


(1,285 words)

Author(s): Carrère-d'Encausse, H. | Bennigsen, A.
(awar, from Ād̲h̲ari̊ Turkish avarali: "unstable", "vagabond") Ibero-Caucasian people, inhabiting the mountainous part of the autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Dāg̲h̲istān (basins of the rivers Ḳoysu of Andi, Ḳoysu Awar, Ḳara-Ḳoysu and Tleyseruk̲h̲) and the northern part of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan. The Avars are Sunnī Muslims of the S̲h̲āfiʿī rite. In 1955 their numbers were estimated at 240,000, of whom 40,000 approximately were in the Belokani̊ and Zakatali̊ districts of Azerbaijan. The Avars are divided into two major groups—formerly feder…


(978 words)

Author(s): Quelquejay, Ch.
name of a Muslim Ibero-Caucasian people in Dāg̲h̲istān formerly inhabiting the pre-Caspian plains and then, in the 12th century, driven back towards the mountains by the Ḳumi̊ḳs who had come from the North. The Soviet census of 1926 gives the number of 126,272 Darg̲h̲ins who, in 1954, had increased to 158,000. The Darg̲h̲ins are grouped in the sub-alpine and mid-alpine zones of central Dāg̲h̲istān, and they form the greater part of the population in the districts of Sergo-Ḳalʿa, Akūs̲h̲a and Dak…


(6,348 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A. | Bées, N.A.
, Turkish for Morea, the usual name in mediaeval and modern times for the peninsula of the Peloponnesus (which itself appears in Arabic geographical sources in forms like the B.L.būn.s of Ibn Ḥawḳal, ed. Kramers, 194, tr. Kramers and Wiet, 189), regarded in ancient times as the heartland of Greece. For the various forms of the name, see Bées, EI 1, s.v. 1. The pre-Ottoman period to 1460. This may subdivided into (a) the Byzantine period to 1204 and the Frankish one to 1262 (or to the late early 16th century for certain areas); and (b) the Byzantine despotate of Morea to 1458/1460. The pre-1262 pe…


(2,679 words)

Author(s): Bregel, Yu.
, a mountainous peninsula on the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea. The northern part of Mangi̊s̲h̲lak (the Buzači peninsula) is a lowland covered with small salt-marshes. In the central part, the Mangi̊stau mountains stretch from northwest to southeast for ca. 100 miles; they consist of three ranges, Southern and Northern Aktau and karatau, the last one running between the first two. The highest peak (in the karatau) is only 1,824 feet. To the south of the mountains lies the Mangi̊s̲h̲lak Plateau. From the east, the peninsula borders…


(11,847 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | MacKenzie, D.N.
, D̲j̲abal al-Ḳabḳ (the most common rendering), al-Ḳabk̲h̲ ( e.g., Masʿūdī) or al-Ḳabd̲j̲ ( e.g. Ṭabarī, Yāḳūt), Turkish Kavkaz, the name given by the Muslims to the Caucasus Mountains. The form ḳabḳ may derive from Middle Persian kāfkōh “the mountain of Kāf”, Armenian kapkoh ; in Firdawsī we find the Caucasus called kūh-i ḳāf (Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik , i, 45, cf. Marquart, Ērānšahr , 94). A village called Ḳabḳ is also mentioned by Ibn Rusta, 173, tr. Wiet, 201, as being the first stage on the road from Harāt to Isfizār and Sīstān. 1. Topography and ethnology. The Caucasus became k…


(6,649 words)

Author(s): Andrews, P.A. | Ansari, Sarah
(a.), literally, “one who migrates”, has been applied to various groups in the course of Islamic history. 1. In earliest Islam. See for this hid̲j̲ra and muhād̲j̲irūn . 2. In Turkey and the Ottoman lands. The function of the Turkish heartlands of Anatolia and Thrace as the refuge of Islam, Islām-penāh , became significant as Ottoman power declined and the Muslim populations of outlying territories became exposed to the imposition of unfavourable Christian administrations, notably through Russian expansion and national movements in the Balkans. The term muhād̲j̲ir / muhacir


(4,846 words)

Author(s): Cabaton, A. | Meillon, G.
(Islam in). The union of Indochina, created by a decree of 19 October 1887, was definitively completed and organized under the governorship of Paul Doumer (February 1897-March 1902). Embracing a vast territory of 740,000 square km., with no geographical unity, extending from China to Siam and bordered by both the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean, it ceased to exist in 1945, to become the states of Cambodia in the south west, Laos in the north west and Vietnam in the east. The population of this region, estimated at 16 millions at the beginning of the 20th century, has grown…


(3,255 words)

Author(s): Arendonk, C. van | Gimaret, D.
(a.), verbal noun from salima , “to be safe, uninjured”, used as substantive in the meaning of “safety, salvation”, thence “peace” (in the sense of “quietness”), thence “salutation, greeting” (cf. Fr. salut ); on the statements of the older Arab lexicographers, see LʿA 1, xv, 181-3, passim. The word is of frequent occurrence in the Ḳurʾān, especially in the sūras which are attributed to the second and third Meccan periods. The oldest passage that contains salām is XCVII, 5, where it is said of the Laylat al-Ḳadr , “It is salvation until the coming of the dawn”. Salām i…
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