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(31,497 words)

Author(s): Massington, L. | Radtke, B. | Chittick, W.C. | Jong, F. de. | Lewisohn, L. | Et al.
(a.), the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam. It is the maṣdar of Form V of the radical ṣ-w-f indicating in the first place one who wears woollen clothes ( ṣūf ), the rough garb of ascetics and mystics. Other etymological derivations which have been put forward in Western and, especially, Islamic sources, are untenable. Hence a mystic is called ṣūfī or mutaṣawwif , colls, ṣūfiyya or mutaṣawwifa . 1. Early development in the Arabic and Persian lands. Already among the Companions of the Prophet Muḥammad there were persons who wanted more than just to strive after the out…


(4,152 words)

Author(s): Massignon, Louis
1. Etymology — maṣdar of form V, formed from the root ṣūf, meaning “wool” to denote “the practice of wearing the woollen robe ( labs al-ṣūf)” — hence the act of devoting oneself to the mystic life on becoming what is called in Islām a ṣūfī. The other etymologies, ancient and modern, proposed for this name of ṣūfī may be rejected: such are ahl al-ṣuffa (devotees seated on the “bench” of the mosque at Madīna in the time of the Pruphet), ṣaff awwal (first row of the faithful at prayer), banū Ṣūfa (a Beduin tribe), ṣawfāna (a kind of vegetable), ṣafwat al-ḳifā (a lock of hair on the nape of the neck), ṣūfīya


(32,256 words)

Author(s): Massignon, L. | Radtke, B. | Chittick, W.C. | Jong, F. de | Lewisohn, L. | Et al.
(a.) forme musulmane du mysticisme. Ce mot est le maṣdar, Ve forme, du verbe ṣ-w-f, indiquant en premier lieu celui qui porte des habits de laine, vêtement rêche des ascètes et des mystiques. D’autres propositions de dérivations étymologiques avancées en Occident ou, en particulier, dans des sources musulmanes, ne peuvent être acceptées. À partir de cette racine, un mystique est désigné comme un ṣūfī ou un mutaṣawwif et le collectif (ou le féminin) donne ṣūfiyya ou mutaṣawwifa. 1/ Premiers développements dans les territoires arabes et persans. 2/ Ibn al-ʿArabī et la période suiva…


(18 words)

taṣawwuf (A) : ‘the wearing of woolen clothes ( ṣūf)’; the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam. al-Ṭāsa


(3,275 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Gardet, L.
(plur. k̲h̲atāyā et k̲h̲aṭīʾāt), faute morale, péché, synonyme de d̲h̲anb (plur. d̲h̲unūb). La racine k̲h̲ṭʾ signifie «faillir, buter» (en hébreu: Proverbes, XIX, 2), «commettre une erreur» (on dit par exemple ak̲h̲ṭaʾa de l’archer dont la flèche manque le but) [voir Ḵh̲aṭaʾ]. La forme k̲h̲aṭīʾa apparaît cinq fois dans le Ḳurʾān, et la racine k̲h̲ṭʾy est d’usage fréquent. Elle groupe les trois sens d’«erreur» ( k̲h̲aṭaʾ, p. ex. XVII, 33), de «faute coupable» ( k̲h̲iṭʾ, p. ex. XVII, 31; cf. k̲h̲āṭiʿa, XCVI, 16), de «péché» ( k̲h̲aṭīʾa, II, 81, IV, 112, VII, 161, XXVI, 82, LXXI, 2…


(37,082 words)

Author(s): Ahmadian, Bahram Amir | Abbas, Najam | Maghsoodi, Hamid Reza | Fatehi-nezhad, Enayatollah | Hirtenstein, Stephen | Et al.
Baṣra, a province and historic city in south-east Iraq. Contents 1. Geography 2. History (General) 3. Historical Formation of Baṣra’s Urban Environment 4. Theology ( Kalām) A. Early Encounters with Theological Issues B. The Emergence of the Formal Schools of Theology C. Theological Perspectives of Traditionist Circles 5. Qurʾānic Sciences A. Reading (Qirāʾa) B. Qurʾān Codices ( Maṣāḥif, sing. Muṣḥaf) C. Exegesis (Tafsīr) 6. Jurisprudence ( Fiqh) A. Preliminary Background B. Fiqh in Baṣra: From Taqdīr (Determination of Meaning) to Tadwīn (Compilation) C. …

ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(66,105 words)

Author(s): Manouchehri, Faramarz Haj | Melvin-Koushki, Matthew | Shah-Kazemi, Reza | Bahramian, Ali | Pakatchi, Ahmad | Et al.
ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, first cousin of the Prophet Muḥammad; first of the Imams for all Shiʿi Muslims—the very term Shīʿa being derived from the designation Shīʿat ʿAlī, ‘the supporters of ʿAlī’; fourth and last of the ‘rightly-guided caliphs’ ( al-khulafāʾ al-rāshidūn); son-in-law of the Prophet through marriage to Fāṭima; father of the Prophet’s only surviving grandsons, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, and thus forebear of all the descendants of the Prophet, referred to as the spiritual ‘nobility’ (the shurafāʾ, sing. sharīf; or sādāt, sing. sayyid, lit. ‘lord’) of the Muslim community.…


(5 words)

[see taṣawwuf ].


(5 words)

[see taṣawwuf ].


(5 words)

[Voir Taṣawwuf ].


(4 words)

[See taṣawwūf.]


(5 words)

[Voir Taṣawwuf ].


(11 words)

, as a term of Ṣūfism [see taṣawwuf ].


(9 words)

, terme de Ṣūfisme. [Voir Ṭasawwuf ].


(10 words)

[See Badal , Ṭarīḳa , Taṣawwuf , Walī.]


(18 words)

ḳawwāl Zad̲j̲d̲j̲āl ḳawwālī a type of (sung) poetry known on the subcontinent. Taṣawwuf; mystical chants. Walī


(19 words)

tas̲h̲ahhud (A) : the recitation of the Islamic affirmation of faith, especially in the Ṣalāt. Ṣalāt; Taṣawwuf

Ibn Muḥammad al-Gallādī

(12 words)

Works 1. Q. fī ’l-taṣawwufMS: Timbuktu (CEDRAB), 2409
Date: 2017-03-02

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥamīd al-Sūqī

(14 words)

Works 1. Manẓūma fī ’l-taṣawwufMS: Timbuktu (CEDRAB), 2500.
Date: 2017-03-02
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