Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law

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Jus Cogens beyond the Vienna Convention (Volume 172)

(18,577 words)

Author(s): Gaja, Giorgio
Gaja, Giorgio Keywords: Ius cogens | Public international law | Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Vienna, 23 May 1969) | State responsibility | Mots clefs: Jus cogens | Droit international public | Convention de Vienne sur le droit des traités (Vienne, 23 mai 1969) | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Giorgio Gaja, Professor at the University of Florence, begins an analysis of the role of peremptory norms in contemporary treaty law. He devotes a first chapter of his course to treaty law. After some preliminary remarks on the relevance of…

Le fait générateur de la responsabilité internationale des États (Volume 188)

(43,704 words)

Author(s): Dupuy, Pierre-Marie
Dupuy, Pierre-Marie Keywords: International Law Commission | State responsibility | Mots clefs: Commission du droit international | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Pierre-Marie Dupuy, Professor at the University of Law, Economics, and Social Sciences in Paris, successively examines wrongful facts and so-called "facts not prohibited by international law". The criterion of differentiation between the two categories refers to the analysis of the criteria for identifying the legality of a fact of the State, under int…

Liberté des voies de communication Relations internationales (Volume 2)

(134,048 words)

Author(s): Dupuis, Charles
Dupuis, Charles Keywords: Communications | International relations | Law of treaties | Intervention | State responsibility | Sanctions | Mots clefs: Communications | Relations internationales | Droit des traités | Intervention et non-intervention | Responsabilité des Etats | Sanctions | ABSTRACT The issue of the Freedom of Communication Paths, emphasizes Charles Dupuis in the introduction to his course, is one of the issues in which the opposition, not to say the antagonism, of nationalism and internationalism, the sovereignty of State…

La responsabilité des États a raison des crimes et délits commis sur leur territoire au préjudice d’étrangers (Volume 36)

(24,949 words)

Author(s): Dumas, Jacques
Dumas, Jacques Keywords: Criminal offences | State responsibility | Mots clefs: Délits | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Jacques Dumas begins his course by explaining why the territorial laws are insufficient to ensure the repression of the offenses committed against foreigners. He then asks whether and under what conditions the State of the place of the offense is liable to the State of the victim’s nationality. The author focuses on the possible causes of irresponsibility, on the rules to follow to implemen…

Some Considerations upon the Protection of Individuals in International Law (Volume 90)

(24,248 words)

Author(s): Parry, Clive
Parry, Clive Keywords: State responsibility | Diplomatic protection | Mots clefs: Responsabilité des Etats | Protection de nationaux à l étranger | ABSTRACT After an introduction to the development of the theme of the protection of individuals by international law, the author focuses on the issue of the theoretical bases of protection and responsibility. He examines the relationship between protection and nationality, and then the protection of individuals by and against international organizations. Après une introduction consacrée au développement du thème de la pro…

Responsibility and Damages Caused : Relationship between Responsibility and Damages (Volume 185)

(53,962 words)

Author(s): Graefrath, Bernhard
Graefrath, Bernhard Keywords: State responsibility | Mots clefs: Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Bernhard Graefrath devotes his course to the relationship between responsibility and damage in international law. After a discussion of the function of responsibility in international law, the author examines the need for the violation of obligations for international responsibility to be incurred. He then presents compensation for damages as a form of international responsibility. Finally, the author explore…

La responsabilité résultant de la violation des obligations à 1’égard de la communauté internationale (Volume 153)

(19,783 words)

Author(s): Starace, Vincenzo
Starace, Vincenzo Keywords: State responsibility | Mots clefs: Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT The problem that forms the subject of the course of Vincenzo Starace, Professor at the University of Bari, is whether it is justified, according to contemporary international law, to distinguish the regime of State’s responsibility on account of the content of the violated international obligation, and more specifically whether it is justified that the State violating certain international obligations, characte…

L’imputation à l’État d’un fait internationalement illicite: solutions classiques et nouvelles tendances (Volume 189)

(90,470 words)

Author(s): Condorelli, Luigi
Condorelli, Luigi Keywords: International Law Commission | State responsibility | Mots clefs: Commission du droit international | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Luigi Condorelli, Professor at the University of Geneva, begins his course by asking and solving a number of preliminary problems of general nature in order to clarify some important premises, which constitute a kind of conceptual tool for further research. The author then reconstructs, using the work of the International Law Commission, the principles o…

Liability for Ultra-Hazardous Activities in International Law (Volume 117)

(33,696 words)

Author(s): Wilfred Jenks, C.
Wilfred Jenks, C. Keywords: Civil liability | State responsibility | Mots clefs: Responsabilité civile | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT C. Wilfried Jenks points out in his introduction that there are a growing number of exceptions to the principle that liability under international law is solely based on fault. Are these exceptions considered as anomalies or indicative of a modification of the principle? C. Wilfried Jenks attempts to answer to the questions in his course, by successively studying the aviation …

La responsabilité des États et la fixation des dommages et intérêts par les tribunaux internationaux (Volume 28)

(21,678 words)

Author(s): Salvioli, Gabriele
Salvioli, Gabriele Keywords: State responsibility | Damage | Compensation for damage | Mots clefs: Responsabilité des Etats | Dommages | Compensation | ABSTRACT The starting point of Gabriele Salvioli’s course is the acceptance of a fundamental principle of international law - which is at the same time a general conception of law - that "any breach of an obligation" in the broad sense - includes the obligation to reparation. One of the forms of reparation in international law consists of an indemnity corresponding to …

Les sujets du droit international et la responsabilité internationale Nouvelles tendances (Volume 84)

(93,048 words)

Author(s): Th. Eustathiades, Constantin
Th. Eustathiades, Constantin Keywords: Subjects of international law | Accountability | State responsibility | Mots clefs: Sujets du droit international | Responsabilité | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Constantin Th. Eustathiades begins his course on the new trends affecting the concept of the subject of international law and the international responsibility with a study of the subjects of international law, within the framework of which, in particular, the problem of the individual subject of international law is ad…

Le délit international (Volume 68)

(48,357 words)

Author(s): Ago, Roberto
Ago, Roberto Keywords: State responsibility | Mots clefs: Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT The problem of determination of the legal nature of International Offence, that is, the problem of the origin of the international responsibility of States, undoubtedly constitutes one of the most delicate and most serious issues of public international law, notes Roberto Ago. The author starts his course by a presentation of the notion of international offence. He then presents the constitutive elements of internat…

State Responsibility Some New Problems (Volume 94)

(44,526 words)

Author(s): V. Garcia Amador, F.
V. Garcia Amador, F. Keywords: State responsibility | Mots clefs: Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT In 1953, the General Assembly requested the International Law Commission to undertake the task of codifying the principles of international law governing State responsibility. But the codification of these principles at the present stage (1958) of development of international law encounters problems not existing at the time of initial work established under the aegis of the League of Nations. The study of these problems is the subject of Francisco Garcia Amador's course. L'assembl…

Principes généraux de la responsabilité internationale d’après la doctrine et la jurisprudence (Volume 96)

(32,730 words)

Author(s): Accioly, Hildebrando
Accioly, Hildebrando Keywords: State responsibility | Legal principles | Public international law | Mots clefs: Responsabilité des Etats | Principes généraux du droit | Droit international public | ABSTRACT International responsibility, according to Hildebrando Accioly, is a legal position based on the well-known principle that, in the Community of Nations, as in civil society, all members of the Community, in their mutual relations, must observe rules of justice and respect their commitments. After a presentation of the ge…

Multilateral Rights and Obligations in International Law (Volume 319)

(59,655 words)

Author(s): Crawford, James
Crawford, James Keywords: Obligations of the state | Public international law | Development of international law | Ius cogens | International Law Commission | State responsibility | United Nations | Charter | International Court of Justice | Mots clefs: Obligations des états | Droit international public | Développement du droit international | Jus cogens | Commission du droit international | Responsabilité des Etats | Nations Unies | Charte | Cour internationale de Justice | ABSTRACT The author, director of the Lauterpacht Center for International Law, examines in this…

Responsabilité de l’État pour violation des obligations positives relatives aux droits de l’homme (Volume 333)

(128,544 words)

Author(s): Pisillo Mazzeschi, Riccardo
Pisillo Mazzeschi, Riccardo Keywords: Human rights | International obligations | Infraction | State responsibility | Mots clefs: Droits de l’homme | Obligations internationales | Violation | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Riccardo Pisillo Mazzeschi, Professor at the University of Siena, points out in the introduction to his course that the subject of positive obligations of States in the field of international human rights protection and the possible violation of obligations has acquired an increasing importance, both fr…

Responsibility of States for Unlawful Acts of Their Armed Forces (Volume 88)

(57,093 words)

Author(s): V. Freeman, Alwyn
V. Freeman, Alwyn Keywords: Armed forces | State responsibility | Cultural heritage | Occupation | International humanitarian law | Mots clefs: Forces armées | Responsabilité des Etats | ABSTRACT Alwyn V. Freeman begins his course on the responsibility of the States for the unlawful acts committed by their armed forces by a description and analysis of the general principles of responsibility. He then examines the issue of responsibility for military activities. He then focuses on the acts of individuals soldiers in time of …