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Offer of Payment for Reconstruction of Temple (Draft) (3.53)

(996 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters…

The Queen to Yarmîhaddu (RS 96.2039) (3.45S)

(859 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; …

A Scribe Shows Off (RS 16.265) (3.45OO)

(494 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters;…

Semitic Slaves on a Middle Kingdom Estate (3.11)

(1,238 words)

Author(s): Ritner, Robert K.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Egyptian Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary In active use for about 90 years, this Theban papyrus contains a series of administrative documents concerning servant laborers from the reign of Amenemhet III to that of Sebekhotep III. In the reign of the latter king, two insertions established the woman Senebtisy’s right of ownership to ninety-five household workers, whose names, nicknames, occupations and totals are listed in four columns on the verso. …

Ammonite Ostraca from Ḥesbân (3.WS.C.2)

(383 words)

Author(s): Aufrecht, Walter E.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Accounts Commentary Between 1968 and 1978, the Tell Ḥesbân excavations produced eight ostraca with writing in the cursive Ammonite or Aramaic scripts.…

Aramaic Ostraca (3.WS.D.1)

(909 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts Commentary Egyptian Aramaic ceramic inscriptions are scattered in over a dozen different places throughout the world (New York, Oxford, Cambridge, London, Paris, Strasbourg, Munich, Berlin, Vienna, Moscow, Cairo, Elephantine, and Jerusalem). So far 118 have been published, almost all from Achaemenid Elephantine, and these may be divided into six categories: letters ( TAD D7.1–57), accounts ( TAD D8.1–13), lists ( TAD D9.1–15), abecedaries ( TAD D10.1–2), jar insc…

Kbo 2.1 (CTH 509) (3.34)

(927 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Cult Inventories; City Inventories Kbo 2.1 ( CTH 509) (3.34) Šuruwa (ii.9–20)1 The former state (of the cult in the city Šuruwa): four deities in all — one stela representing the Stormgod of Šuruwa, one stela representing the Sungoddess, one stela of Mt. Auwara, one stela of the spring Šinaraši. (The present state:) one iron bull-statue of one šekan in size (representing the Stormgod of Šuruwa), one silver stela of the Sungoddess, on which rays are depicted in silver, one club with a s…

From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 4–5 (3.38)

(480 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Accounts; Archive Shelf Lists From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 4–5 (3.38) Subject: 16:14–23; Judg 17:2 (B ii.3–4) [Tablet?: “When] (they perform) for IŠTAR of Mt. Amana the festival of the doves, the festival of lamentation, and the festival of birth (?)”1 ( B ii.5–7) [Tablet ?.] The ritual (lit. word) of Ammiḫatna, Mati and Tulpiya: “[If] they find some sacrilege in a holy temple, this is how they re-consecrate it.”2 ( B ii.8) [Tablet?]: “If the Great King has a fit of anger in Ḫattuša”. a  ( A ii.…

The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 4 (HKM 4) (3.16)

(132 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 4 ( HKM 4) (3.16) Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Kaššū: Write to me quickly concerning the condition of the vines, the cattle, and the sheep, in that land.1 Bibliographical References Text:  HKM 4. Edition:  HBM 124–127, 304. Notes^ back to text1. This letter reveals the direct concern of the king for viticulture and livestock in the provinces, a fact we would otherwise not have known. It is w…

The King to Kaššū and Zulapi In Tapikka 1 (HKM 15) (3.26)

(98 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE) The King to Kaššū and Zulapi In Tapikka 1 ( HKM 15) (3.26) Thus speaks His Majesty: Say to Kaššū and Zilapi: ( 4) As soon as this tablet reaches you, quickly — within three days1 — bring before My Majesty the assembled troops and the chariotry which is with them. Bibliographical References Text:  HKM 15. Edition:  HBM 140f. Notes^ back to text1. Line 11 informs us that Tapikka lay within 3 days’ march of Ḫattuša.

ʾUrǵitēṯub (Urḫi-tešub) to the Queen (RS 20.199) (3.45Y)

(310 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Ugaritic Letters; Between King or Queen and a Non-Royal Personage (25) ʾUrǵitēṯub (Urḫi-tešub) to the Queen (RS 20.199) (3.45Y) 1 To the queen, my lady, say: [Me]ssage of ʾUrǵitēṯub, your servant. At the feet of my lady (from) afar seven times and seven times do I fall. With my lady may it be well. May the [go]ds guard you, [may they keep] you well. [Her]e [with me], everything is [ver]y well. There with my lady, whatever is well, send word (of that) back to your servant. Notes^ …

Letter III (3.1C)

(719 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Egyptian Archival Documents; Letters; Middle Kingdom Letters Letter III (3.1C) (vo. 3)To Delta-overseer Herunefer.1 ( ro. 1) Funerary-estate worker, ka-servant Heqanakht, who speaks.2 Your condition is like living, a million times. May Harsaphes, lord of Herakleopolis, and all the gods who are (in the sky and on earth) act for you. May Ptah South of His Wall sweeten your heart greatly with life and a (good) old age. May your final honor be with the life force of Harsaphes, lord of Herakleopolis.3 ( ro. 3) Your humble servant4 spe…

Records of Testimony Given In the Trials of Suspected Thieves and Embezzlers of Royal Property (3.HI.B.1)

(399 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Hittite Archival Documents; Courtcases Commentary These texts, called “Gerichtsprotokollen” in German and “Procès” and “documents de procédure” by Laroche in  CTH pp. 45–46, go by the name “depositions” in the CHD. They appear to be written records of testimony given by persons capable of clarifying cases involving the misappropriation of royal property. We do not know whether all these persons were also suspects themselves or whether some were simply associates of th…

Arad 16: A Letter Between Brothers (3.43G)

(330 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Hebrew Letters Arad 16: A Letter Between Brothers (3.43G) Your brother Ḥananyahu (hereby) sends greetings to (you) Elyashib and to your household. I bless you to Yahweh.1 And now, when I leave your house I will send the money,2 eight shekels, to the sons of Geʾalyahu [by] the intermediary of] Azaryahu, as well as the […]3 Notes^ back to text1. Without patronyms, it is impossible to know whether this Ḥananyahu is the same person as the one bearing the same name who is…

Transfer of Creditors (at 28) (3.102B)

(381 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Alalakh Commentary This Level VII text describes the debt owed by the fowlers (lines 1–4) and their family. The debt is transferred from one creditor (Kurbišan) to another (Ammitaku). Transfer of Creditors (at 28) (3.102B) The debtors ( lines 1–5) 1 Ašma-Addu son of Inakabiti, 2 Wikken, 3 Zuḫerasi, 4 (and) Taʾuzen, 5 the fowlers. The change of creditors ( lines 6–12) 6 Regarding the principal investment of thirty silver shekels, 7 Kurbišan son of Niminašu 8 has seized them. 9 Ammitaku 12 the…

Royal Land Grant (3.109)

(223 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Property Conveyances from Ugarit Royal Land Grant (3.109) From the present day on, before Ammistamru, son of Niqmepa, king of Ugarit,1 Kalbiya, son of Kabityanu, has released 6 ikû fields,2 around the fields of the city3 for 520 (shekels) of silver4 to Kurwanu,5 son of Baʾal-azki and to his sons. These fields are granted6 to Kurwanu and to his sons forever. No person shall take away these fields from the hands of Kurwanu, or from the hands of his sons forever. And there is no pilku-service f…

Notice of Dispatch of Wood (3.87K)

(442 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Miscellaneous Texts; Aramaic Ostraca Commentary Discovered on November 1, 1979 in the eighth season of the German Institute of Archaeology, this ostracon was published in 1987 by Mohammed Maraqten. Collated at source, it has yielded several new readings. It may be interpreted to mean that the writer has made a donation (ḥntʾ) of as much as 70 pieces of wood for the Temple altar, being sent by boat from Syene. Notice of Dispatch of Wood (3.87K) Subject: Lev 16:21; 1 Sam 11:7; 16:20; 2 Sam 10:2; 11:14; 12:25…

Receipt for the Purchase of a Debt Slave (AT 65) (3.100)

(299 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Contracts; Alalakh Commentary This level VII tablet records the purchase of a debt slave. Debt slavery was well known in the ancient Near East. The use of the andarārum was a special dispensation that allowed all those in debt to be freed of their debts. In order to circumvent this possibility, Sumunnabi had a special clause written into the agreement. Perhaps this type of permanent servitude, with no exclusions, was what Leviticus 25:39–42 addressed. It required release of all those in debt du…

A Letter Reporting Matters in Kalaḫ (Kalḫu) (3.96)

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; Akkadian Archival Documents; Letters; Assyria Commentary This letter (NL 16; ND 2765; IM 64159) comes from Kalaḫ (Nimrud) and dates between 720 and 715 bce during the reign of Sargon II. Therefore its contents cannot refer to the aftermath of the campaign against Ashdod in 712/ 711 bce (see note 1). Beside the issues regarding a festival that has recently been celebrated in the city and certain bull colossi that the governor, Marduk-rēmanni, had been placing in their appropriate locations, the l…

Recommendation to Aid Two Benefactors (3.48)

(1,863 words)

Author(s): Porten, Bezalel
Subject: Archival Documents from the Biblical World; West Semitic Archival Documents; Letters; Aramaic Letters; The Jedaniah Archive From Elephantine Commentary This bipartite letter of recommendation (Cairo J. 43472 [ TAD A4.3]) set forth in the first half the benefit that Djeḥo and Ḥor had bestowed upon the writer, the scribe and leader Mauziah (lines 3–5), and in the second half recommended that upon their arrival at Elephantine they be handsomely reimbursed (lines 5–11). The Troop Commander of Elephantine arrested Ma…
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