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Warad-Sin (2.101B)

(679 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Kudur-mabuk’s construction of the throne of the god Nanna of Ur for his son Warad-Sin is known from two Sumerian school tablet copies found in Sir Leonard Woolley’s excavations at Ur. The deed was commemorated in the name of the sixth year of Warad-Sin. The two protective genie (Sumerian lamma) described in lines 68–75 of this text as protecting the god Nanna’s throne may be compared with the Hebrew cherubim who …

Ur-dukuga (2.97)

(258 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription of Ur-dukuga, the thirteenth king of the Isin I dynasty (who reigned ca. 1830–1828 bce), records the construction of a temple of the god Dagan in the royal city of Isin. Dagan was an important Mesopotamian and West Semitic deity with major cult centres at ancient Tuttul (modern Tell Biʿa near the junction of the Euphrates and Balih rivers) and Terqa (m…

Warad-Sin (2.101A)

(317 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription of Warad-Sin (the thirteenth king of the Larsa dynasty who reigned from 1834–23 bce) records the construction of the chief storehouse in Ur. This building was apparently not a storeroom for grain, but rather a repository for precious objects donated to the city temples. Warad-Sin (2.101A) ( 1–4) For the god Nanna, lord who beams forth brightly in shining heaven, first…

Rim-Sin (2.102D)

(441 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A rock-crystal jar, probably once used to hold unguent, was dedicated in Sumerian to the god Mardu/Amurrum for the life of Rim-Sin by the king’s chief physician. The evidence of the vessel’s inscription suggests that this purchased piece originally came from Larsa. It apparently belonged to a hoard from the Amurrum temple in Larsa that consisted of at least four pieces (s…

Shu-ilishu (2.93)

(291 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The name of what is probably the third year of Shu-ilishu (the second king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned ca. 1984–1875 bce) commemorates the construction of a standard for the moon god Nanna, tutelary deity of Ur. The deed is recorded in a Sumerian school tablet copy excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley at Ur. Standards, with divine or animal images on their tops, were often used in ancient Mesopota…

Nur-Adad (2.99A)

(379 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian inscription from Ur belonging to Nur-Adad, eighth king of the Larsa dynasty (who reigned ca. 1865–1850 bce) deals with the king’s construction of a kir4-MAḪ “great (bread) oven” and a du8-MAḪ (possibly “great cauldron”) for the moon god Nanna. Copies of the text are inscribed on three copper cylinders and several clay cones that were found in a room northwest of t…

Ipiq-Adad II (2.103)

(158 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary One of the most energetic of the rulers of Eshnunna was king Ipiq-Adad II; during his lengthy reign he greatly expanded the territory controlled by Eshnunna, a fact proclaimed by his adoption of the title “king who enlarges Eshnunna.” A brick inscription from ancient Nerebtum (modern Ishchali) commemorates his donation of the city to the goddess Eshtar-Kititum. Ipiq-Adad II (2.103) ( 1) To the goddess Esh…

Eshnunna (2.ESHNUNNA)

(95 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Year names of Ibbi-Sin, the last king of the Ur III dynasty, cease on tablets from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) during the third year of the king. Shortly thereafter Eshnunna became independent and remained so until it was defeated by Hammu-rapi of Babylon. Most of the extant Eshnunna inscriptions stem from excavations carried out by the Orienta…

Rim-Sin (2.102B)

(213 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A different Sumerian cone inscription of Rim-Sin commemorates the construction of a temple of Nergal in Ur. Nergal was a deity venerated by Assyrian deportees (especially those from Cuthah) who were re-located in Samaria following the downfall of Israel in 722 bce. Rim-Sin (2.102B) Subject: 2 Kgs 17:30 ( 1–6) For the god Nergal, a supreme lord, who possesses great might, the one with a perfect fea…

Rim-Sin (2.102C)

(285 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription from Ur records Rim-Sin’s construction of the temple of Ninsiʾana, here taken to be a male deity, who (as noted, see  COS COSB.2.139A) was likely a manifestation of the planet Venus as “Morning Star.” Rim-Sin (2.102C) ( 1–16) For the god Ninsiʾana, god whose station shines from clear heaven, whose light shines forth, lofty one, who fills the great hall, whos…

Simurrum — Iddi (n)-Sin (2.106)

(315 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The city of Simurrum (for a possible location see Frayne 1997b), long the target of military campaigns waged by the Ur III kings Shulgi and Amar-Suena, gained its independence after the fall of the Ur III dynasty. In Early Old Babylonian times it served as the capital of a kingdom that likely stretched along the Zagros foothill road that ran fro…

Nur-Adad (2.99B)

(159 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian clay cone records Nur-Adad’s construction of Enki’s abzu temple at Eridu. Nur-Adad (2.99B) ( 1–3) [For] the god En[ki], lord of Eridu, [his] lord, ( 4–8) Nur-[Adad], mighty man, provider of Ur, king of Larsa, subduer of the foreign land for the god Utu, ( 9–16) when he had restored Ur and Larsa, had resettled their scattered people in their residence, their captive people … the foundation tru[ly …

Sin-kashid (2.104)

(109 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary German excavations at Uruk have unearthed a large palace built by Sin-kashid, the probable founder of the Old Babylonian period Uruk dynasty. Innumerable bricks and clay tablets found in the walls of the palace (and scattered over the surface of the mound) commemorate its construction in Sumerian. Of interest is Sin-kashid’s title “king of Amnanum,” an Amorite tribal name. Sin-kashid (2.104) ( 1–7) Sin-kas…

Isin Dynasty (2.ISIN)

(104 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Hegemony over the land of Sumer and Akkad eventually passed from Akkad (e) to Ur ( COS COSB.2.138–141) and from Ur to Isin with the collapse of the Ur III state ca. 2004 bce. Isin, the new center of power, was located at modern Ishan Baḥriyat. The site has been excavated since 1973 by an expedition of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under …

Ishme-Dagan (2.94)

(220 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian inscription found on various stamped or inscribed bricks from Nippur indicates that they originally came from a socle built by Ishme-Dagan (third king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned c. 1953–1935 bce) for the ceremonial mace of the god Ninurta, the god Enlil’s second in command at Nippur. Isin-Larsa period account texts from Nippur record offerings made for this ma…

Anam (2.105)

(104 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian inscription found on small stone tablets from Uruk commemorates king Anam’s construction of the wall of Uruk, a structure said to have been built in ancient times by divine Gilgamesh. Anam (2.105) ( 1–4) Anam, chief of the army of Uruk, son of Ilan-shemea, ( 5–8) who restored the wall of Uruk, the ancient work of divine Gilgamesh, ( 9–12) constructed in baked brick (the moat) “Water roars as it…

Larsa Dynasty (2.LARSA)

(92 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The city of Larsa (modern Sinkara) struggled with Isin for hegemony over the land of Sumer and Akkad in early Old Babylonian times. The site has been dug by a series of French expeditions in 1933–34 and 1967 (directed by A. Parrot), 1969–70 (directed by J.-Cl. Margueron) and since 1970 (directed by J.-L. Huot). The names of fourteen kings of the Larsa dynasty are known; they reigned from ca. 2025–1763 bce. Larsa Dy…

Ishbi-Erra (2.92)

(144 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Ishbi-Erra, the first king of the Isin Dynasty, reigned ca. 2017–1985 bce. A Sumerian royal inscription known from a contemporary tablet copy from Nippur records the fabrication by the king of a lyre for the god Enlil of Nippur. Ishbi-Erra (2.92) Subject: Pss 33:2; 43:4; 49:4; 57:8; 71:22; 81:2; 92:3; 98:5; 108:2; 137:2; 147:7; 149:3 ( 1–3) For the god Enlil, lord of the foreign lands, his lord, ( 4–6) Ishbi-Err[…

Ur-Ninurta (2.96)

(164 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A tablet from Nippur contains the copy of one (or more) Sumerian royal inscriptions of Ur-Ninurta (the fifth king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned ca. 1923–1896 bce). The excerpted section deals with the fashioning of a statue depicting the king holding a votive goat kid at his breast; the statue was set up in the courtyard of the goddess Ninlil (Enlil’s spouse) in Nippu…

Gungunum (2.98)

(197 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Gungunum, the fifth member of the Larsa dynasty and its first effective king, reigned from ca. 1931–1906 bce. A Sumerian cone inscription from Ur deals with the construction there of a storehouse for the sun god by En-ana-tuma, en-priestess of the moon god Nanna. Though installed by her father Ishme-Dagan of Isin (above, COSB.2.94), she was allowed to keep her p…
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