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The Calaḫ Annals (2.117A)

(2,314 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary In the final years of Tiglath-pileser’s reign,1 the royal scribes composed what became the final “full” edition of his Annals, made up of seventeen palû’s (or regnal years). This edition was inscribed between two registers of reliefs on stone slabs already in place decorating the walls of Tiglath-pileser’s palace at Calah (Nimrud). However, the palace was…

The Cylinder Inscription (2.118H)

(238 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Discovered at Khorsabad, the text is inscribed on four barrel cylinders (two in the Louvre at Paris and two in the British Museum in London). The inscription commemorates the founding of Sargon’s new capital at Dūr-Šarrukīn. The Cylinder Inscription (2.118H) ( lines 19–20)1 (Sargon) who subjugated the extensive land of Bīt-Ḫumria (Israel), who inflicted a decisive defeat on Egypt at Rap…

Summary Inscription 9–10 (2.117F)

(983 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The text is written on a large, very fragmentary clay tablet1 (18.4 cm wide) which was recovered in excavations at Nimrud in 1955. The reverse of the tablet preserves narrations of Tiglath-pileser’s Levantine campaigns, arranged geographically and set off by rulings across the surface of the tablet. Summary Inscription 10 (K 2649),2 following Tadmor’s designation (1994:180), is a tiny fragment (2.×.…

Antakya Stela (2.114A)

(664 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is carefully incised on a stone stela which was discovered by a farmer digging a well near the Orontes river about 1.5 km outside the city of Antakya (undoubtedly in the ancient territory of Unqi, see Hawkins 1995b:96). While the stela is damaged on the left side, from top to bottom, and on the top and top right corner, it records cle…

Sennacherib (2.119)

(45 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan Sennacherib’s Siege of Jerusalem Sennacherib — Lachish Relief Inscription Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription Sennacherib: the Capture and Destruction of Babylon Sennacherib (2.119)

Kurbaʾil Statue (2.113E)

(485 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Engraved on a statue of Shalmaneser (measuring 103 cm in height), the text belongs to Recension E of his annals. Since the last regnal year narrated is the twentieth, the statue must date to 839–838 bce. While it belongs to the same recension as the Marble Slab ( COS COSB.2.113D), the narrative concerning Shalmaneser’s eighteenth year campaign against Hazael more closely follows that of the Calaḫ Bulls ( COS

Summary Inscription 13 (2.117G)

(532 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is engraved on a poorly preserved colossal bas-relief from Nimrud that depicts a large figure with a mace. The inscription is incised across the large figure. While a number of scholars have treated the text as a part of Tiglath-pileser’s Annals,1 others have noted its non-chronological elements as evidence of its summary type. In Tadmor’s recent treatment, he suggests that …

Sargon II (2.118)

(56 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The Annals The Borowski Stela The Aššur “Charter” Nimrud Prisms D & E The Great “Summary” Inscription The Small “Summary” Inscription Pavement Inscription 4 The Cylinder Inscription The Nimrud Inscription The Tang-i Var Inscription Sargon II (2.118)

Tell Al Rimah Stela (2.114F)

(736 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The stela was discovered at Tell al Rimah, near Jebel Sinjar, where it stood in “position inside the cella of a Late Assyrian shrine, set beside the podium, a placing that is unparalleled among the find spots of other royal stelae” (Page 1968:139). The monument is 130 cm in height and 69 cm in width. Like the Sabaʾa stela it has a relief of the king w…

The Nimrud Inscription (2.118I)

(513 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Inscribed on two slabs from Calah (Nimrud), this text is a summary inscription recording Sargon’s restoration of Aššur-naṣir-pal II’s palace. One slab is in Assyrian characters, the other in Babylonian. While the inscription is not dated, it appears to date to late 717 or early 716 bce (Naʾaman 1994:19–20). The Nimrud Inscription (2.118I) Subject: Isa 10:27–32 ( line 7–12) Pious prince, who met with Ḫumba…

The Great “Summary” Inscription (2.118E)

(911 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Discovered at Khorsabad (see introduction to Sargon’s Annals above,  COS COSB.2.118A), this summary inscription stood on the wall slabs of rooms 4, 7, 8 and 10 in Sargon’s palace. The Great “Summary” Inscription (2.118E) ( lines 23–27) From my accession year to my fifteenth regnal year, I decisively defeated Humbanigaš, the Elamite, in the district of Der. I besieged and conquered Samarina. I took as booty 27,2901…

Black Stone Cylinder (2.113H)

(205 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This short inscription is engraved on a small, black and white marble cylinder (1.×.1 cm) discovered on the northeast side of the small ziqqurrat in Aššur (i.e., the Anu-Adad temple). The cylinder was brought to Aššur by Shalmaneser as booty from Hazael of Damascus;1 and was perhaps used as a foundation deposit for the city wall. Black Stone Cylinder (2.113H) Subject: 2 Kgs 8:7–15; 10:32–34 ( lines 1–8) Booty fro…

Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

(43 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The Calaḫ Annals The Iran Stela Summary Inscription 4 Summary Inscription 7 Summary Inscription 8 Summary Inscription 9-10 Summary Inscription 13 Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D)

(299 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This fragmentary text (× cm) is inscribed on a broken black basalt stela found in 18791 at Tell Sheik Hammad (ancient Dūr-Katlimmu).2 The fragment also preserves a partial relief of the king’s portrait and divine symbols. Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D) ( lines 1–2) [Adad-nirari, the great king,] the mighty [king], king of the universe, king of Assyria, son of Šamši-Adad, [king of the uni…

The Tang-i Var Inscription (2.118J)

(971 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Discovered in Iranian Kurdistan in 1968, this cuneiform inscription is found on a Neo-Assyrian relief that is carved into a niche in a rock face on the flanks of the Kūh-i Zīnāneh in the Tang-i Var mountain pass. The niche is approximately 170 cm in height and 150 cm in width and some 40 m above ground level. The relief depicts an Assyrian king in …

The Iran Stela (2.117B)

(710 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is incised on a stela from somewhere in western Iran, perhaps Luristan (Levine 1972:11). The exact provenance is unknown. It is the only known stela of Tiglath-pileser III. After his second campaign in the area in his 9th palû (regnal year) (i.e. 737 bce), he set it up on the border of one of the states that he had defeated during that campaign.1 The Iran Stela (2.117B) Subject: Gen 25:13; Isa 21:16–17;…

Stela of Sammuramat (Semiramis) (2.114H)

(389 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This engraved stela was discovered in the row of stelae unearthed by the German excavations in the southern part of the city wall built by Shalmaneser III at Aššur (Andrae 1913). Sammuramat (classical references know her as Semiramis) was the wife of Šamši-Adad V and mother of Adad-nirari III. It is a most unusual aspect of the reign of Adad-nirar…

Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan (2.119A)

(1,760 words)

Author(s): Cogan, Mordechai
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The date of this earliest of Sennacherib’s campaigns is disputed; it was directed against Merodach-baladan, who had seized the opportunity of Sargon’s death (705 bce) to proclaim himself king of Babylon, in opposition to the upstart rebel Marduk-zakir-shumi. Levine (1982) favors a date from winter 704 through early 702, while Brinkman (1984) opts for 703–702, considerably sh…

Annals: Marble Slab (2.113D)

(656 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Engraved on a large marble tablet (× cm) found in the wall of the city of Aššur, this version of the annals can be identified as Recension E (Schramm  EAK 2:77–78). The narration covers through Shalmaneser’s twentieth year and therefore dates to 839 bce. Annals: Marble Slab (2.113D) Subject: 2 Kgs 8:7–15; 10:32–34; Deut 3:9; 2 Kgs 9:1–10:36 ( ii.13–25) In my sixth regnal year, I approached the cities on the …

Shalmaneser III (2.113)

(49 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Kurkh Monolith Annals: Aššur Clay Tablets Annals: Calaḫ Bulls Annals: Marble Slab Kurbaʾil Statue Black Obelisk Aššur Basalt Statue Black Stone Cylinder The Die ( Pūru) of Yaḫali Shalmaneser III (2.113)
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