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The Borowski Stela (2.118B)

(378 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This text is inscribed on a broken stone stela,1 belonging to a type of stela which was set up locally to commemorate events in the district. Thus it was probably incised after the successful completion of the campaign in Syria and Palestine in 720 bce. This document reveals what had not been known before its publication, namely that thousands of Assyrians were “guilty” of rebellion according …

Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan (2.119A)

(1,760 words)

Author(s): Cogan, Mordechai
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The date of this earliest of Sennacherib’s campaigns is disputed; it was directed against Merodach-baladan, who had seized the opportunity of Sargon’s death (705 bce) to proclaim himself king of Babylon, in opposition to the upstart rebel Marduk-zakir-shumi. Levine (1982) favors a date from winter 704 through early 702, while Brinkman (1984) opts for 703–702, considerably sh…

Šamši-ilu — Stone Lions Inscription (2.115A)

(853 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription was incised on two colossal, dark gray basalt lions that were discovered at Tell Ahmar (Tīl-Barsip/Kār Shalmaneser)1 originally in 1908. A study of one of the lions in 1988 revealed that it was 258 cm in height; with a length of 250 cm; and a width of 120 cm (Roobaert 1990:127). While the text is in the form of a royal dedicatory inscription, its au…

Sabaʾa Stela (2.114E)

(812 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is engraved on a badly worn stone stela from Sabaʾa, south of Jebel Sinjar. The stela is 192 cm in height and contains a relief of the king along with divine symbols on its top and text below. Interestingly, about two-thirds of the text (lines 1–22) are a royal dedicatory inscription; then Nergal-ēreš, a governor under Adad-nirari I…

Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur — Suḫu Annals #2 (2.115B)

(3,073 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Discovered by Iraqi archaeologists in salvage work in the Ḥadītha Dam area, this four-column clay tablet was found at Sūr Jarʿā and contains a lengthy account of Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur. It was apparently composed in the seventh year of his “governorship” (see lines iv.38b´-40´).1 Written in the Babylonian dialect with both Assyrian and Aramaic influences, the text describes Ninurta-kudu…

Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

(43 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The Calaḫ Annals The Iran Stela Summary Inscription 4 Summary Inscription 7 Summary Inscription 8 Summary Inscription 9-10 Summary Inscription 13 Tiglath-pileser III (2.117)

Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur — Suḫu Annals (#18) (2.115C)

(698 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Inscribed on a stone stela discovered on the island of ʿĀnā, this text describes a revolt of the city of Anat (before the days of Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur) and the subsequent disaster when “the Assyrian” took action against the city. It records Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur’s restoration of the city, emphasizing his goodness and kindness. Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur — Suḫu Annals (#18) (2.115C) ( lines i.1–5) I, Ninurta…

Summary Inscription 4 (2.117C)

(1,342 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Incised on fragmentary pieces of an apparent pavement slab, this summary inscription was discovered in excavations at Nimrud and left in situ. It is preserved in squeezes that are no longer extant. Thought originally to be part of the Tiglath-pileser’s Annals (note Luckenbill  ARAB 1:§§ 815–819 and Oppenheim  ANET 283), Wiseman (1956:118) recognized correctly the text’s affinity to Summary Inscriptions 1 and 9. S…

Esarhaddon (2.120)

(422 words)

Author(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sennacherib’s destruction of Babylon (see  COS COSB.2.119E) was condemned by the city’s later Chaldaean rulers. Nabo-polassar, the founder of the Chaldaean Dynasty, declared war on the Assyrians and saw their destruction as just retribution (Gerardi 1986); Nabonidus, the last king of the Dynasty, also considered Sennacherib’s assassination as evidence of divine retribution ( ANET 309; Beaulieu 1989:105…

Sennacherib (2.119)

(45 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan Sennacherib’s Siege of Jerusalem Sennacherib — Lachish Relief Inscription Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription Sennacherib: the Capture and Destruction of Babylon Sennacherib (2.119)

Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D)

(299 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This fragmentary text (× cm) is inscribed on a broken black basalt stela found in 18791 at Tell Sheik Hammad (ancient Dūr-Katlimmu).2 The fragment also preserves a partial relief of the king’s portrait and divine symbols. Tell Sheik Hammad Stela (2.114D) ( lines 1–2) [Adad-nirari, the great king,] the mighty [king], king of the universe, king of Assyria, son of Šamši-Adad, [king of the uni…

Summary Inscription 7 (2.117D)

(847 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is written on about half of a large tablet (23.×.5+ cm) which though it bears the label K 3751, was most probably discovered at Nimrud. The most detailed of Tiglath-pileser’s summary inscriptions, it was likely composed in or shortly after his 17th palû (regnal year) (i.e., 729 bce) (Tadmor 1994:154, 238–259). It preserves the only complete building account of Tiglath-pileser from Calah. Summary …

Adad-nirari III (2.114)

(49 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary Antakya Stela Pazarcik / Maraş Stela Orthostat Slab of Unknown Provenance Tell Sheik Hammad Sabaʾa Stela Tell al Rimah Stela Calah Orthostat Slab Stela of Sammuramat (Semiramis) Adad-nirari III (2.114)

The Die (Pūru) of Yaḫali (2.113I)

(711 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary In ancient Assyria, the system of dating was by eponym (see  COS COSB.1.136). Each year was named after the līmu, “eponym,” who was a high officer of state. Inscribed clay cubes were used as dice for casting lots to determine the eponyms. This die (× x 28 mm) belonged to Yaḫali, an official of Shalmaneser III. He held the office of eponym twice during Shalmaneser’s reign (833 and 824 bce). The use of lots for many leg…

Officials’ Inscriptions (2.115)

(180 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The recent discoveries of cuneiform tablets from the Middle Euphrates, combined with older known documents, have enabled a more comprehensive picture to emerge of the situation in the Assyrian state during the eighth century bce. During this period, Assyrian influence had so declined that the cohesive political entity represented in the rulers Aššur…

Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription (2.119D)

(615 words)

Author(s): Cogan, Mordechai
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The remains of twenty-one lines of a tablet, one fragment of which (K 6205) was formerly ascribed to Tiglath-pileser III ( ANET 282b), the other (82–3–23, 131) to Sargon. The reference to the Judean city of Azekah, as well as the name of Hezekiah (partially restored) definitively set the location of the battles in Judah, but there is still some question as to their date.…

Pavement Inscription 4 (2.118G)

(233 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary The text was inscribed on a pavement slab for the gates at Dūr-Šarrukīn (Khorsabad). Pavement Inscription 4 (2.118G) ( lines 31–41) (Sargon II) … who conquered Samaria and the entire land of Bīt-Ḫumria (Israel);1 who plundered Ashdod (and) Šinuḫtu,2 who caught the Ionians3 like fish in the middle of the sea; who deported the Kasku, all of Tabal, and Ḫilakku; who drove away Mita (Mi…

The Annals (2.118A)

(1,411 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary In very early excavations (1843–44), P. E. Botta uncovered fourteen large rooms of the palace of Sargon II1 at ancient Dūr-Šarrukīn (modern Khorsabad). The doorways and walls of these rooms were adorned with slabs having sculptured reliefs along with inscriptions. Further excavations were undertaken at the site by T. V. Place in 1852–54. In connection with the ear…

Summary Inscription 13 (2.117G)

(532 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary This inscription is engraved on a poorly preserved colossal bas-relief from Nimrud that depicts a large figure with a mace. The inscription is incised across the large figure. While a number of scholars have treated the text as a part of Tiglath-pileser’s Annals,1 others have noted its non-chronological elements as evidence of its summary type. In Tadmor’s recent treatment, he suggests that …

Sennacherib — Lachish Relief Inscription (2.119C)

(264 words)

Author(s): Cogan, Mordechai
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Assyrian Inscriptions Commentary A four-line epigraph, inscribed in a rectangular block to the left of the seated figure of the king reviewing captives filing out of Lachish. The detailed relief,1 which depicts the assault and capture of the Judean city, enjoyed a most prominent position in a suite of rooms in the palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh, so that “a visitor [to the palace] might justifiably conclude…
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