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Ibbi-Sin (2.141A)

(240 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A twenty-two line inscription known from clay cones, a stone foundation tablet and an Old Babylonian (?) tablet copy deals with the construction of the “great wall” (likely a temenos wall) of Ur by Ibbi-Sin (the fifth and last king of the Ur III Dynasty, who reigned ca. 2028–2004 BCE). Ibbi-Sin (2.141A) (1–5) Ibbi-Sin, god of his land, mighty king, king of Ur, king of the four quarters, (6–7) on account of the great l…

Shulgi (2.139B)

(172 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary An eight-line brick inscription records Shulgi’s construction of Inanna’s temple E-dur-anki in Nippur. The temple was excavated during 1955–58 and 1960–61 by a team of archaeologists from the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago and the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Shulgi (2.139B) (1–2) For the goddess Inanna, his lady, (3–6) Shulgi, mighty man, king of Ur, king of the…

Shulgi (2.139D)

(168 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary An eight-line Sumerian brick inscription from Susa (modern Shush in western Iran) records Shulgi’s construction of the temple of the god Inshushinak, tutelary deity of Susa (for Susa, cf. Neh 1:1; Esth 1–4, 8–9, passim; Dan 8:2). The site of Susa has been excavated since 1897 by successive teams of French archaeologists. Shulgi (2.139D) (1–4) Shulgi, mighty man, king of Ur, king of the lands of Sumer and Akkad, (5–7) b…

Ibbi-Sin (2.141B)

(324 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary An inscription known from an Old Babylonian tablet copy deals with Ibbi-Sin’s fashioning of a golden šikkatu vessel (Sumerian BUR-ŠAGAN, Akkadian pūr šikkatu) “a large container used for the storage of oil” from gold that had been taken as booty from Susa. An idea of the kind of motifs that may have decorated this vessel may be gained by studying the iconographic elements adorning Early D…

Shulgi (2.139A)

(220 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A steatite foundation tablet of unknown provenance — it probably came from Uruk — deals with the construction by Shulgi (the second king of the Ur III dynasty, who reigned ca. 2094–2047 BCE) of a temple to the goddess Ninsiʾana. Ninsiʾana, a form of the goddess Inanna, appears in two aspects in Sumerian texts, one female (likely the planet Venus as the “Evening Star” as in this text), and o…

Amar-Suena (2.140B)

(239 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A thirteen-line brick inscription from Eridu (modern Abu Shahrain) records Amar-Suena’s construction of Enki’s abzu temple. Sumerian abzu “sweet underground source” may conceivably be connected with the “abyss” of Gen 7:11, but the connection is far from certain. Abu Shahrain was excavated by Loftus in 1849, Taylor in 1855, Thompson in 1918, Hall in 1919, and by a team of Iraqi ar…

Ur-Nammu (2.138A)

(214 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary An eight-line brick inscription from the temenos wall at Ur records the construction by Ur-Nammu (the first king of Ur III dynasty, who reigned ca. 2112–2095 BCE) of the “wall of Ur.” Ancient Ur, the dynastic capital, was located at modern Tell al-Muqayyar The site was excavated in 1850 by Loftus, 1855 by Taylor, 1918 by Thompson, 1919 by Hall, and fr…

Shulgi (2.139C)

(175 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A Neo-Babylonian tablet copy of a Shulgi inscription records the king’s construction of the E-meslam temple, shrine of the underworld god Nergal in Cuthah (modern Tell Ibrahim). Sargon II of Assyria, after his conquest of Samaria, repopulated the former capital city with inhabitants of Cuthah (IDB 1: 752). Shulgi (2.139C) Subject: 2 Kgs 17:24, 30 (1–4) Šulgi, mighty man, king of Ur, king of the lands of…

Amar-Suena (2.140A)

(180 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A nine-line inscription known from two foundation tablets and a bronze canephore1 from Uruk records the construction by Amar-Suena (third king of the Ur III dynasty, who reigned ca. 2046–2038 BCE) of a temple for the goddess Inanna under her surname Ninsiʾana. Amar-Suena (2.140A) (1–3) For the goddess Inanna/Ninsiʾana, his lady, (4–7) Amar-Suena, mighty man, king of Ur, king of the four quarters, (8–9) built her…

Ur-Nammu (2.138D)

(291 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A tablet copy of a royal inscription of Ur-Nammu deals with a campaign against the Elamite King Kutik-Inshushinak (Puzur-Inshushinak). The copy was found at Isin, excavated by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under B. Hrouda since 1973. Elam was the ancient name for the land east of Sumer and Akkad, corresponding in part to modern-day Iran. Of inte…

Ur-Nammu (2.138B)

(246 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A ten-line inscription found on two door sockets records Ur-Nammu’s construction of Enlil’s Ekur temple in Nippur. Nippur (modern Nuffar) was the religious capital of the Sumerians; its city god Enlil was the effective head of the Sumerian pantheon. The city was excavated by a joint expedition of the University of Pennsylvania and the Babylonian Explo…

Ur-Nammu (2.138C)

(219 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Sumerian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Neo-Sumerian Inscriptions Commentary A ten-line inscription found on bronze canephores, stone foundation tablets, and a door socket records Ur-Nammu’s construction of the goddess Inanna’s Eanna temple in Uruk (modern Warkāʾ). Uruk was excavated by a team of archaeologists from the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, Berlin from 1912–13 and 1925–1939, and by a team from the Deutsches Archäolo…