Search

Your search for 'tei_subject:"Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions"' returned 12 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

The Battle of Qadesh — the Poem, or Literary Record (2.5A)

(4,444 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary In this epic clash of arms between Muwatallis II of Hatti and Ramesses II of Egypt in the latter’s Year 5 (1275 BC), it is now clear that Ramesses won the battle on the day, but Egypt lost politically by its results: Qadesh was not taken, Amurru returned to Hatti, and the Egyptian province of Upe (around Damascus) fell into Hittite control temporarily. Howeve…

Second Beth-Shan Stela, [year Lost] (2.4D)

(796 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary Regrettably, the year-date is broken away on this monument, but is likely to have been [Year 2 or later]. Again, on his way back south, the king was obliged to quell dissidents, seemingly in Lower Galilee, as his troops “turned back” to deal with the matter. The ʿApiru are here given the determinative of an armed man; so they were regarded in this case as armed bands by the Egyptians. Second Beth-Shan Stela, [year Lost] (2.4D) Subjec…

Karnak, Campaign From Sile to Pa-Canaan, Year 1 (2.4A)

(1,857 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary To celebrate his northern wars, about 1294/85 bce, Sethos I placed three registers of scenes on either side of the north doorway into the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak temple in Thebes. On the east side, the registers read from bottom to top (normal in the New Kingdom), but the top register is lost. On the west side opinions differ as to whether one should read als…

The (Israel) Stela of Merneptah (2.6)

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Hoffmeier, James K.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary Discovered in 1896 by Sir Flinders Petrie in western Thebes, the Merneptah Stela instantly became one of the most important documents from the ancient Near East, thanks to the appearance on it of the name “Israel” (Petrie 1897, pl. 13–14). Now over a century later, this reference remains the earliest occurrence of Israel outside of the Bible. In recent years,…

Karnak, Campaign to Yenoam and Lebanon (year 1 or Later) (2.4C)

(967 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary In this register, two successive war-scenes have Sethos I conquering Yenoam and [X-1], then Qdr in a land Hnm and [X-2] in [Leban]on. Lebanese chiefs fell timber for him. The mention of Yenoam may link the scenes with Year 1 (cf. Yenoam on the Year 1 stela, just above), but there is no guarantee that Yenoam did not feature in a later campaign. Qdr and Hnm are…

Karnak, Campaign Against Qadesh and Amurru (undated) (2.4G)

(667 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary Here, except for an inaccessible scene round the corner (walled-over in the 22nd Dynasty), only one scene remains, of the king in battle, the scenes of his return to Egypt and presentation to the gods being now lost. But the remaining scene has him vanquishing Amurru, a kingdom in the Lebanon mountains that bears the name of the Amorites, and Qadesh, focus of an epic battle in his son’s reign ( COS COSB.2.5 below). Karnak, Campaig…

Karnak, Campaign Against the Libyans (undated) (2.4F)

(1,193 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary As with all three registers on this western side, an initial scene is now hidden away around the corner, under later (22nd Dynasty) stonework that was part of the masonry for the great forecourt built by Shoshenq I, ca. 925 bce. The visible scenes are limited to a victorious battle, the king killing a Libyan leader, and the triumphal return to Egypt. Karnak, Campaign Against the Libyans (undated) (2.4F) Subject: Exod 3:19–20; 6:1…

Ramesses II (2.5)

(40 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary The Battle of Qadesh — the Poem, or Literary Record The Battle of Qadesh — the “Bulletin” Text Ramesses II (2.5)

Karnak, Campaign Against the Hittites (undated) (2.4E)

(1,318 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary Originally, two whole registers on the west half of this wall dealt with northern wars of Sethos I: the bottom one, a clash with the Hittites, and the top one the king’s attack on Qadesh and Amurru. It is significant that the two are separated by a middle register that focuses on a wholly different locale — a war in the west with the Libyans. This suggests th…

Sethos I (2.4)

(69 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary Karnak, Campaign from Sile to Pa-Canaan, Year 1 First Beth-Shan Stela, Year 1 Karnak, Campaign to Yenoam and Lebanon (Year 1 or Later) Second Beth-Shan Stela, Year Lost Karnak, Campaign Against the Hittites (Undated) Karnak, Campaign Against the Libyans (Undated) Karnak, Campaign Against Qadesh and Amurru (Undated) Sethos I (2.4)

First Beth-Shan Stela, Year 1 (2.4B)

(725 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary On his campaign in Year 1 (1294 or 1290 bce), Sethos I probably penetrated as far as Phoenicia. Then on his return southward, he found disturbances in the Beth-Shan district, just south of the Sea of Galilee. The local chiefs of Hammath and Pella (W and E of the Jordan) had blockaded nearby Rehob and seized the important center of Beth-Shan. So the pharaoh sent out th…

The Battle of Qadesh — the “Bulletin” Text (2.5B)

(1,648 words)

Author(s): Kitchen, K. A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Egyptian Monumental Inscriptions; Royal Inscriptions; Nineteenth Dynasty Inscriptions Commentary The so-called “Bulletin” is a compact text that gives details supplementary to the main account in the “Poem.” By its position in the first great tableau-scene, it functions as a label-text to that part of the scene (the king interrogating two Hittite spies). But its length and cohesion also ranks it as almost an independent text within the overall composition. The Battle of Qadesh — the “Bulletin” Text (2.5B) Subject: Josh 9; Nu…