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The Inscription of King Yaḥimilk (2.29)

(521 words)

Author(s): Segert, Stanislav
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Dedicatory Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary The inscription on the limestone block (× x 45 cm) was found in the ruins of the Crusader Castle in Byblos (Ǧebail) in 1929 and published in the same year. Its seven lines are written over a text in “Byblos hieroglyphic” that is no longer clearly visible. Yaḥimilk’s building inscription can be dated to about 950 bce. It is now kept in the National Museum in Beirut. The Inscription of King Yaḥimilk (2.29) Subject: 1 K…

The Azatiwada Inscription (2.31)

(2,148 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Dedicatory Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary In 1946, a Phoenician-Hieroglyphic Luwian bilingual inscription was discovered on portal orthostats at the Iron Age fortification of Karatepe on the west bank of the Çeyhan River in the ancient region of Cilicia, the modern province of Adana, Turkey. It is the longest extant Phoenician inscription and is preserved at three locations on the site: …

The Inscription of King Yeḥawmilk (2.32)

(1,183 words)

Author(s): Segert, Stanislav
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Dedicatory Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary The limestone stele measuring × x 24 cm was found in 1869 by a local planter of trees in the ruins of the ancient sanctuary of the Mistress of Byblos/Gubal. The missing lower right part was discovered much later at the excavation conducted by Maurice Dunand and published by him in 1939. On the upper part of the stele the goddess Baalat/Mistress of…

King of Byblos (2.55)

(699 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Mortuary Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary The limestone sarcophagus of King ʾAhirom (fl. 1000 bce) was found in 1923 during the French excavations at Byblos. ʾAhirom’s epitaph, commissioned by his son and successor, ʾIttobaʿl, is carved around the edge of the lid and the upper rim of the coffin. The inscription surmounts an elaborate relief, in which the king is depicted enthroned on a cherub throne and recei…

The Sarcophagus Inscription of Tabnit, King of Sidon (2.56)

(716 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Mortuary Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary Tabnit’s sarcophagus was found in 1887 during the excavation of a shaft tomb in Sidon. It was manufactured in Egypt of black basalt, and it bears a hieroglyphic inscription that shows it was originally intended for an Egyptian general by the name of Pen-Ptah (Assman 1963). It was evidently brought to Phoenicia as plunder and appropriated as a coffin for Tabnit, who ruled Sidon in the second quarter of the fifth century bce (see n. 1…

The Funerary Inscription from Pyrgi (2.58)

(894 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Mortuary Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary The Phoenician inscription is engraved on a sheet of gold leaf found in excavations at the site of ancient Pyrgi (Santa Severa), the principal port of the wealthy Etrurian city of Caere (modern Cerveteri, ca. 30 miles north of Rome on the Tyrrhenian coast), in the ruins of a temple dated archaeologically to ca. 500 bce. The sheet was found together with two similar plaques bearing Etruscan inscriptions, one of whi…

The Kulamuwa Inscription (2.30)

(2,049 words)

Author(s): Younger, K. Lawson, Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Dedicatory Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary The inscription, which is carved on a large orthostat, was discovered during the German excavations at Zinjirli (= Samʾal) in 1902. The orthostat’s relief pictures Kulamuwa pointing with his right hand to divine symbols that fill part of the space at the top of the monument. The text, written in North Phoenician with Aramaic influences, dates around 830–820 bce and belongs to the “memorial” genre (Mille…

The Sarcophagus Inscription of ʾEshmunʿazor, King of Sidon (2.57)

(1,796 words)

Author(s): McCarter, P. Kyle
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Mortuary Inscriptions; Phoenician Inscriptions Commentary This black basalt sarcophagus, manufactured in Egypt and imported to Phoenicia, was found in 1855 in a shallow, rock-cut tomb in the Sidonian necropolis. After a false start on the head of the coffin itself, the stonecutter engraved the full inscription on the lid. ʾEshmunʿazor became king at the death of his father, Tabnit, in the mid-fifth century bce. He was an infant at the time of his accession and lived to reig…