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Hebrew (2.70)

(2,766 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary 2.70A. Two bullae of Berechyahu son of Neriyahu the scribe, made by the same seal (Hebrew; provenience unknown).1 These identical inscriptions are written in the Hebrew script of the seventh century bce. This Berechyahu is probably Jeremiah’s secretary “Baruch son of Neriyahu the scribe” (Jer 36:32). Baruch is the hypocoristicon, or nickname, for Berechyahu. The shorter form of Baruch’s patronym, N…

Moabite (2.72)

(116 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary The seal of Kemosham son of Kemoshel the scribe (Moabite; provenience unknown).1 This seal is in the Moabite script of the eighth-seventh centuries bce.2 (Belonging) to Kemosham3(son of) Kemoshel4the scribe Moabite (2.72) Notes^ back to text1. Avigad and Sass 1997 #1010; Hestrin and Dayagi-Mendels 1979 #2.^ back to text2. Avigad 1970:289; Herr 1978:156–157.^ back to text3. Kemosham means “Kemosh is a ki…

The Seal of ʿAśayāhū (2.79)

(288 words)

Author(s): Heltzer, Michael
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary The Hebrew seal is dated paleographically to the second half of the 7th century bce.1 (Belonging) to ʿAśayāhū“servant” (minister) of the king It is most probable that this ʿAśayāhū of the seal is identical with “Aśayā, servant of the king,” mentioned in 2 Kings 22:12, 14 and 2 Chronicles 34:20. He appears as one of the team, sent by king Josiah ( Yošiyāhū) in the year 622 to the temple in connection wit…

Royal Judaean Seal Impressions (2.77)

(502 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary Over 1700 royal seal impressions, stamped on jar handles from at least 65 sites, are known.1 With few exceptions, each impression contains the word lamelekh ( lmlk), “(Belonging, or pertaining) to the king,” on the top line, a four-winged scarab or a two-winged symbol (possibly the sun-disc) in the middle, and on the bottom line one of four place names: Hebron and Ziph in Judah, …

Phoenician (2.74)

(113 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary The seal of Yahzibaal (probably Phoenician; provenience unknown).1 The script fits the ninth-eighth century. (Belonging to) Yahzibaal2 Phoenician (2.74) Notes^ back to text1. Avigad and Sass 1997 #1143; Hestrin and Dayagi-Mendels 1979 #118; Avigad 1968:49.^ back to text2. The name Yahzibaal, “May Baal see,” meaning “May Baal look favorably upon” the bearer of the name, is similar to the Bi…

Philistine (2.75)

(391 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary The seal of Abd-Ilib son of Shabeath, minister of Mittit son of Zidqa (Philistine; provenience unknown).1 Mittit and his father Zidqa must be Mitinti II and Zidqa, the kings of Ashkelon mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions. Zidqa and his family were exiled to Assyria when Sennacherib conquered Ashkelon in 701 bce, and Mitinti II paid tribute to Esarhaddon in 677 and to Ashurbanipal in 667.2 (Belonging) to Abd-Ilib3so…

Ammonite (2.71)

(400 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary Many seals inscribed with the first letters of the alphabet — from four to eight — are regarded as Ammonite; they are probably practice pieces; see Avigad and Sass 1997:366–371; Hestrin and Dayagi-Mendels 1979 ## 127, 129. The seal impression of Milkom-or, minister of Baalyasha (Ammonite).1 This seal was discovered in excavations at Tell el-ʿUmeiri in Jordan. (Belonging) to Milkom-or2“servan-t” (minister) of B…

Edomite (2.73)

(146 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary The bulla of Qawsgabar, king of Edom (Edomite).1 This is one of the few known Edomite seal inscriptions (see Herr 1978:161–169). It was found at Umm el-Biyara in Jordan, near Petra. (Belonging) to Qawsg[abar]2King of E[dom] Edomite (2.73) Notes^ back to text1. Avigad and Sass 1997 #1048; Bennett 1966:399–401.^ back to text2. The name is restored on the basis of inscriptions of the Assyrian kings Esarhad…

Persian Period (2.78)

(1,223 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary 2.78A. Seals and seal impressions of the Persian province of Yehud (Aramaic)1 The one-word inscription Yehud, the name of the Persian province of Judah (Ezra 5:8), is inscribed on a seal and stamped on several hundred jar handles from various Persian-period sites in Judah and on several bullae from an unknown site (there are also coins similarly inscribed). The bullae gave offi…

Early Aramaic (2.76)

(170 words)

Contributor(s): Hallo, William W.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; Seal and Stamp Inscriptions; Seals and Seal Impressions Commentary The seal of Hadadezer (Aramaic).1 This seal, found at Saqqarah, Egypt, is inscribed in the Old Aramaic script and orthography of ca. the eighth century bce. (Belonging) to Hadadezer2 Early Aramaic (2.76) Notes^ back to text1. Avigad and Sass 1997 #785; CIS 2:124; Galling 1941 no. 103; Herr 1978 Aram. #1.^ back to text2. Hadadezer, “Hadad is (my) help,” is a typical Aram. name. Essentially same name appears on an Ara…