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Abbael’s Gift of Alalakh (AT 1) (2.127)

(500 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary This Old Babylonian text from Alalakh Level VII records the background behind the gift of the city of Alalakh as a reward for military efforts. Gifts of lands and towns are also reported in Joshua 13 where, as in  AT 1, they serve as a recollection of past events. See also Joshua 20 and 21 and the towns of asylum and of the Levites, both of which are presented as gifts of towns from the tribes to these groups. A similar gift of towns appears in  AT 456. Bot…

The Treaties Between Ḫatti and Amurru (2.17)

(494 words)

Author(s): Singer, Itamar
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary The Amurru treaties represent the largest series of Hittite vassal treaties with a Syrian state: four separate treaties extending from the mid-14th to the late 13th centuries BCE. In comparison, Carchemish and Ugarit are represented with two treaties each (plus royal decrees), whereas only one each is attested from Aleppo, Mitanni, Tunip, Nuḫḫašše, Alašia, and Mukiš(?…

Treaty Between Šuppiluliuma and Aziru (2.17A)

(2,369 words)

Author(s): Singer, Itamar
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary There are six duplicates of the Akkadian version of the treaty but only one in Hittite. The following is a composite translation based primarily on the better-preserved Hittite text. Significant variants in the Akkadian version are indicated in the footnotes. Additional restorations are afforded by parallel Syrian treaties, notably those between Šuppiluliuma I and Tette of Nuḫḫašše ( CTH 53), and between Muršili II and Niqm…

Treaty Between Tudḫaliya and Šaušgamuwa (2.17C)

(1,514 words)

Author(s): Singer, Itamar
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary This treaty has come down to us only in two Hittite duplicates. The main text (A) has numerous erasures and insertions, some of them quite telling. The excerpts presented below include the historical introduction and other fragments dealing with Amurru’s foreign relations, past and future. The remaining text includes the regular repertory of stipulations as also found in th…

The Agreement Between Ir-addu and Niqmepa (AT 2) (2.128)

(1,295 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary This is a treaty text from the Middle Babylonian period of Alalakh (Level IV). The stipulations are largely concerned with citizens of Niqmepa’s lands who, for various reasons, find themselves in the land of Ir-Addu. The clauses provide for extradition of these people back to the lands of Niqmepa. Fugitives were a common cause for concern as witnessed in the second millenn…

The Inscriptions of Bar-gaʾyah and Matiʿel From Sefire (2.82)

(4,780 words)

Author(s): Fitzmyer, S.J., Joseph A.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; West Semitic Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary These inscriptions of Sefire (once called Sujin) were discovered by S. Ronzevalle in 1930 in a village southeast of Aleppo. Two of them became the property of the Damascus Museum in 1948. The third stele was acquired by the Beirut Museum in 1956. The three steles are related not only by their provenience, but also by their contents, script, and language. They are inscri…

Agreement Between Pillia and Idrimi (AT 3) (2.129)

(533 words)

Author(s): Hess, Richard S.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary Like  AT 2, this text stipulates only the extradition of fugitives. Agreement Between Pillia and Idrimi ( AT 3) (2.129) Subject: Lev 27:2–8 I. Introduction ( lines 1–5) 1 A tablet of agreement (was made) 2 when Pillia 3 swore a divine oath, 4 and made this agreement 5 [be]tween them. II. Stipulations regarding fugitives ( lines 6–43) 6 Fugitives who are among them 7 they shall always return. 8 Pillia’s fugitive 9 whom Idrimi seizes 10 to Pillia 11 he …

Treaty Between Muršili and Duppi-Tešub (2.17B)

(2,488 words)

Author(s): Singer, Itamar
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties Commentary The Akkadian version is preserved in one text, the Hittite in four duplicates. The composite translation is based primarily on the Hittite version, with restorations afforded by the Akkadian version and other Amurru treaties. Significant variants in the Akkadian version are indicated in the footnotes. The paragraphs correspond to the original division lines in the text. Treaty Between Muršili and Duppi-Tešub (2.17B) Subject: 2 Sam 18…

The Treaty of Tudḫaliya IV with Kurunta of Tarḫuntašša On the Bronze Tablet Found In Ḫattuša (2.18)

(5,405 words)

Author(s): Hoffner, Harry A., Jr.
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Hittite Monumental Inscriptions; “Functional” Inscriptions; Treaties The Treaty of Tudḫaliya IV with Kurunta of Tarḫuntašša On the Bronze Tablet Found In Ḫattuša (2.18) Subject: 1 Sam 18–23; 1 Sam 20; 22:16; 2 Sam 19:23; 1 Kgs 2:42; 1 Kgs 22; Deut 4:2; 13:1; 12:32; Deut 4:26; 30:19; 31:28; Ezek 6:3; 36:1, 4; Micah 6:1–2; Deut 4:2; 13:1; 12:32; Deut 10:2 §1 (i.1–5) The words of the Tabarna, Tudḫaliya, Great King, King of the Land of Ḫatti, Hero, son of Ḫattušili (III), Great King, King of the Lan…