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Decision Theory

(334 words)

Author(s): Andersen, Svend
[German Version] is the systematic investigation of the conditions of rational action. Here, decision means the choice between several alternative actions. The meaning of the rationality of a decision is defined in the so-called theory of rational choice. The condition is an actor whose objective is to fulfill his own preferences. Rationality consists, on the one hand, in the systematic …

Løgstrup, Knud Ejler

(427 words)

Author(s): Andersen, Svend
[German Version] (Sep 2, 1905, Copenhagen – Nov 20, 1981, Hyllested) was probably Denmark's most important systematic theologian in the 20th century, especially in the areas of ethics and philosophy of religion. After studying with Hans Lipps and M. Heidegger and a period as pastor, Løgstrup attained the chair in his discipline at the University of Aarhus in 1943. Løgstrup was influenced theologically by Luther and S. Kierkegaard and philosophically by existential phenomenology (Existentialism [ph…

Commandment

(908 words)

Author(s): Koch, Traugott | Andersen, Svend
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics The renewed interest of the 19th-century – and especially of the theology of Erlangen (Erlangen School: I) – in Luther once more raised the issue of the tertius usus legis, i.e. of the relevance and consequences of God's “law” for those who are justified in faith. The problem ¶ is twofold: First, how does God's commandment, i.e. the will of God as documented in the formulated commandments, relate to the freedom afforded by the faith in God's sin-redeeming grace and expressed in the…

Humanity

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Zippert, Thomas | Andersen, Svend
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics 1. Used since the Renaissance in a number of European languages, the term humanity is derived from the Latin concept humanitas, which is itself dependent on Gk ϕιλανϑρωπία/ philanthrōpía, “philanthropy, human kindness.” Two basic types of usage can be singled out: (a) in asymmetric relationships, humanity describes the friendly/condescending attitude, the goodwill, or the charitable deeds of those in higher positions (aristocrats, politicians, kings, emperors, judges, gods) …

Decision

(992 words)

Author(s): Großheim, Michael | Zehner, Joachim | Andersen, Svend
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics I. Philosophy The process of clarifying an uncertain, unclear situation that demands a reaction is essentially linked to decision as a choice between several possibilities of action. The scope of the term ranges from the more distanced judicial decision to the personal life decision. What is variable here is the amount of rational …

Decalogue

(5,698 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Reeg, Gottfried | Sänger, Dieter | Strohm, Christoph | Andersen, Svend | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics and Ethics – VI. Practical Theology I. Old Testament The designation Decalogue (“ten words”) for the series of ten commandments derives from the Greek translation of the Hebrew ʾaśeret haddebārîm (δεκάλογος “ten words”). It is employed in late deuteronomic theory in Deut 10:4 for the Decalogue, in Deut 5:6–21 and by the post-dtr. redaction of the …