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Ethics/Morals

(3,393 words)

Author(s): Antes, Peter
1. Ethics and moral philosophy are frequently employed as synonyms, to denote, systematically, the rules of ideal human behavior. Where the two terms are differentiated, the concept of ethics, derived from the Greek éthos (‘habit,’ ‘custom’), denotes the systematic discussion and isolation of the good or commanded, in opposition to the evil or forbidden and reprehensible; while the concept moral, derived from the Latin mores (‘customs’), denotes the ideal type of ways of behavior—the right ‘doing’ in concrete situations. Each area can be closely connected wi…

Religion

(2,567 words)

Author(s): Antes, Peter | Bernhardt, Reinhold
1. Study of Religion 1.1. Term In modern usage the term “religion” is a master concept primarily in the description of ideas, attitudes, and actions vis-à-vis the reality that we accept and call forces or power, spirits or demons, gods or God, the holy or the absolute, or simply transcendence. This reality is supremely important for us, meriting respect and in most cases worship (E. Feil, 29). Defining the term intellectually in this way shows plainly how related it is to time and space. The questions…

Revelation

(4,172 words)

Author(s): Antes, Peter | Sykes, Stephen W.
1. Religious Aspects 1.1. Judeo-Christian Source As a technical term in religious usage, “revelation” comes from the Judeo-Christian tradition, more narrowly, from Christian theology. Its adoption as an academic term has brought with it a material expansion of meaning, the aim being to discover and systematically describe essential elements of biblical religion as they might appear in nonbiblical religious traditions. The legitimacy of this procedure has been variously evaluated according to the defin…

Europe

(4,324 words)

Author(s): Hradil, Stefa | Antes, Peter | Seebaß, Gottfried
[German Version] I. Geopolitical Problems, Concepts, Social Structure – II. Non-Christian Religions – III. Christendom I. Geopolitical Problems, Concepts, Social Structure 1. Europe is a heavily subdivided western peninsula of Asia. Because of its cultural and historical significance, it ¶ is regarded as a separate continent. Conventionally, the borders of Europe consist of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and the Urals. With 10.5 million km2, Europe represents only a small portion (6.75%) of the earth's land surface, but is (with 100 per km2) the most densely…

Religion

(18,949 words)

Author(s): Feil, Ernst | Antes , Peter | Schwöbel, Christoph | Herms, Eilert | Albrecht, Christian | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff 1.Zur Geschichte des Begriffs Als Indiz später Reflexion der Rel. in anthropologisch-philos. Hinsicht dient die erst neuzeitliche Herausbildung einer Anthropologie (Mensch) um 1600 (Odo Marquard) und einer Religionsphilosophie um 1770. Wie immer diese beiden Disziplinen näherhin bestimmt sein mögen – als philos. (Teil-)Disziplin oder als Philosophie schlechthin –, stehen sie damit im Problemkreis der vielfältigen, sich polarisierenden, zustimmenden oder ablehnenden und …

Ethics

(18,301 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm | Leicht, Reimund | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept and Scope – II. Religious Studies – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. As a Theological Discipline – VI. As a Philosophical Discipline (Business Ethics, Discourse Ethics, Economic Ethics, Ethics, Bio-Medical Issues, Ethics Commissions, Ethics Education, Ethics of Conviction, Ethics of Duty, Ethics of Goods, Ethics of Responsibility, Evolutionary Ethics, Fraternal Ethics, Individual Et…

Law and Jurisprudence

(7,535 words)

Author(s): Loos, Fritz | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Schiemann, Gottfried | Lindemann, Andreas | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept and Legal Definition – II. History of Religion – III. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – IV. Greco-Roman Antiquity – V. New Testament – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Ethics of Law – VIII. Sociology of Law I. Concept and Legal Definition There is no generally accepted definition of law. At most, there is a consensus that law is basically to be understood as the politically institutionalized order of human relations. The observance of the (general) rules (i.e. compliance or sanctioning of transgressions) emanatin…

Religion

(20,501 words)

Author(s): Feil, Ernst | Antes, Peter | Schwöbel, Christoph | Herms, Eilert | Küster, Volker | Et al.
[German Version] I. The Concept 1. History. As a sign of modern reflection on religion from an anthropo-philosophical pe…

Recht

(6,145 words)

Author(s): Loos, Fritz | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Schiemann, Gottfried | Lindemann, Andreas | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff und juristisch Eine allg. akzeptierte Definition des R. existiert nicht. Einigkeit besteht allenfalls darüber, daß das R. im Kern die staatl. institutionalisierte Ordnung menschlicher Beziehungen ist, wobei die Einhaltung der aus ihr fließenden (generellen) Regeln – Befolgung oder aber Sanktionierung von Verstößen – durch legitime physische Gewalt (Staat), jedenfalls aber durch einen durch Zuständigkeits- und Verfahrensnormen organisierten Sanktionsapparat garantiert i…