Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Auffarth, Christoph" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Auffarth, Christoph" )' returned 138 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Antike Religionen

(3,766 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
1. Renaissance und ReformationDie A. R. sind für die europ. Geschichte von überragender Bedeutung. Gerade in der Nz. gewannen sie eine Position, in der sie als Autorität gegen bestehende Traditionen kritisch eingesetzt wurden. Unter dem Banner der Renaissance wurde die Antike zum Experimentierraum der Gebildeten, in dem sie sich mit der Tradition normativ auseinander setzen konnten [25]; aus Kritik erwuchsen die Programme der Reformen. Lat. Schriften wurden als renatae litterae (»wiedergeborene Literatur«) aus dem Archiv der klösterlichen Wissensspeicher herausg…
Date: 2019-11-19

Hermetik

(1,373 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
H. ist eine Tradition esoterischen Wissens, die im Gewand altägyptischer Weisheit auftritt und sich bes. in der Frühen Nz. entfaltete.1. Die älteste Religion als Wissen für die Wenigen Marsilio Ficino, der wiss. Leiter der Florentiner Platon-Akademie, unterbrach seine Platon-Übersetzung, um 1463 die Weisheit aus dem Alten Ägypten dem lat. sprechenden Europa als Übertragung aus dem Griechischen zu präsentieren [3]. Damit hatten er und die intellektuelle Elite, wie sie glaubten, die Urkunde der ältesten Religion in der Hand, von der schon der griech. Geschichtsschreibe…
Date: 2019-11-19

Hermeticism

(1,496 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
Hermeticism is a tradition of esoteric knowledge that manifested itself in the guise of Ancient Egyptian wisdom and flourished particularly in the first centuries of the early modern period. 1. The oldest religion as wisdom for the few Marsilio Ficino, the academic leader of the Florentine Platonic Academy, interrupted his translation of Plato in 1463 in order to present the wisdom of the Ancient Egyptians to Latin-speaking Europe in a translation from the Greek [3]. He and the intellectual elite believed that they had in their hands a document of the oldest, primal r…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ancient religions

(4,176 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
1. Renaissance and Reformation Ancient religions are of overwhelming importance in European history. It was in the early modern period that they became available for critics to deploy them as an authority against existing traditions. Antiquity became an experimental space within which scholars could challenge the norms of tradition under the banner of the Renaissance[25], and their criticism gave rise to programs of reform. Latin writings, now as renatae litterae (“reborn literature”), were retrieved from monastery archives that had acted as repositories of this k…
Date: 2019-10-14

Hermetica

(2,461 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Bremen)
A. Concept and ancient originsH. denotes a tradition of esoteric knowledge that was very highly regarded, particularly among Renaissance Humanists, because it was believed to feed from the oldest fount of wisdom, that of Ancient Egypt. The name Hermes Trismegistus refers to the Ancient Egyptian god Thoth, whom the Humanists held to be the unadulterated source of the primal wisdom that was later recorded in writing in the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (= C. H.). In historical fact, this corpus is a collection of 18 treatises, mostly of religious philosophy, origin…
Date: 2016-11-24

Nilsson, Martin Persson

(282 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] (Jul 12, 1874, Ballingslöv – Apr 7, 1967, Lund), Swedish classical scholar. Both archaeologically and philologically, Nilsson vastly expanded our positivistic material knowledge for the investigation of Greek religion (Greece: I, 1). By emphasizing ritual (Rite and ritual) over ancient expositions and myths (Myth: II, 2), he put himself in a position to interpret Greek religion from the perspective of its origins: classical Greek religion is essentially a survival of an earlier ag…

Messiah/Messianism

(10,414 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Wandrey, Irina | Dan, Joseph | Karrer, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. Christianity – V. Dogmatics – VI. Islam I. History of Religions The terms messiah and messianism derive from the Hebrew word māšîaḥ, “anointed one.” Under the impact of foreign rule in Israel and Judah beginning in the 6th century bce, the word took on a new meaning: the Messiah was expected to bring deliverance from foreigners and oppressors, and in part to inaugurate the eschatological age of salvation (see II–IV below). The word's meaning was expanded in the …

Pausanias

(340 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] In the ten books of his Περιήγησις τῆς ῾Ελλάδος/ Periḗgēsis tḗs Helládos, Pausanias records a journey through various sites of mainland Greece. Writing in Greek, he conducts Romans and Romanized Greeks on a tour of an imagined ancient Greece. Since he has seen everything himself and has inquired critically into the earliest traditions (c. 155–180 ce), he claims to be the true expert on the original religion of Greece (I, 1). As an interpreter of that religion, he avers his superiority to the local guides, because he focused his attent…

Kingship, Sacral

(577 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Kingship as a pre-state and proto-state form of rule is at first confined to the person of the ruler; with his death, the order that he had guaranteed goes under. In order to avoid this anarchy, the ruling families first attempt to find procedures that guarantee the stability of the community beyond the life of the person, for instance through establishing the successor early on, or restricting eligibility of possible successors to the royal family or to a small number of aristocr…

Asylum

(2,217 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Derlien, Jochen | Schenker, Adrian | Wall, Heinrich de | Frey, Christofer
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. Biblical – IV. Law – V. Ethics I. History of Religions It was not until after the Second World War, in the course of which whole peoples had been murdered and critics persecuted, that in 1948 the UN proclaimed asylum to be a human right; not however in terms of the right of every persecuted human being to seek protection from others,…

Artemis

(479 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] (῎Αρτεμις, Doric Artamis, Latin Diana). The cult of the Greek goddess Artemis was probably the most popular in all the Greek poleis; even though she was rarely chosen the city goddess, as she was in Ephesus, Sparta, and Kalydon-Patrai. Artemis's limited significance in the (male) polis rests in the fact that primarily the women chose the virgin Artemis, who was averse to male desire, as their goddess: the maidens, such as the Athenians in Brauron, learned female …

Aphrodite

(546 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] (᾽Αφρδίτη; Lat. Venus). Most of the Greek cities dedicated shrines to the Greek goddess Aphrodite; she is rarely found as the city deity, as in Aphrodisias in Asia Minor; Corinth is considered her city. Within the internal social structure of the polis Aphrodite was chosen as goddess in the following contexts: 1. By young women on the day befo…

Hell

(5,978 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Houtman, Cornelis | Frankemölle, Hubert | Lang, Bernhard | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam – VIII. Buddhism – IX. Contemporary Art I. Religious Studies 1. Hell as a place of retribution in the afterlife for those who continually transgress the religiously sanctioned rules of their community is not specifically Christian or monotheistic. But it is also not an idea that springs automatically from the question of how the dead exist (Death). Although hell was long viewed as a…

Heaven

(3,990 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Houtman, Cornelis | Rowland, Christopher | Lang, Bernhard | Farrow, Douglas B. | Et al.
[German Version] Cosmology and Kingdom of God I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament –III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Contemporary Art I. Religious Studies 1. To a vision that has not been tamed by scientific theory, heaven is a realm of the beyond (Hereafter, Concepts of the). Like the netherworld, it invades the human world as air or earth and sea, but it is beyond the experience of mortals; it is concrete, but cannot be entered. Observation of the concrete phenomena confirms the symbol …

Parousia

(2,661 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] I. Classical Antiquity – II. The New Testament – III. Dogmatics I. Classical Antiquity The common Greek verb παρεῖναι/ pareínai, “be present, assist,” has a special sense when used with reference to deities. In the Hellenistic period, the noun παρουσία/ parousía became a technical term, referring to a ritual staging of the advent in which a god or king comes to dwell among his people (e.g. Tegea celebrates Hadrian’s visit as the advent of God: IG 5.2, 50). The emphasis on presence presupposes the preceding absence of the deity (ἀποδημεῖν/ apodēmeín) when other gods rul…

Corinth

(402 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The location at the large east-west connection of the Mediterranean Sea, where ships had to be drawn across a short stretch of land from one sea to the other (with the harbors Cenchrea and Lechaion), made Corinth a junction of cultural contact in antiquity. With its colonies, the city was a water bridge and a land bridge from east to west and north to south. It attracted merchants and artisans – along with their religions –, Egyptians, Carthaginians, Jews, and the tent-maker Paul`. As the center of opposition against the Romans, Corinth was destroyed in 146 bce, but it did n…

Orpheus

(1,142 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Arnulf, Arwed
[German Version] I. Mythology – II. Art I. Mythology The stories of Orpheus reflect the emergence and rejection of a religious movement in Archaic Greece: a prince from Thrace in northern Greece enchants everyone with his artistry; the psychagogic and ecstatic power of music (Ecstasy) is recalled in a journey to the netherworld. Eurydice, the wife of Orpheus, dies; to win her back, he descends into Hades. Through his music, he charms even the rocks and persuades the implacable gods of the dead to release…

Orphism

(1,858 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Wandrey, Irina | Graf, Fritz
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Responses I. History of Religions 1. Orphic-Dionysian mysteries. The earliest Greeks anticipated a short and active life without any form of existence after death. The 6th century bce saw the appearance of religious alternatives that promised an afterlife in the beyond. One of these spread anonymously under the name of Orpheus; myths of Orpheus speak of deliverance from a senseless and cheerless netherworld. There was never a coherent religion practiced by Orphics, but there is discu…

Local Deities

(540 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Local adherents of a religion are identified by the representation of “their” god, be it (as in polytheism; Monotheism and Polytheism) in the form of various local deities with individual names, or (as in universal religions) in the guise of secondary local deities, saints (Saints/Veneration of the Saints) or heroes, or in local divine images of the “one” god. This local dimension of a god is manifested in the construction of his house, of his local domain. The fixing of a deity w…

Theocrasia

(276 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] is a neologism coined in the debate over syncretism around 1900. In the background is the negative assessment of racial mixing in 19th-century racial theory and the Protestant historical vision of national character, national religion, and a national church in the works of J.G. Herder. According to this theory, ethnic mixing in the Roman Empire necessarily led to the “mixing of gods,” a reification of the invasion of oriental cults in the late period of classical religion. Theocra…

Worship

(20,376 words)

Author(s): Dondelinger, Patrick | Auffarth, Christoph | Braulik, Georg | Reif, Stefan C. | Johnson, Luke T. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The German word Gottesdienst (“worship,” lit. “service of God”) is attested since the 13th/14th century as a German translation of Latin cultus (Cult/Worship). It came into common use in the 16th century, especially in Luther’s works. Starting with an ethical understanding of the word, Luther himself used it as a technical term for the common celebration of the Word of God, as it evolved from the evangelical reform of the Catholic sacrifice (IV) of the mass. For centuries the term Gottesdienst remained limited to this specific form of worship of …

Syncretism

(5,112 words)

Author(s): Berner, Ulrich | Hutter, Manfred | Auffarth, Christoph | Leicht, Reimund | Roxborogh, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The word syncretism in its broadest sense denotes any blend or combination of diverse cultural phenomena. This usage derives from an apparently reasonable but false etymology: syncretism is commonly derived from the Greek verb συνκεράννυμι/ synkeránnymi, “mix.” In fact, however, it is a neologism coined by Plutarch ( Mor. 490b), who called the way Cretans came together in the face of external enemies synkretismos. Erasmus of Rotterdam than borrowed the term and introduced it into the language of Christian theology. In theology th…

Apollo

(561 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] (᾽Απόλλων/Apollōn; Dorian Apellon). The Greek god Apollo was worshiped in all the cities of Greece, but was recognized as the city deity above all by Argos, Sparta, and Miletus (together with its colonies). Panhellenic sanctuaries of Apollo, visited by pilgrims from afar, included Delphi with its oracle and Delos. Social analysis indicates that Apollo was apt to be …

Cosmology

(3,917 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Hülser, Karlheinz | Herrmann, Klaus | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Stoeger, William R.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II.#x2002;Ancient Near East and Old Testament – III.#x2002;Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. History of Modern Science I. Terminology Cosmology is a specific culture's orientation in space and time as conceived in words, images, and rituals. The orientation combines signs that can be perceived with signs that are set. Only in the complementarity of the construed other does the “natural” phenomenon acquire the meaning of a significant marke…

Zeus

(535 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The fact that Zeus is addressed as “father of men and gods” (πατὴρ ἀνδρῶv τε ϑεῶv τε/ patḗr andrṓn te theṓn te: Homer Iliad 1, 544; 4, 235 etc.) implies that he is creator and ruler, the central god of the Greek pantheon. This is however a mythological title, later filled also with theological content, that does not reflect the low place of this god in the cultus. His function is rather that of a distant god; other gods are closer to human beings. Like this formula, other mythical ideas about Zeus belon…

Athena

(278 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] (᾽Αθήνη/ Athḗnē, Athenaía). Many Greek poleis chose the goddess Athena (with the epiclesis Poliás) as their patron deity. Several cities, including Rome (where Athena was identified with Minerva), claimed to have secured her protection in the form of a portable statue ( palladion) at the time of their founding. In the internal social structure of the polis, Athena was chosen as goddess by different groups. (1) The armed Pállas was chosen by the male citizens as …

Mater Magna

(316 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The veneration of Mater Magna is one of the major cults in Roman religion and must therefore be strictly distinguished from other cults of “motherly” goddesses in the ancient Near East. While Kubaba of Carchemish, who had already been venerated as an all-embracing female goddess during the Bronze Age in northern Syria and southeastern Anatolia, did in fact influence the cult of the goddess Cybele of Pessinus, the transferring of the cult from Pessinus to Rome in 205 bce no longer bore any relation to the goddess from Carchemish. The introduction of Cybele w…

Anthropogony

(542 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The question behind the story of the “origin of humankind” is not so much how the human species came into being as why we are not immortal and eternally healthy, why we must work and suffer, but also why we live in spite of impending doom: an anthropology in narrative form. The question “Where do human beings come from?” can be raised for each individual – the Sitz im Leben of many creation stories is indeed birth – but more often anthropogony initiates a thought experiment, “Must the reality …

Cabeiri

(201 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The two or perhaps more Cabeiri constitute a nameless group of gods for whom local cults were established in the eastern and northern Aegean. A cult in mainland Greece existed only in Boeotia. Sometimes identified with other cultic groups such as the Curetes, ¶ the Corybants, the Dioscuri or the Daktyloi, they reflect male cultic associations to which admittance was effected through initiation (Rites of passage). The mysteries of Samothrace, in which especially seafaring persons sought to acquire protec…

Local Cults

(381 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] commonly refers to those cults and corresponding personifications (Local Deities) that are tied to a specific location. Such local cults are anchored in the social community of people who live together in one place and who also function and understand themselves as a community in their non-religious relations. As a local unit, and as the community with the highest rate of interaction after the family, the local cult may be largely identical with the political community; yet at the…

Aegean/Minoan/Mycenaean Religions

(977 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] I. In the Context of the East – II. Historical and Regional Differentiation – III. Religion and Cults I. In the Context of the East All around the Aegean in the 2nd millennium bce cultures emerged with an orientation toward the East, borrowing eastern systems, such as the economic, military, high-societal, religious centrality of cities with sophisticated palaces, the archive system with clay tablets an…

Epiclesis/Invocation

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Invocation – II. Epiclesis I. Invocation In order to get into touch with a given deity, one must know the procedure whereby one gets that deity's attention, how to get to the locus of its presence, and how to invoke an epiphany or visit the image representing it. There are also forms that are not necessarily tied to the deity's local presence, such as prayer, imprecation, …

Anthropology

(1,411 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Scientific Anthropology I. Philosophy The study of human beings, first of all, and from the 16th century a philosophical discipline that developed from rational psychology and moral philosophy; since the 20th century anthropology has been a philosophical school of thought. Philosophical anthropology first flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries as a view of human beings that neither rests on the metaphorical and theological assumption of the image…

Greece

(4,584 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Hölscher, Fernande | Theodorou, Evangelos | Begzos, Marios
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Church History – III. Theology in Greece I. Antiquity 1. Religion The model of Greek religion is of central importance to theology. In the tradition of the humanistic gymnasium study of the Christian religion even today presupposes knowledge of Greek religion. The Platonic conception in particular (by no means typical of Greek religion) constitutes the model against which the statements of the Bible are measured. G. Kittel's Theolo-¶ gisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament (1960; ET: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 2000) canonized …

Chaos

(3,417 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Janowski, Bernd | Yarbro Collins, Adela | Drees, Willem B. | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Science I. History of Religions 1. So-called chaos research (see VI below) has renewed a positive meaning of the term with the model of the “creative” self-organization of matter (thus without the goal-oriented will of an ordering creator). Previously, since Late Antiquity, a negative evaluation of chaos had prevailed: Since creation demonstrates the existence of God, chaos was a negative in relation to the Creator God in a dualistic system, as disorder ( confusio: Augus…

Panathenaea

(366 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] . The annual midsummer festival in Athens, a major celebration every four years (since 566 bce), otherwise a minor celebration, brought together the whole polis, which included the city and the entire surrounding region of Attica. Later the Athenians traced the celebration of the Panathenaea to Theseus’s unification of the settlements in Attica (Plut. Theseus 24), making it the festival of “all Athens.” But when the procession approached the central temple of Athena, the protectress of the city, it embodied the earlier significance o…

Organs/Parts of the Body

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Religious traditions know various ways of establishing correlations between the organs (or parts) of the human body and the cosmos, partly in combination with a mythological justification that views the world as having been created from the parts of the first human being’s body. Thus, hair may symbolize vegetation, eyes (and other bodily orifices) lakes, and the spinal column the axis of the world. In addition to such correlations between microcosm (human being) and macrocosm (wor…

Hades

(340 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Hades is the realm of the dead (Death) lying beneath the earth (DeathDeath) or at the end of the world, i.e. beyond the reach of the sun, where the capacity to see and to enjoy life thus lapses into a state of slumber “without seeing” (ἀίδης/ a-ídēs, aspirated only in the Attic dialect as ᾅδης/ hadēs). Escorted by Hermes the “guide of souls” (ψυχοπομπός/ psychopompós), the dead are separated from the living by the burial mound, a gate, a river (Hom. Od. XI). The personification of this realm is the god Hades who, though powerful, cannot be propitiated through …

Cybele and Attis

(330 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Cybele does not occur first in Greco-Roman Antiquity as a “late oriental” deity, instead, she is venerated as “Mother of the gods” or simply as “Mother” (Mother goddesses) already in the 6th century bce with a temple in the center of Athens. In Rome in 205/204 bce, the Stone of Pessinus (a baityl) was introduced by one of the most prominent families and was provided with a temple at a central location in the city on the Palatine and with an important festival, the ludi Megalenses. The high priest bore the title Áttis; ordinary priests were called Gálloi. Ma…

Myiager, Myiodes

(192 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μυίαγρος/ Muíagros, Μυιώδης/ Muiṓdēs). Sacrifices attract flies. In order to drive them away, those offering a sacrifice would provide a preliminary sacrifice (with an additive?), the blood of which would satisfy the gnats (according to Ael. NA 5,17 for Leucas; 11,8). In the half-empty town of Alipheira the help of the ‘gnat-chaser’ Myiager was called upon (Paus. 8,26,7). In Olympia, on the malaria plain, similar protection was provided  by sacrifices to Zeus Apómyios, the ‘fly repeller’ (Paus. 5,14,1; Plin. HN 10,75; 29,106), or Myiakórēs/ Myiṓdēs (‘fly catche…

Dragon slayers

(519 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] Dragons, from the Greek δράκων ( drákōn) derived from δέρκομαι ( dérkomai) ‘to look at penetratingly’ (Porph. De abstinentia 3,8,3), are mythical beings combining the superhuman qualities of various animals [1]. In mythology the world of humans was threatened by amphibious snakes (synonym: ὄφις; óphis, Hom. Il. 12,202/208), fish (κῆτος; kḗtos) or composite creatures. Only a hero could hold up against their power, gaze, odour and fiery breath, multiple heads and limbs. Victory over the dragon freed mankind from mortal peril, and t…

Aegisthus

(149 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Αἴγισθος; Aígisthos). Pre-Grecian name [1]; neologism in the epic, short for αἰγι-σθένης [2]. In the Odyssey, son of Thyestes (only Od. 4,518); usurps the throne and wife of  Agamemnon. He murders (Od. 3,266-71) the conqueror of Troy on his homecoming. Thereafter he rules for seven years as king in Mycenae, until Orestes takes revenge for his father. A. is placed there as a negative (the murderer as king ὑπὲρ μόρον Od. 1,29-43; ἀμύμων, ‘good-looking’ instead of ‘beyond reproach’ […

Baitylia

(346 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(βαιτύλια; βαίτυλοι; baitýlia, baítyloi). [German version] I. Religious Studies Large upright stones which are included in the cult activity in sanctuaries are to be found throughout the entire Mediterranean region [1]. It was the Phoenicians in particular who contributed to the spread of these. The baitylia in Tyrus and in Emesa were famous [2]. In Israel polemics and the inclusion of baitylia in the cult (Maṣṣebah) with the predication of God, exist side by side (God as a rock: Ps 28,1 [3]). Minoan iconography portrays ecstatic theophany (?) [4]. In Gre…

Aretalogoi

(68 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (ἀρεταλόγοι; aretalógoi). Functionaries at sanctuaries who recount the great deeds (ἀρεταί; aretaí) of the local god to pilgrims, particularly in healing and Isis-cults [1; 2]. Used in Lat. to mean ‘boaster’. The historic form is connected to the Gospel [3]. Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 Nilsson, GGR 2, 228 f. 2 H. S. Versnel, Ter unus, 1990, 191 f. 3 J. Z. Smith, Map is not Territory, 1978, 190-207. E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, 1913, 143-277.

Euphorbus

(112 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Εὔφορβος; Eúphorbos). Hero in the Iliad on the Trojan side, son of Panthoos and Phrontis [1]. Together with Hector he killed Patroclus (Il. 16,806-815); Menelaus killed him in a counter-strike (Il. 17,9-60) [2]. His shield was kept at the Heraeum of Argus (Paus. 2,17,3).  Pythagoras considered himself to be an incarnation of E. (Heraclid. Pont. fr. 89 Wehrli/Schule; Callim. Fr. 191,59-63 Pfeiffer; Diog. Laert. 8,1,4; Ov. Met. 15,160-163 etc.) [3; 4]. Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 P. v. d. Mühll, Kritisches Hypomnema zur Ilias, 1952, 255 2 L. Kahi…

Religion

(13,714 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Introduction [German version] A. Definition of the concept 'Religion', the substantive for describing the religious, denotes a system of common practices, individual ideas about faith, codified norms and examples of theological exegesis whose validity is derived chiefly from an authoritative principle or being. For the academic study of religion, conversely, the word is a purely heuristic category in which those practices, ideas, norms and theological constructs are examined historically; however, the…

Agrionia

(263 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀγριώνια; Agriṓnia). Springtime women's festival in the Dorian and Aeolian regions [1]. The associated myths ascribe Manaedic behaviour to the women. In the Argolis madness takes hold of the daughter of the king of Tiryns, the Proitid (Hes. fr. 37,10-15 M-W: Hera as cause; Hes. fr. 131 M-W: Dionysus); the women rip their own children to pieces (Apollod. 2,28; 3,17). Melampous can give counsel; a suckling pig sacrifice cleanses (Proitid myth and ritual: Hesych; s. v. ἀγριάνια; suck…

Agamemnon

(936 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀγαμέμνων, Agamémnōn). King of the Argives in Mycenae. In the early Greek epics A. led the army of the Argives ( Danai, Achaeans) against Troy, to avenge the kidnapping of the wife of his brother Menelaus. He brings the greatest fleet from the north-eastern Peloponnese (in the ships' catalogue Il. 2,569-575 south-western Argolis belongs to Diomedes, the remainder and as far as to Corinth, to A. In contrast to this, lord of ‘all Argus’ (Il. 2,107; 9,141 [1.180 f.]). In the Iliad he causes his charismatic rule [2] to waver through the theft of Achilles' capti…

Festivals; Feasts

(4,658 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] I. The Ancient Orient The ancient Mesopotamian calendar was based on the phases of the lunar cycle and was observed in the cult on a monthly basis (1st, 7th, 15th day). Annual feasts were frequently associated with the agrarian cycle (sowing, harvest), whereby regional differences must be drawn into consideration (e.g., irrigation vs. rainfed agriculture). Non-cyclical feasts were generally related to the ruler (crowning, temple and palace construction, war, death). In the family sphe…

Actorione

(240 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀκτορίωνε; Aktoríōne, dual). Monstrous pair of Siamese twins (Hes. fr. 18 M-W τερατώδεις); with their two heads, four arms and legs, and merged bodies, the pair are extremely strong (Hes. fr. 17; 18). In the Iliad, Nestor boasts that he would have been able to kill the Actorione Molione, Cteatus and Eurytus, if their father Poseidon had not supported them (Il. 11,750-752). On another occasion they defeat Nestor in chariot racing (Il. 23,638). The genealogy is threefold: alongside …

Dictynna

(322 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δίκτυννα; Díktynna). Goddess of fishing, and of the hunt, in Crete. Samians established her sanctuary in about 519 BC on the steep slope of the Tityrus (Rhodopou) peninsula of western Crete [1; 2], according to Hdt. 3,59. Her cult became widespread (Plut. Mor. 984a) as did that of the equivalent figure of Britomartis (Callim. H. 3, 189-205), aside from western Crete, at Aegina and Aphaea (Paus. 2, 30,3), in Gythium, Sparta and Laconia, Athens, Phocis, Massalia and Commagene [3; 4]…

Maleus

(209 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
(Μάλεως, Μάλεος; Máleōs, Máleos). The mythography of late antiquity mixed together several persons of this name [1]. [German version] [1] Dedicated a cliff near Phaestus A cliff protecting the harbour of Phaestus on Crete was said to have been dedicated by a M. to Poseidon (schol. Hom. Od. 3,296; Suda s.v. M.); the link to Cape Malea [1], which is established as early as the Odyssee, can be found also in the grave epigram Anth. Pal. 7,275 of the Imperial period. Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Tyrrhenian robber (myth.) Named as one of the Tyrrhenian robbers (also …

Lykeios

(334 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λύκειος; Lýkeios). The epiclesis L. ( Lýkios for the first time in the Imperial period) characterizes a local and functional peculiarity of Apollo. The etymological explanations mirror the religious philological hypotheses: the derivation from ‘wolf’ (λύκος/ lýkos) resulted in L. becoming a totem animal [3. 221] or allowed people to assume, according to the pattern of natural magic, that it could magically fend off the enemy of the herds. Importation of gods is behind the interpretation that Apollo was the Lycian god (Hom. Il. 4,101; [2. 445-448]). Even less…

Danaus, Danaids

(828 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δαναός, Δαναίδες; Danaós, Danaídes). Having quarrelled with his twin brother Aigyptos, according to the myth D. flees Egypt with his 50 daughters (the Danaids) for the Argolis and is given asylum there (Aesch. Supp. 1; Danaids TrGF 3 fr. 43-46; T 70 [1; 2]). However, the 50 sons of Aigyptos pursued the girls to Argos and wanted to force marriage on them. D. persuaded his daughters to pretend to go through with this, but then to decapitate the bridegrooms on the wedding night. Only o…

Manticlus

(112 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μάντικλος; Mántiklos). The sanctuary of Heracles Mantiklos in Messana was founded by M. according to Pausanias (4,23,10; 26,3). M. may be a fictitious person reconstructed from an epiclesis, as the history of the First Messenian (Aristomenes) War (about 500/489 BC), with which M. is connected, contains fictitious elemants [1. 169-181]: as a son of a mantis (seer) Theoclus, M. was allegedly chosen by Aristomenes [1] beside his son to be a colonist of the Messenians during their flight to Sicily Colonization; Messenian Wars Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliograph…

Atheism

(459 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] Modern atheism appeals to ancient models as its authority in its repudiation of the (Christian) religion; it even creates martyrs. While atheism in modern times turns against monotheism and institutions derived from it -- the term atheism first appears in the 16th cent. --, the ancient terms, including ἄθεος ( átheos, ‘god-less’), were part of a polytheistic system of local god-persons, which was realized in cultic forms and does not assume a verbalized, conceptual credo. Therefore, one must distinguish for ancient atheism: 1. Th…

Anthesteria

(522 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀνθεστήρια; Anthestḗria). Spring festival, celebrated wherever Ionians settle (Thuc. 2,15,4: ‘the oldest Dionysia’; prior to the Ionian migration). It is to be equated in part with the ritual of the Katagogia ‘Collecting (of the god from the sea)’ [1]. On the first day of the three-day festival (11th-13th Anthesterion), the Pithoigea (πιθ-οιγία ‘cask opening’), the wine flasks/ pithoi of the autumn are released for consumption and sale. The rural Dionysus sanctuary of Icaria celebrates the arrival of the god (Aiora [2]) and unites the …

Potnia theron

(960 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
(Πότνια θηρῶν/ Pótnia thērôn, 'Mistress of animals'). [German version] A. Preliminary remark In the study of Greek religion, the PT is the subject of several fundamental theses on the relationships between gods, humans and animals. The PT represented a vital experience in sacrifice and hunting, but also in the dangers of the human sphere of life: the sacralization of killing animals in order to save one's own life. In India, on the other hand, the master of animals represented the prohibition against killin…

Aiora

(275 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (αἰώρα; aiṓra, ‘swing’). At the spring festival of the Anthesteria, seat cushions or chairs were suspended from trees by ropes, for children to use as swings. This is portrayed on choe pots [pl. 1, 31,2; pl. 4, 18]. The custom is attested for Attic Icaria, the mythical place of arrival of Dionysus as wine god. Because the rough shepherds do not recognize the god's gift, they attempt to kill him, but instead strike the old man, the god's host, Icarius. The daughter Erigone wanders v…

Maleatas

(182 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μαλεάτας; Maleátas). The epiclesis M. for Apollo is derived from the place-name Malea [1], the cape in the south-east of the Peloponnese (of the Mani) feared for its storms (Hom. Od. 3,287 et passim). Poseidon had a cult there (Eur. Cyc. 293; Paus. 3,23,2). Typically, however, it is Apollo rather than Poseidon who bears this epiclesis in the eastern Peloponnese and radiating outward from there, for example in Piraeus (IG II2 4962); here M., as well as Apollo, receives his own preliminary sacrifices before Asclepius. Another link with healing cults …

Bouphonia

(286 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (βουφόνια; bouphónia). In the Athenian Dipoleia, the ox that first eats of the sacrificial grain is sacrificed because it has desecrated the gift for the god (Porphyr. Abst. 2,28-30; this probably goes back to Theophrastus [5]; Paus 1,24,4). The slaughterer -- a hereditary office of the Thaulon family [3. 161] -- kills the animal for this reason and then flees. In the myth the Delphic oracle orders that the fleeing slaughterer, the farmer Sopater, be brought back and that he repeat…

Bendis

(537 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Βενδῖς; Bendîs). The Thracian goddess B., still known to the Greeks in the 6th cent. (Hipponax fr. 127 W.) (see Hdn. 2, 761 L.; Liv. 38,41,1; only as antiquarian knowledge? [1. 114]), B. is understood in the interpretatio graeca as an  Artemis (Hdt. 4, 33; 5, 7; Palaephat. 31; Hsch.), as  Hecate (Plut. De def. or. 13, 416e, owing to incorrect etymology; Hsch. s.v. Ἀδμήτου κόρη) or Persephone (Orph. Fr. 200 OF; cf. texts in PCG 4, p. 165; cf. 159). The iconography, too, aims at equating her with Artemis as a hunting …

Diomedes

(1,079 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Διομήδης; Diomḗdēs). [German version] [1] Cultic hero of the city of Argos Hero of the city of Argos in the Trojan War, as opposed to Agamemnon of Mycenae, the lord of north-eastern Argolis (Hom. Il. 2,559-568; cf. Il. 23,471f. [1; 2]). Son of Tydeus and Deipyle, the daughter of Adrastus. In his aristeia before Troy (Il. 5 and 6), he killed Pandarus, wounded Aphrodite when she tried to save Aeneas (Il. 5, 290-351), and later also wounded Ares (Il. 5, 825-863). As a friend of the family, he exchanged weapons with Glaucus the Lycian (on the side o…

Religion

(12,041 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Einleitung [English version] A. Bestimmung des Begriffs Als substantivistischer Terminus der rel. Selbstbeschreibung bezeichnet “R.” ein System von gemeinsamen Praktiken, individuellen Glaubensvorstellungen, kodifizierten Normen und theologischen Erklärungsmustern, dessen Gültigkeit zumeist auf ein autoritatives Prinzip oder Wesen zurückgeführt wird. Für die R.-Wissenschaft ist der R.-Begriff dagegen eine rein heuristische Kategorie, mit der jene Praktiken, Vorstellungen, Normen und theologischen Kon…

Agoraios

(95 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Ἀγοραῖος). Die Götter-Epiklese benennt die lokale und funktionale Beziehung des Gottes zur Agora als polit. und ökonomischer Institution [1]. So wird bes. Zeus als Garant der Satzungen kult. verehrt und im Eid beschworen [2; 3. 197-199], manchmal mit anderen, auch weiblichen Gottheiten (Artemis, Ge). Sonst ist Hermes der Marktgott par excellence (bes. zu Erythrai [3. 270]; IE 201 = Syll.3 1014, 90-100). Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 R. E. Wycherly, in: Agora 3, 1957, 123a 2 H. Schwabl, s. v. Zeus, RE X A, 256-258; RE Suppl. XV, 1978, 1051-1053 3 F.…

Eusebeia

(402 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (εὐσέβεια; eusébeia). With eusebeia the Greeks characteristically conceptualized religion in a different way from the Romans with their religio or modern research with its ‘beliefs of the Hellenes’ or ‘Greek religion’ [1]. Eusebeia remained a part of the social value-system, in which the gods had no exclusive place. Factually and to some extent chronologically, three spheres may be distinguished: 1. In the polis, eusebeia describes a relationship of belonging and authority with regard to one's own parents, the polis and its norms, and the gods (Lys. 6. 33; …

Omphalos

(718 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Navel as center of the world (Ὀμφαλός/ Omphalós, 'navel'). The omphalos represents two signs which are combined in the omphalos of Delphi (Pind. Pyth. 4,74f.; Bacchyl. 4,4; Aesch. Eum. 40): (1) If it is true that the omphalòs thalássēs, 'navel of the sea', - as Ogygia, the island of Calypso, is called in Hom. Od. 1,50 - means the greatest distance from the human world, then, conversely, the navel of the oikuménē lies in the center of men. Thus the concept of omphalos does not express the geometrical center (but see below), bu…

Agoraeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀγοραῖος; Agoraîos). The epiclesis of the gods designates the local and functional relationship of the god to the agora as a political and economical institution [1]. Thus Zeus in particular is cultically revered as guarantor of the statutes, and an oath is sworn to him [2; 3. 197-199], sometimes with others, including female deities (Artemis, Ge). Otherwise, Hermes is the market god par excellence (especially in Erythrae [3. 270]; IE 201 = Syll.3 1014, 90-100). Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 R. E. Wycherly, in: Agora 3, 1957, 123a 2 H. Schwabl, …

Aigisthos

(148 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Αἴγισθος). Vor-griech. Name [1]; ep. Neubildung, kurz für αἰγι-σθένης [2]. In der Odyssee Sohn des Thyestes (nur Od. 4,518); usurpiert Thron und Frau des Agamemnon. Er ermordet (Od. 3,266-71) den Sieger von Troia bei dessen Heimkehr. Danach herrscht er 7 Jahre als König in Mykenai, bis Orestes Rache für den Vater übt. A. steht als negatives (der Mörder als König ὑπὲρ μόρον Od. 1,29-43; ἀμύμων, “gutaussehend” statt “untadelig” [3; 4]) und warnendes Beispiel gegen Odysseus' Heimke…

Diktynna

(295 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Δίκτυννα). Göttin der Fischer (Jagd) auf Kreta. Ihr Hauptheiligtum liegt am Steilhang der Halbinsel Tityros (Rhodopou) im Westen Kretas [1; 2], nach Hdt. 3,59 von Samiern (ca. 519 v.Chr.) gegründet. Weite Verbreitung (Plut. mor. 984a) des Kultes der D. und, mit ihr gleichgesetzt (Kall. h. 3, 189-205), der Britomartis außer in Westkreta auf Aigina als Aphaia (Paus. 2, 30,3), in Gythion und Sparta (Lakonien), Athen, Phokis, Massalia und Kommagene [3; 4]. Der Mythos erzählt (Kall.)…

Bendis

(498 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Βενδῖς). Die thrak. Göttin B., im 6.Jh. (Hipponax fr. 127 W.) den Griechen bekannt geblieben (s. Herodian. 2, 761 L.; Liv. 38,41,1; nur noch antiquarisches Wissen? [1. 114]), wird in der Interpretatio Graeca verstanden als eine Artemis (Hdt. 4, 33; 5, 7; Palaiphat. 31; Hesych.), als Hekate (Plut. de def. or. 13, 416e, durch falsche Etym.; Hesych. s.v. Ἀδμήτου κόρη) oder Persephone (Orph. fr. 200 OF; vgl. Texte in PCG 4, p. 165; vgl. 159). Auch in der Ikonographie ist die Gleichsetzung mit Artemis als jagender…

Buphonia

(246 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (βουφόνια). An den athenischen Dipolieia wird derjenige Ochse geopfert, der zuerst das Getreideopfer frißt, sich also an der Gabe für Gott vergreift (Porphyr. abst. 2,28-30, wohl auf Theophrast zurückgehend [5]; Paus 1,24,4). Der Schlächter - ein in der Familie des Thaulon erbliches Amt [3. 161] - tötet dafür das Tier und flieht dann. Im Mythos befiehlt das delph. Orakel, den flüchtigen Totschläger, den Bauern Sopatros, zurückzuholen und das Töten des Ochsen zu wiederholen. In ei…

Drachenkampf

(500 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] Drachen, von griech. δράκων zu δέρκομαι “durchdringend anblicken” (Porph. De abstinentia 3,8,3), sind mythische Wesen, die übermenschliche Eigenschaften verschiedener Tiere vereinigen [1]. Die oft amphibisch lebenden Schlangen (syn. ὄφις, Hom. Il. 12,202/208), Fische (τὸ κῆτος) oder Mischwesen bedrohten im Mythos die Lebenswelt der Menschen. Nur ein Held vermochte ihrer Kraft, ihrem Blick, ihrem Geruch und Feueratem, ihrer Vielzahl von Köpfen und Leibern standzuhalten. Der Sieg ü…

Atheismus

(443 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] Der moderne A. beruft sich als Autorität seiner Ablehnung der (christl.) Religion auf ant. Vorbilder, kreiert sogar Märtyrer. Während der A. in der Moderne sich aber gegen Monotheismus und daraus abgeleitete Institutionen wendet - der Begriff A. kommt erst im 16.Jh. auf -, sind die ant. Begriffe, darunter ἄθεος ( átheos, “gott-los”), Teil eines polytheistischen Systems von lokalen Götter-Personen, das sich in kultischen Formen realisiert und nicht ein verbalisiertes, begriffliches Credo voraussetzt. Daher gilt es für den ant. A.…

Omphalos

(643 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] [1] Nabel als Zentrum der Welt (Ὀμφαλός, “Nabel”). Der O. repräsentiert zwei Zeichen, die sich im O. von Delphoi (Pind. P. 4,74f.; Bakchyl. 4,4; Aischyl. Eum. 40) verbinden: (1) Wenn der omphalós thalássēs, “Nabel des Meeres”, wie Ogygia, die Insel der Kalypso, in Hom. Od. 1,50 heißt, die äußerste Entfernung von der Welt der Menschen bedeutet, dann liegt umgekehrt der Nabel der oikuménē im Zentrum der Menschen. Im Konzept des O. ist also nicht die geom. Mitte (doch s.u.), sondern die zentrale Bed. ausgedrückt. Daß Ogyg…

Anthesteria

(477 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Ἀνθεστήρια). Frühlingsfest, das überall gefeiert wird, wo Ionier siedeln (Thuk 2,15,4: “die ältesten Dionysien”; vor der Ionischen Wanderung). Es ist teils gleichzusetzen mit dem Ritual der Katagogia “Einholung (des Gottes vom Meer)” [1]. Mit dem ersten Tag des dreitägigen Festes (11.-13. Anthesterion), der Pithoigia (πιθ-οιγία “Faßöffnung”), werden die Weinfässer/Pithoi des Herbstes zu Genuß und Verkauf freigegeben. Das ländliche Dionysos-Heiligtum von Ikaria feiert die Ankunft des Gottes (Aiora [2]) und verbi…

Agrionia

(242 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Ἀγριώνια). Frauenfest im dor. und aiol. Bereich im Frühling [1]. Die dazugehörigen Mythen schreiben den Frauen mänadenhaftes Verhalten zu. In der Argolis ergreift der Wahnsinn die Töchter des Königs von Tiryns, die Proitiden (Hes. fr. 37,10-15 M-W: Hera als Verursacherin; Hes. fr. 131 M-W: Dionysos); die Frauen zerreißen die eigenen Kinder (Apollod. 2,28; 3,17). Melampous weiß Rat: ein Ferkelopfer reinigt (Proitidenmythos und Ritual: Hesych s. v. ἀγριάνια; Ferkelopfernde Mädchen…

Aretalogoi

(71 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (ἀρεταλόγοι). Funktionäre an Heiligtümern, die die großen Taten (ἀρεταί) der lokalen Gottheit den Pilgern erzählen, vor allem in Heil- und Isiskulten [1; 2]. Im Lat. im Sinn von “Aufschneider” gebraucht. Formgeschichtlicher Zusammenhang zum Evangelium [3]. Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 Nilsson, GGR 2, 228 f. 2 H. S. Versnel, Ter unus, 1990, 191 f. 3 J. Z. Smith, Map is not Territory, 1978, 190-207. E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, 1913, 143-277.

Myiagros, Myiodes

(165 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Μυίαγρος, Μυιώδης). Opfer locken Fliegen an. Um sie zu vertreiben, geben die Opfernden ein Voropfer (mit einem Zusatz?), an dessen Blut sich die Mücken sättigen (so Ail. nat. 5,17 für Leukas; 11,8). Im halbverlassenen Ort Alipheira rief man dafür den “Mückenjäger” Myiagros zu Hilfe (Paus. 8,26,7). In Olympia wurde ein entsprechender Schutz in der Malaria-Ebene durch Opfer für Zeus Apómyios, den “Fliegenabwehrer” (Paus. 5,14,1; Plin. nat. 10,75; 29,106), bzw. den Myiakórēs/ Myiṓdēs (“Fliegenfänger”) bewirkt. [1] sah (in Useners Begrifflichkeit) in M…

Eusebeia

(377 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (εὐσέβεια). Mit e. haben die Griechen Rel. charakteristisch anders in einen Begriff gefaßt als die Römer ihre religio oder die moderne Forsch. den “Glauben der Hellenen” oder die “Griech. Religion” [1]. E. blieb Teil des sozialen Wertesystems, in dem die Götter keinen exklusiven Ort hatten. Drei Bereiche lassen sich sachlich und teils auch zeitlich unterscheiden: 1. In der Polis umschreibt e. ein Zugehörigkeits- und Autoritätsverhältnis zu den eigenen Eltern, zur Polis und ihren Normen und zu den Göttern (Lys. 6. 33; Isokr. or. 7. 30; Pla…

Aiora

(267 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (αἰώρα, “Schaukel”). Beim Frühlingsfest der Anthesterien wurden an Bäumen mit Seilen Sitzkissen oder Stühle aufgehängt, auf denen die Kinder schaukeln durften. Auf Choen-Kannen ist das dargestellt [1. Taf. 31,2; 4. Taf. 18]. Der Brauch ist für das att. Ikaria bezeugt, den mythischen Ankunftsort des Dionysos als Weingott. Weil die wilden Hirten die Gabe des Gottes verkennen, versuchen sie ihn zu töten, treffen statt seiner aber den Alten, den Gastgeber des Gottes, Ikarios. Die Toc…

Agamemnon

(865 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Ἀγαμέμνων). König der Argeier in Mykenai. In der frühgriech. Epik führt A. das Heer der Argeier (Danaer, Achaioi) zur Rache für die Entführung der Frau seines Bruders Menelaos gegen Troia. Er bringt die größte Flotte mit aus der nordöstl. Peloponnes (im Schiffskatalog Il. 2,569-575 gehört die südwestl. Argolis Diomedes, A. der Rest und bis Korinth. Dagegen Herr von “ganz Argos” Il. 2,107; 9,141 [1.180 f.]). Seine charismatische Herrschaft [2] bringt er in der Ilias durch den Raub der Beutesklavin des Achilleus ins Wanken, die drohende Aufkündigung de…

Aktorione

(230 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Ἀκτορίωνε, Dual). Monströses Zwillingspaar (Hes. fr. 18 M-W τερατώδεις); es ist durch zwei Köpfe, vier Arme und Beine und einen zusammengewachsenen Körper unheimlich stark (Hes. fr. 17; 18). Nestor rühmt sich in der Ilias, er habe die A. Molione, Kteatos und Eurytos töten können, wenn Vater Poseidon ihnen nicht beigestanden hätte (Il. 11,750-752). Bei anderer Gelegenheit besiegen sie Nestor im Wagenrennen (Il. 23,638). Die Genealogie ist dreifach: Neben dem göttl. (Poseidon) ein…

Fest, Festkultur

(4,368 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Der altmesopot. Kalender beruht auf dem Mondlauf mit seinen Phasen, die dementsprechend monatlich kultisch begangen werden (1., 7., 15. Tag). Jährliche F. sind häufig mit dem agrarischen Zyklus (Aussaat, Ernte) verbunden, wobei regionale Unterschiede (z.B. Bewässerungs- oder Regenfeldbau) zu beachten sind. Nicht-zyklische F. betreffen in der Regel den Herrscher (Krönung, Tempel- oder Palastbau, Krieg, Tod). Im Bereich der Familie werden Einschnitte im Lebenslauf (Hoc…

Diomedes

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Gatti, Paolo (Trient)
(Διομήδης). [English version] [1] kultisch verehrter Heros der Stadt Argos Der Held der Stadt Argos im Trojanischen Krieg, im Unterschied zu Agamemnon von Mykenai, dem Herrn der nordöstl. Argolis (Hom. Il. 2,559-568; vgl. Il. 23,471f. [1; 2]). Sohn des Tydeus und der Deipyle, der Tochter des Adrastos. In seiner Aristie vor Troja (Il. 5 und 6) tötete er Pandaros und verletzte Aphrodite, als sie Aineias retten wollte (Il. 5, 290-351); später auch Ares (Il. 5, 825-863). Mit dem Lykier Glaukos (auf der Seite …

Baitylia

(298 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(βαιτύλια; βαίτυλοι). [English version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Große, aufrechte Steine, die in Heiligtümern in den Kult einbezogen werden, finden sich im gesamten Mittelmeerraum [1]. Vor allem die Phoiniker trugen zu ihrer Verbreitung bei. Berühmt waren die B. in Tyros und in Emesa [2]. In Israel stehen Polemik und die Einbeziehung in Kult (Maṣṣebah) und Gottesprädikation nebeneinander (Gott als Fels: Ps 28,1 [3]). Ekstatische Theophanie (?) stellt die min. Ikonographie dar [4]. In Griechenland …

Potnia theron

(921 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
(Πότνια θηρῶν, “Herrin der Tiere”). [English version] A. Vorbemerkung Mit der P.th. verknüpft die gräzistische Rel.-Wiss. mehrere grundlegende Thesen über das Verhältnis von Göttern, Menschen und Tieren, wie sie bes. in Opfer und Jagd, aber auch in der Bedrohtheit der menschlichen Lebenswelt eine lebenswichtige Erfahrung dargestellt habe: die Sakralisierung der Tiertötung, um das eigene Leben zu erhalten. In Indien stand der Herr der Tiere im Gegenteil geradezu für das Verbot der Tiertötung [1]. Die P.th…

Maleatas

(160 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Μαλεάτας). Die Epiklese M. für Apollon leitet sich vom Ortsnamen Malea [1] ab, dem wegen seiner Stürme gefürchteten Kap im SO der Peloponnes (der Mani) (Hom. Od. 3,287 u.ö.). Poseidon besaß dort einen Kult (Eur. Cycl. 293; Paus. 3,23,2). Doch typischerweise trägt Apollon, nicht Poseidon, in der östl. Peloponnes diese Epiklese und, von dort ausstrahlend, etwa im Piräus (IG II2 4962); hier erhält M. eigene Voropfer zusätzlich zu Apollon vor Asklepios. Eine Verbindung mit Heilkult besteht auch in Trikka (Paus. 2,27,7), das schon bei Homer …

Mantiklos

(99 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Μάντικλος). Das Heiligtum des Herakles M. in Messana sei, so Pausanias (4,23,10; 26,3), von M. gestiftet worden. M. mag eine aus einer Epiklese rekonstruierte fiktive Person sein, wie überhaupt der 1. Messenische (Aristomenes-)Krieg (etwa 500/489 v.Chr.), mit dem M. verbunden wird, fiktive Historie enthält [1. 169-181]: Als Sohn eines Mantis (Sehers) Theoklos sei M. von Aristomenes [1] neben dessen Sohn zum Kolonisten der Messenier bei ihrer Flucht nach Sizilien ausersehen worden. Kolonisation; Messenische Kriege Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliogr…

Euphorbos

(114 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Εὔφορβος). Held in der Ilias auf seiten der Troer, Sohn des Panthoos und der Phrontis [1]. Er tötet gemeinsam mit Hektor den Patroklos (Il. 16,806-815); Menelaos tötet ihn im Gegenzug (Il. 17,9-60) [2]. Seinen Schild bewahrte man im Heraion von Argos auf (Paus. 2,17,3). Pythagoras verstand sich als Inkarnation des E. (Herakl. Pont. fr. 89 Wehrli/Schule; Kall. fr. 191,59-63 Pfeiffer; Diog. Laert. 8,1,4; Ov. met. 15,160-163 u.a.) [3; 4]. Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 P. v. d. Mühll, Krit. Hypomnema zur Ilias 1952, 255 2 L. Kahil, s.v. E., LIMC 3.1, 69 3…

Maleos

(173 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
(Μάλεως, Μάλεος). Die spätant. Mythographie hat mehrere Personen des Namens gemischt [1]. [English version] [1] Fels bei Phaistos/Kreta Ein Fels, der den Hafen von Phaistos auf Kreta schützt, soll von einem M. dem Poseidon gestiftet worden sein (schol. Hom. Od. 3,296; Suda s.v. M.); die schon in der Odyssee gezogene Verbindung zum Kap Malea [1] läßt sich auch in dem kaiserzeitlichen Grabepigramm Anth. Pal. 7,275 erkennen. Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) [English version] [2] myth. tyrrhen. Räuber Als Name eines der tyrrhenischen Räuber wird M. (oder Μαλεώτης/ Maleṓtēs) zum Vater …

Danaos, Danaiden

(757 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Δαναός, Δαναίδες). Zerstritten mit seinem Zwillingsbruder Aigyptos, flüchtete D. dem Mythos nach mit seinen 50 Töchtern (den Danaiden) von Ägypt. in die Argolis und erhielt dort Asyl (Aischyl. Suppl. 1; Danaiden TrGF 3 fr. 43-46; T 70 [1; 2]). Doch die 50 Söhne des Aigyptos verfolgten die Mädchen bis Argos und wollten sie zwingen, sie zu heiraten. D. überredete die Töchter, zum Schein darauf einzugehen, in der Hochzeitsnacht aber die Bräutigame zu enthaupten. Nur eine, Hypermest…

Lykeios

(272 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[English version] (Λύκειος). Mit der Epiklese L. ( Lýkios erst in der Kaiserzeit) wird eine lokale und funktionale Besonderheit des Apollon gekennzeichnet. Die etym. Erklärungen sind ein Spiegel der religionsphilol. Hypothesen: Die Ableitung vom “Wolf” (λύκος/ lýkos) ließ L. zum Totemtier werden [3. 221] oder nach dem Muster der Naturmagie Abwehrzauber gegen den Feind der Herden vermuten. Götterimport steht hinter der Deutung, Apollon sei ‘der lykische’ Gott (Hom. Il. 4,101; [2. 445-448]). Noch weniger kann die Ableitung von griech. λυκ, “leuchten”, gelten,…

Ecstasy

(129 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
Unlike → enthusiasm, when God or the Spirit enters human beings, in ecstasy (Gk., ek-stasis, ‘standing out of’) human beings ‘leave’ themselves, so that they lose consciousness and self-control. The concept is variously differentiated. In the psychological sense, euphoria (→ Emotions/Feelings) can be included. The anthropology of religion has especially described the techniques of the release of the spirit or → soul from the body by dance, rhythm, or drugs. In a context of the history of religions, the applic…

Altar

(899 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
In order that a gift may be offered in such a way that no others may use it for themselves, but rather be given—as a rule—to a god, a holy place is required. Normally the place is an elevated one, so that it can display the offering to the eyes of all. It may be a rock, for example, or a board or slab, or an arrangement of stones. Altars erected by the Greeks for their animal sacrifices stood outside the temple. They had to stretch far enough to accommodate a hundred beasts at once on the occasi…

Superstition

(68 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
The designation is a polemical one, connoting a distance taken from the acts of persons, other than oneself, which must be called religious, but which either seem exaggerated ( superstition), or are forbidden by official religion. Pastors, especially, and (other) intellectuals use it to disparage the piety of the ‘uneducated folk.’ From an atheistic viewpoint, any religion can be called superstition. → Atheism, Polemics, Religion Christoph Auffarth

Antiquity

(4,038 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
Biases of periodization 1. a) The Protestant humanists accustomed us to a tripartition of history: geographically into old world, new world, and third world; and historically into antiquity, Middle Ages, and modernity.1 This determination also provides a help in practical ordering, especially in our method of counting by centuries ( saecula), as it expresses an assessment of our times. Our enumeration of centuries begins with the ‘birth of Christ,’ runs forward and backward, and, with ‘new world’—or ‘new age’—indicates the hope of an era ‘accor…

Violence

(139 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
Theologically, it can certainly be concluded that all religions have the goal of peace. But the opposite goal can just as easily be deduced. The rejection of violence among the historical conditions of a religion's emergence says nothing as yet about the possibility, in other situations, of justifying violence, and founding it in religion. The historical experience of Christians' crusades and Islamic tolerance occasions doubts as to whether the images of the ‘sword of Islam’ and that of the ‘God…

Rebirth

(516 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
Rebirth may refer to both the idea of → reincarnation and that of being spiritually born again. Reincarnation involves a person being physically reborn into the world after having exited it through death in a previous individual existence. The previous existence cannot be consciously remembered by the individual, but still affects the person. For example, deeds and experiences in a previous life may influence the type of incarnation a person now has. Around 1900 European religious historians tended to see reincarnation as a distinguishing characteristic of what was …

Architecture, Sacred

(194 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
If religion is to be a vital institution in society, buildings are needed: from a walled approach or entranceway to a cave, to pieces of architecture reserved exclusively for religious use. Buildings for worship are places where gods are thought of as dwelling, where their images are displayed, and where persons show their reverence through gifts. The altar is not always the central point. The Greek temple is rather a treasure house for votive gifts, while the sacrifice is offered on the altar i…
▲   Back to top   ▲