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Lycis

(42 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of the Old Comedy, victorious at the Dionysia at the earliest in 411 BC [1. test. 1]; ridiculed in Aristoph. Ran. 12-15 [1. test. 2] because of his bad jokes. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 615.

Straton

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Στράτων; Strátōn). [German version] [1] Attic comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Attic comedy writer of the 4th cent. BC, according to the Suda belonging to the Middle Comedy [1. test. 1], but on the basis of fr. 1,43 (mentioning Philitas [1] of Cos) certainly to the New Comedy [2.62 f.]. At the Dionysia of 302, S. attained the fourth place [1. test. 2]. Of the comedy Phoinikídes (fr. 1 PCG) a rhesis survives on papyrus (fr. 1,4-8; 11; 13-15; 17-21; 23-25; 34-50; cf. [3]) and in a divergent version in Athenaeus (fr. 1,1-47; cf. [1.621 f.]); the spe…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R. A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [German version] [2] Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, pupil of Isocrates (Ath. 1,18,11 A). Of his works, the following titles are known (cf. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Memorabil…

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Philostephanus

(477 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Φιλοστέφανος/ Philostéphanos). [German version] [1] P. of Cyrene Pupil of Callimachus, 3rd cent. BC Pupil (γνώριμος/ gnṓrimos) of Callimachus [3] (Ath. 331d; cf. [4. vol. 2, 752]), lived in the reign of Ptolemaeus Philopator (222-206 BC, cf. [1. 30]). Author of ostensibly geographical works whose true compass is in the aetiological and paradoxographic (Gell. NA 9,4,3 puts P. alongside other authors of res inauditae, Aristeas, Ctesias, Onesicritus), of which we have only scanty fragments and titles, which may also denote parts of a single comprehensive wor…

Poseidon

(2,631 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ποσειδῶν/ Poseidôn, Doric Ποτειδάν/ Poteidán, along with other forms of the name). I. Myth and cult [German version] A. General remarks P. was the Greek "god of the sea, of earthquakes and of horses" (Paus. 7,21,7). He belongs to the older strata of Greek religion: his name is already well attested in Mycenaean times. He was worshipped both in Knossos and in Pylus [2], where he also had a sanctuary (the Posidaion), a cult association (the Posidaiewes) and probably even a wife, Posidaeja [1. 181-185]; his local importance is still reflected in Pylian Nestor's [1] sacrifice to…

Ecphantides

(64 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐκφαντίδης; Ekphantídēs). Early playwright of the Old Comedy [1. test. 4]. After 458 BC, he won four times in the Dionysia [1. test. 1]. Two titles of his plays are known: Peírai and Sátyroi. An unknown play is the origin of fr. 3Ekphantides fr. 3, in which E. criticizes the Megarian Comedy. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 126-129.

Epochs, concept of

(9,873 words)

Author(s): Demandt, Alexander (Berlin RWG) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Kuhlmann, Peter (Düsseldorf/Gießen RWG)
Demandt, Alexander (Berlin RWG) I. Ancient History (CT) [German version] A. Definitions and Scope (CT) By Altertum ('Antiquity'“)”, Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, newly revised since 1890 by Georg Wissowa, understands the culture of the 'Classical' peoples of the Greeks and Romans, with the additions of the Ancient Orient, inclusive of Egypt, insofar as it has connecting links to the former; of the ancient peripheral cultures (Arabs, Germanic tribes, Jews, Carthaginians, Celts, Numidia…

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] B. La…

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be determined whether he was deposed at the beginning of the Ionian Revolt. Nevertheless, he was able to resume his reign after the Persians' victory (in 493/2 BC). In 479 he was able to elude a conspiracy (Hdt. 8,132). At the liberation of Ionia after the battle of Mycale in 479 S. may also have been toppled. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 5th/4th cents. BC Attic comi…

Nicochares

(86 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νικοχάρης; Nikochárēs). Comic poet of the 5th/4th cents. BC, from the Attic Cydathenaeum demos. Son of the comedian Philonides [1. test. 1 and 2]. 28 fragments and 9 titles are preserved, of which 7 are mythological (Ἀγαμέμνων, Ἀμυμώνη ὴ Πέλοψ, Γαλάτεια, Ἡρακλῆς γαμῶν, Ἡρακλῆς χορηγός, Λάκωνες, Λήμνιαι). With the Λάκωνες, he competed against Aristophanes' [3] second Πλοῦτος in 388; his Γαλάτεια dates from the same period [2. 203]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 39-49 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die attische Mittlere Komödie, 1990.

Archippus

(192 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy Poet of the Old Comedy, one-time winner at the Dionysia of the 91st Olympiad (415-412 BC) [1.test.1.2]. 61 fragments and six titles are extant, amongst them an Amphitryon and a Plutos. Rhinon and ‘Fishes’ ( Ichthyes) -- portraying a fish state (cf. Aristophanes' state of birds) in conflict with the Athenians -- were probably written after 403 BC. Occasionally, four plays by Aristophanes were also attributed to A. [1.test.4]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 538-557. [German version] [2] Pythagoraean Pythagorean who, acc…

Stratagus

(38 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Στράταγος; Strátagos). Greek comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC, known only from an honorary inscription by Dionysus technitai found in Ptolemais in Egypt ( c. 273-246 BC). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 616.

Aropus

(30 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of New Comedy known to us only through inscriptions; winner of the Lenaea festival in the 3rd cent. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 12.

Perseus

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Περσεύς; Perseús). [1] Son of Danae and Zeus, Argive hero [German version] I. Mythology Son of Danae and Zeus, who impregnates her in the form of a shower of gold; grandson of Acrisius, the king of Argos, and Eurydice. Because of an oracle predicting that the son of his daughter will kill him, Acrisius sets Danae and P. adrift at sea in a chest. Mother and son are washed ashore in Seriphus and found and taken in by Dictys [1]. When Polydectes, the brother of Dictys and king of Seriphus, wishes to marry Danae…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Laenes

(46 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λαίνης; Laínēs). Comic poet of the 2nd cent. BC, attested only in inscriptions; he won three victories at the Dionysia (1. test. 2), one of which is dated to 185 BC (1. test. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 609.

Nicodemus

(296 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος; Nikódēmos). [German version] [1] Prosecutor of Demosthenes, probably died after 349 BC Athenian from Aphidna, prosecutor of Demosthenes [2] (Aeschin. 2,148), friend of Meidias [2] and of Eubulus [1], was killed by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12) in 352 BC: [2]; (according to [1. 112] and [3. 9-12] the preferred date is more likely after 349 BC), for which deed Meidias held Demosthenes responsible (also [1. 102-105]; Aristot. Rh. 1397b 7 see [2]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Schäfer, vol. 2 2 H.E. Stier, s.v. Nikodemos (2), RE 1…

Narcissus

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] I. Mythical character (Νάρκισσος/ Nárkissos, Lat. Narcissus). [German version] A. Mythology Narcissus is the personification of a plant by the same name; as with many plants, the etymology may be pre-Greek (Chantraine, vol. 2, s.v.). The aetiological myth of Narcissus is documented only in relatively late sources and is unlikely to be earlier than Hellenistic. Conon [4] (FGrH 26 F 1,26), a mythographer, who knew many local myths, tells of the fate of a handsome youth from Thespiae in Boeotia…

Emmenides

(35 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐμμενίδης; Emmenídēs). Writer of New Comedy [1] known to us only epigraphically; won a victory at the Lenaia in the 2nd cent. BC. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 130.

Satyr

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros, pl. Σάτυροι/ Sátyroi, Latin Satur, Satyrus), also Silenus (Σι-, Σειληνός/ Si-, Seilēnós, pl. Σι-, Σειληνοί/ Si-, Seilēnoí, Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós, Latin Silenus, Silanus). [German version] I. Mythology, art and cult A satyr/Silenus was a member of a group of demons who, since their relatively late emergence at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC, have formed part of the mythical entourage of the god Dionysus; Silens, as a more or less distinctive and independent figure, emerged from that retinue…

Crobylus

(56 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Κρωβύλος). Writer of comedies in the 4th cent. BC, with 11 fragments preserved: two can be assigned to the comedy Ἀπαγχόμενος (‘He Who Hangs Himself’), two to Ἀπολείπουσα (or -λιποῦσα, ‘The Woman Who Left (the Man) ’) and three to Ψευδυποβολιμαῖος (‘The False Substitute’). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 350-355.

Theseus

(1,832 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Θησεύς /Thēseús). Mythical king and national hero of the Athenians (Athens). T. belongs to the generation before the Trojan War. He is the son of Aethra, daughter of Pittheus. His divine father is Poseidon, his human father the Athenian king Aegeus. [German version] I. Myth T. grew up with Pittheus at Troezen, because Aegeus abandoned the pregnant Aethra in the light of an oracular prophecy. Having found the symbolic items (sword, shoes) left there by Aegeus, he made his way to Athens. During the journey, T. had to survive several battles…

Lampytus

(36 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λάμπυτος; Lámpytos). Poet of the New Comedy, known only from an inscription; in 167 BC he took fourth place at the Dionysia (I. test.). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 609.

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Telecleides

(154 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Τηλεκλείδης; Tēlekleídēs). Writer of the Attic Old Comedy with three victories at the Dionysia [1. test. 3] and five at the Lenaea [1. test. 4], from the generation of Cratinus [1. test. 3 and 4], i.e. c. 450-420 BC. Despite his success only 8 titles and 73 fragments have been preserved. In them there is a great deal of personal derision: against Pericles (fr. 18; 47), but also against poets such as Philocles [4] (fr. 15; 31), Nothippus (fr. 17) and and the Socrates-inspired Euripides [1] (fr. 41), perhaps against Morychus ( Apseudeís, fr. 12, probably soon after 426 BC…

Nicolaus

(2,154 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | CH.KÄ. | Et al.
(Νικόλαος/ Nikólaos). [German version] [1] Strategos of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria, 219 BC Aetolian, stratēgós of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria. In 219 BC, he unsuccessfully besieged the dissident Theodotus in Ptolemais,  but succeeded in preventing the encirclement of Dora by Antiochus [5] III. Made supreme commander in 218, he occupied the coastal pass north of Sidon, but was repelled by Antiochus at the Damuras river. N. then probably defected to Antiochus, whom he accompanied in 209 to Hyr…

Theognetus

(88 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Θεόγνητος; Theógnētos). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC (cf. Pantaleon mentioned in fr. 2). Two fragments and three titles survive: Κένταυρος ('The centaur'), Φιλοδέσποτος ('The one who loves his master', probably referring to a slave [2. 28710]) and Φάσμα ἢ Φιλάργυρος ('The ghost or The miser'); in the surviving fr. 1 of this play there is mockery of somebody who has lost his mind in the pursuit of Stoic philosophy. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 696-698 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990.

Epigenes

(499 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἐπιγένης; Epigénēs). [German version] [0] Of Sicyon, Greek tragedian, 6th cent. BC E. of  Sicyon. According to the Suda s. v.  Thespis (θ 282 = TrGF I 1 T 1), the first tragedian (6th cent. BC). The audience supposedly reacted to the lack of Dionysiac content in his plays with the proverbial exclamation οὐδὲν πρὸς τὸν Διόνυσον ( oudèn pròs tòn Diónyson, ‘But this has nothing to do with  Dionysus!’; TrGF I 1 T 18,3). Perhaps E.'s activity may be related to the τραγικοὶ χοροί ( tragikoì choroí, ‘tragic choruses’) attested for Sicyon in Hdt. 5,67 [2. 21-23].  Tragedy I Zimmermann, Bernhard (Fr…

Archedicus

(85 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the New Comedy, from whom four fragments and two titles ( Diamartanon, Thesauros, where a cook speaks) are extant. Worthy of note is his attack on the politician  Demochares, nephew of Demosthenes [1 test.2 and fr. 4]. A. could be identical with the anagrapheus of the year 320/19 and may have been politically active as ally of the Macedonian royal administrator  Antipater [2]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 533-536 2 Chr. Habicht, The comic poet A., in: Hesperia 62, 1993, 253-256.

Odysseus

(2,574 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ὀδυσσεύς, Latin Ulixes, Etruscan utuze). [German version] I. Mythology Son of Laertes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus. One of the central figures of Greek mythology; in Homer's Odyssey, the focus of a major Archaic epic. This fact alone indicates the significance of the figure of  O., which contrasts with the other figures of Greek heroic myth through the emphasis on special intellectual abilities. Thus, he represents an archetype in the history of European thought; his presence in later literature a…

Dioxippus

(73 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Διώξιππος; Diṓxippos). Poet of the Middle Comedy; titles of five plays have survived [1. test. 1]: Antipornoboskós [2], Diadikazómenoi, Thēsaurós, Historiográphos (possibly mocking the oligarchic, pro-Macedonian politician Callimedon, fr. 3Dioxippos fr. 3), and Philárgyros. He was probably involved in the Lenaea of 349 BC as didaskalos for a play by Anaxandrides [1. test. 2]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 44-46 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990, 324.

Athenocles

(201 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνοκλῆς; Athēnoklês). [German version] [1] From Cyzicus. Grammarian, 3rd/2nd cent. BC from Cyzicus. Grammarian. On the basis of Didymus in Schol. Hom. Od. 14,503, where in reference to him the word προηθέτει (‘has athetized earlier’) is used (see also Schol. Hom. Od. 6,144), he is believed to be older than Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace or at least one of his contemporaries, so that he can also be placed in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC. Ammonius [3] of Alexandria, the student of Aristarchus, published a text Πρ…

Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Phoenicides

(104 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φοινικίδης/ Phoinikídēs). 3rd century BC comic poet from Megara [1. test. 2]; twice victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. 3]. At the Lenaea he took fifth place in 285 with the Ἀνασῳζόμενοι/ Anasōizómenoi, and fourth place the following year with the Ποιητής/ Poiētḗs. Four fragments and five titles (in addition to those already listed: Αὐλητρίδες/ Aulētrides, Μισουμένη/ Misouménē, Φύλαρχος/ Phýlarchos) survive; in the untitled fragment 4, a hetaira wants to give up her craft because of bad experiences she had had with three lovers (a soldier, a ph…

Nicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Νίκων; Níkōn). [German version] [1] Theban military leader, 413 BC Theban leader of 300 Boeotian hoplites who, together with some Spartan units, crossed over to Sicily in 413 BC in order to defend Syracuse (Thuc. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 4th/3rd cent. BC Comedy writer of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC; there is a preserved fragment of a play Kitharōdós, in which apparently the direct speech of a non-Greek slave is quoted (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [German version] [3] Co-founder of the anti-Roman alliance of…

Aristonymus

(32 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the Old Comedy, of whom the titles Theseus and Helios Rhigon, as well as eight fragments are extant. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 571-573.

Theon

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Θέων; Théōn). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Samos, 300 BC and after T. of Samos was a Greek painter of the Hellenistic Period, who was active around and after 300 BC. His skill as a creator of images and the successful way in which his paintings were composed were praised in handbooks of rhetoric (e.g. Quint. Inst. 12,10,6) as examples to be followed. The viewer's creative imagination and intuitive understanding were meant to be stimulated at the same time by means of the artistic phantasía (Lat. ingenium, 'image creation'; Phantasia), so that the viewer might imagine e…

Ephippus

(265 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἔφιππος; Éphippos). [German version] [1] Author in the period of Alexander the Great of Olynthus, at the court of  Alexander [4] the Great during the final years; he later wrote an anecdotal work ‘On the life and death of Hephaestion and Alexander’. As all extant fragments (FGrH 126) derive from  Athenaeus [3], they for the most part describe banquets. We also hear that Alexander was in the habit of putting on the insignia of various gods, and like  Gorgus sought the liberation of Samos. Identification of E. with an officer of Alexander in Egypt (cf. Berve 2, no. 331) is erroneously based. Badi…

Nicophon

(123 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νικοφῶν; Nikophôn). Comic poet of the 5th/4th cents. BC; he was victorious at the Lenaea and prior to 402 at the Dionysia [1. Test. 3 and 4; 2. 203]. In 388 his Ἄδωνις ( Ádōnis) rivaled Aristophanes' Πλοῦτος (Ploûtos). 30 fragments have survived; of the six known titles four have a mythological subject: In addition to Ἄδωνις, the titles are Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Aphrodítēs gonaí) , Πανδώρα ( Pandṓra), Σειρῆνες ( Seirênes); the latter [1. Fr. 20-22] treat the popular topic of the Land of Plenty. The titles indicate that N. (although Athenaeus [3] and H…

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Leucon

(431 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Λεύκων; Leúkōn). [German version] [1] Boeotian hero Boeotian hero, son of Athamas and Themisto, daughter of the Lapith king Hypseus (Apollod. 1,9,2). His daughter Euippe marries Andreus of Orchomenus (Paus. 9,34,6f.). Eponym of Lake Leuconis (= Copais) (Steph. Byz.). Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Author of Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Author of Old Comedy who competed in the Lenaea of 422 BC with the play Πρέσβεις (‘Legates’) against Aristophanes' ‘Wasps’, and in the Dionysia of 421 with the play Φράτερες against the latter's ‘Peace’…

Caricature

(725 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] The terms caricature, grotesque,   grylloi are sometimes defined differently, sometimes not strictly separated, sometimes used synonymously [11. 89]; but although the word grotesque is differentiated from caricature because, unlike it, caricature refers precisely to a model, in order to cover as many aspects as possible a broader definition of the term caricature is to be preferred [4. 4]. Therefore, regarding term and delimitation. cf. the essential [9]. Caricature as deviation from the normal evoked mockery very early on (Thersites: Hom. Il. 2…

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Philyllius

(112 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φιλύλλιος; Philýllios). Comic poet from the 5th/4th cents. BC; according to the Suda he was a contemporary of Diocles [5] and Sannyrion [1. test. 2]. He was victorious at the Lenaean festival and possibly at the Dionysian [1. test. 3, *4]. Thirty-three fragments and ten titles have survived, of which six are of a mythical nature (Αἰγεύς, Ἀταλάντη, Αὔγη, Ἑλένη, Ἡρακλῆς, Πλύντριαι ἢ Ναυσικάα; 'Aegeus', 'Atalante', 'Auge', 'Helen', 'Heracles, 'The Washerwomen or Nausicaa'). The last-…

Poliochus

(42 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πολίοχος; Políochos). Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC, victor on one occasion at the Lenaea [1. test. 1]. Two fragments survive, one from the play Κορινθιαστής ( Korinthiastḗs, 'The Whoremonger'). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 550-551.

Xenophilus

(338 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ξενόφιλος/ Xenóphilos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer of the 5th cent. BC Comedy writer of the 5th cent. BC, victorious once at the Lenaia [1. test. 2] and possibly also once at the Dionysia [1. test. 1]; neither play titles nor fragments survive. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 803. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcidice Pythagorean and music theorist, c. 400 BC Pupil of Philolaus [2] (Diog. Laert. 8,46) and one of the last of the Pythagoreans (Iambl. v.P. 251; cf. Pythagoras [2]). X. was thought remarkable in Antiquity prim…

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in 403 BC. In 397 he and  Cephalus advocated collaboration with Persia and a clean, quick break with Sparta, even at the risk of a new war (Hell. Oxy. 10, 1-2 Chambers). After Conon's victory in the Aegean in 394, he accompanied Phormisius to the Persian king as emissary of Athens. On his return he was accused of corruption but acquitted. In 392/1 he went to Sparta as an …

Sirens

(706 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σειρῆνες/ Seirḗnes; Latin Sirenes, Sirenae). [German version] I. Mythology Mythical female creatures who sing seductively Sirens are mythical beings (in Greek myth female) in ancient sailors' tales (the earliest evidence - admittedly without context - extends back to the Mycenaean period [1]). Their seductive song makes sailors forget their home  (cf. Lotophagi) and perish. Instructed by Circe, Odysseus outwits the Sirens: he stops the ears of his companions with wax and has himself tied to the mast with inst…

Polyzelus

(180 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύζηλος/ Polýzēlos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, c. 400 BC Comic poet of the late 5th and early 4th cent. BC; won four victories at the Lenaea [1. test. 2]. 13 frr. and five titles survive. Four of them are mythological (Ἀφροδίτης γοναί/ Aphrodítēs gonaí, 'The Birth of Aphrodite'; Δημοτυνδάρεως/ Dēmotyndáreōs, Διονύσου γοναί/ Dionýsou gonaí, 'The Birth of Dionysus'; Μουσῶν γοναί/ Mousôn gonaí, 'The Birth of the Muses'); he evidently favoured comedic presentations of the births of gods, a special variety of mythological play in vogue at the turn of …

Aristagoras

(341 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀρισταγόρας; Aristagóras, Ionic Ἀρισταγόρης; Aristagórēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cyzicus (end of the 6th cent. BC) Tyrant of Cyzicus, mentioned in Hdt. 4,138 because he supported the Persian king  Darius with a naval unit during his campaign against the Scythians about 513 BC [1. 87, 569]. Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Cyme (around 500 BC) Son of Heracleides, tyrant of Cyme, mentioned by Herodotes (4,138) as being important in the Aeolis along with A. [1]; he participated in the expedition against Naxos before the Ionia…

Aristophon

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστοφῶν; Aristophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Member of the Athenian regime of 400 oligarchs in 411 BC. Sent by them as an emissary to Sparta, he was abducted to Samos by Athenian democrats and Argives (Thuc. 8,86,9; PA, 2102; Traill PAA, 175995. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian politician (end of the 5th-middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athens. Politician, who was honoured in 403 BC for his resistance against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) by   ateleia (ἀτέλεια) (Dem. Or. 20,148). Until his deat…

Niobe

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νιόβη/ Nióbē, Lat. Nioba). [German version] I. Mythology Daughter of Tantalus and Dione or Euryanassa (Hyg. Fab. 9, schol. Eur. Or. 4) and wife of Amphion [1] (Hes. fr. 183 M./W.). The oldest version of the myth is found in Hom. Il. 24,602-617 in the form of a comparison by which Achilles seeks to induce Priam to overcome his grief over his son's death just as N. did. N.'s children, the Niobids (Νιοβίδαι/ Niobídai, Lat. Niobidae), were killed by Apollo and Artemis after N. boasted of her superiority to their mother, Leto, because Leto had borne only two children, whil…

Ararus

(103 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] Son of  Aristophanes [3]; had the victory at the Dionysia 387 BC with the Kokalos of his father ([1. test.1; 3], [2]) and probably soon thereafter performed the second Aiolosikon of his father (Aristophanes, Aiolosikon, test. iv). The Suda [1. test. 1] places the beginning of A.'s activity in the 101st Olympiad (376/5-373/2 BC), which presumably means the performing of his own works [2], of which six titles (three of mythic content, three of non-mythic content) are extant. Alexis fr. 184 derides A. as frosty [1.test.4]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II…

Poses

(94 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ποσῆς/ Posês). Athenian comedian in the early 1st century BC; his father was a comedian called Ariston [2. 569], as was his son [2. 570]; victor at the Sarapian Games in Tanagra in c. 85 [1. test. 1]. P. was also an archon (in 88/87 [1. test. 2]), a gymnasiarch [1. test. 3] and together with his brother Timostratus a mint-magistrate ( c. 101 [1. test. 4]. Neither fragments nor titles of his plays survive. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 560 2 PCG II, 1991, 569-570 3 Ch. Habicht, Athen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1994, 296.

Polykleitos

(1,934 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος). [English version] [1] griech. Bronzebildner aus Sikyon, 5. oder 4. Jh. v. Chr. der griech. Bronzebildner Polyklet. Neudecker, Richard (Rom) [English version] I. Allgemeines Bronzebildner aus Sikyon, in Argos Schüler des Ageladas. Biographische Angaben zu P. sind dürftig. Seine Söhne galten als wenig erfolgreich. P. [2] kann wegen des Namens ein Neffe, somit Naukydes ein Bruder des P. gewesen sein. Sechs Schüler mit zumeist nichtssagenden Namen sind überliefert. Dennoch wurden verschiedentlich Familien- un…

Niobe

(1,193 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νιόβη, lat. Nioba). [English version] I. Mythologie Tochter des Tantalos und der Dione oder Euryanassa (Hyg. fab. 9, schol. Eur. Or. 4) und Gattin des Amphion [1] (Hes. fr. 183 M./W.). Die älteste Fassung des Mythos bietet Hom. Il. 24,602-617 in Form eines Gleichnisses, mit dem Achilleus Priamos veranlassen will, von seinem Schmerz über den Tod des Sohnes abzulassen, so wie dies N. ebenfalls getan habe. N.s Kinder, die Niobiden (Νιοβίδαι, lat. Niobidae), werden von Apollon und Artemis getötet, nachdem sich N. hochmütig über deren Mutter Leto gestellt hat, weil dies…

Poses

(85 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Ποσῆς). Athenischer Komödiendichter des früheren 1. Jh. v. Chr.; er war Sohn eines Komödiendichters Ariston [2. 569] wie auch Vater eines solchen [2. 570]; ca. 85 Sieger an den Sarapischen Spielen in Tanagra [1. test. 1]. P. war ebenfalls Archon (88/87 [1. test. 2]), Gymnasiarch [1. test. 3] und neben seinem Bruder Timostratos Münzmagistrat (um 101 [1. test. 4]. Weder Fr. noch Stücktitel sind erhalten. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 560 2 PCG II, 1991, 569-570 3 Ch. Habicht, Athen in hell. Zeit, 1994, 296.

Philostephanos

(441 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Φιλοστέφανος). [English version] [1] Ph. von Kyrene Schüler des Kallimachos, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Schüler (γνώριμος) des Kallimachos [3] (Athen. 331d; vgl. [4. Bd. 2, 752]), lebte unter Ptolemaios Philopator (222-206 v.Chr., vgl. [1. 30]). Verf. von scheinbar geogr., tatsächlich aber aitiologisch und paradoxographisch ausgerichteten Werken (Gell. 9,4,3 stellt Ph. neben andere Schriftsteller von res inauditae, Aristeas, Ktesias, Onesikritos), von denen wir nur dürftige Fr. und die Titel besitzen, die vielleicht auch Teile eines umfassenden Werkes (oder e…

Lykis

(37 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] Dichter der Alten Komödie, siegte frühestens 411 v.Chr. an den Dionysien [1. test. 1]; bei Aristoph. Ran. 12-15 [1. test. 2] wegen seiner abgestandenen Witze verspottet. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 615.

Dromon

(27 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Δρόμων). Dichter des 4. Jh.v.Chr., von dem zwei Fragmente des Stücks Psaltria erh. sind [1]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 124-125.

Herakleides

(3,898 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Politiker und Schriftsteller H. [19] Lembos, der Philosoph H. [16] Pontikos d.J., der Arzt H. [27] aus Tarent. I. Politische Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] Fürsprecher Athens am pers. Hof, Ende 5. Jh. v. Chr. H. aus Klazomenai (vgl. Plat. Ion 541d) stand in persischen Diensten, darum wohl basileús genannt. Er hat so 423 v.Chr. wertvolle Dienste am persischen Hof für Athen leisten können, wofür er bald nach seiner Übersiedlung das att. Bürgerrecht erhielt (nach 400, Syll.3 118). Um die Athener für eine noch stärkere Teiln…

Ekphantides

(55 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Ἐκφαντίδης). .Früher Dichter der Alten Komödie [1. test. 4]; siegte nach 458 v.Chr. viermal an den Dionysien [1. test. 1]. Bekannt sind die Stücktitel Peírai und Sátyroi. Aus einem unbekannten Stück stammt fr. 3Ekphantides fr. 3, in dem E. die megarische Komödie kritisiert. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 126-129.

Laines

(42 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Λαίνης). Nur inschr. bezeugter Komödiendichter des 2. Jh.v.Chr.; er errang drei Siege an den Dionysien (1. test. 2), von denen einer in das Jahr 185 v.Chr. datiert ist (1. test. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 609.

Perseus

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München)
(Περσεύς). [1] Sohn der Danae und des Zeus, argiv. Heros [English version] I. Mythologie Sohn der Danaë und des Zeus, der sie in Form eines Goldregens schwängert; Enkel des Akrisios, des Königs von Argos, und der Eurydike. Aufgrund eines Orakels, daß der Sohn seiner Tochter ihn töten werde, setzt Akrisios Danaë und P. in einem Kästchen auf dem Meer aus. In Seriphos angespült, werden Mutter und Sohn von Diktys [1] gefunden und aufgenommen. Als Polydektes, der Bruder des Diktys und König von Seriphos, Danaë geg…

Laon

(63 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Λάων; Láōn). Writer of the New Comedy. As he is quoted by Heraclides [18], it is safe to assume he belongs in the 3rd cent. BC. Two fragments are extant, of which fragment 1 is from a play Διαθῆκαι ( Diathêkai, ‘The Wills’); in fragment 2 (without a play title) an adulterer speaks. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V 610.

Sphinx

(1,195 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σφίγξ/ Sphínx, also ἀνδροσφίγξ/ androsphínx: Hdt. 2,175; Boeotian: φίξ/ phíx; pl. Σφίγγες/ Sphínges). [German version] I. Egypt Depiction of the Egyptian king with the body of a lion and a human head Greek designation for the depictions which were originally only of the Egyptian king with the body of a lion and a human head; there is no known Egyptian designation for this type of image. Three-dimensional sculptural representations of recumbent sphinxes have been documented since the 4th Dynasty. (Djedefre, 2570-2450 BC). The great sphinx of Gizeh, worshipped…

Dromon

(29 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Δρόμων; Drómōn). Poet of the 4th cent. BC; two fragments of his play Psaltria are extant [1]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 124-125.

Nike

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νίκη; Níkē). [German version] I. Mythology N. is the Greek personification of victory. As early as in Hesiod she is an abstract concept: Nike is the daughter of Styx and Pallas and the sister of similar personifications: Zelos (zeal), Kratos (power) and Bia (force) (Hes. Theog. 384-385). Zeus commands these powers forever (ibid. 388), since, on the advise of Styx, they supported him in the Gigantomachy (ibid. 389-403; Serv. Aen. 6,134). Nonnus outlined N.'s participation in the battle (Nonnus, Dion. …

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Arcesilaus

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος; Arkesílaos). [German version] [1] Arcesilaus I. King of Cyrene (beginning of 6th cent. BC) Son and successor of  Battus I as king of  Cyrene. Ruled early in the 6th cent. BC for 16 years (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] A. II. King of Cyrene middle of 6th cent. BC) the ‘Cruel’, son and successor of Battus II, grandson of Arcesilaus I, successfully fought against an opposition led by his brothers at his accession 565/60 BC. They left the town, founded Barca in the western Cyrenaica and made an alliance wit…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Chronology

(14,519 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Matthäus, Hartmut | Kuhlmann, Peter (Düsseldorf/Gießen RWG) | Schmitz, Thomas A.
Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) I. Classical Archaeology (CT) [German version] A. Comparative Chronology (CT) Before any artefacts can be placed within an historical time scale, it makes sense to determine their relationship to each other (comparative chronology) by means of stratigraphy and by observing how morphological changes in objects take place. The basic principles of stratigraphy were established by geologists during the first half of the 19th cent. In 1847, J. Boucher de Perthes applied the observations made about the layers of the earth …

Zeus

(4,058 words)

Author(s): Henrichs, Albert (Cambridge, MA) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ζεύς/ Zeús, genitive Διός/ Diós). [German version] I. Name and identity Chief Greek god of the heavens As the chief Greek god of the heavens, patriarchal 'father of gods and men' (Hom. Il. 1,544) and the embodiment of rule, justice and omnipotence, Z. stands at the head of the Olympian family of gods (Twelve (Olympian) gods). His symbols include the eagle, bundle of lightning or thunderbolt and sceptre [32. 30-32]. As the 'highest' god both with regard to his residence and his position, he bears the epithets Hýpatos [7. 202 f.] and Hýpsistos in literature and …

Nouius

(31 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νούιος; Noúios). Comic poet of the 2nd cent. BC, known only from inscriptions; achieved three victories at the Lenaea. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 94.

Silen(s)

(780 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σιληνός/ Silēnós, Σειληνός/ Seilēnós; Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós; Lat. Silenus, Silanus). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] I. Mythology Creature from Dionysus' entourage Among the collectively acting silens or satyrs, one silen/Silen(us) stands out as a single figure whose origin remains unclear (perhaps comparable: Chiron among the centaurs; Pan in contrast to the various Pans). This figure was fleshed out in mythical stories and satyr plays. The 'Midas-silen' expresses a pessimistic thought to the Phrygian king Midas, a thought typical for the Archai…

Nikophon

(107 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Νικοφῶν). Komödiendichter des 5./4. Jh. v.Chr., siegte an den Lenäen und vor 402 an den Dionysien [1. test. 3 und 4; 2. 203]. 388 rivalisierte er mit seinem Ἄδωνις mit Aristophanes' Πλοῦτος. Erh. sind 30 Fr.; von den sechs bekannten Titeln geben vier ein myth. Sujet an: neben dem erwähnten Ἄδωνις die Titel Ἀφροδίτης γοναί, Πανδώρα, Σειρῆνες; letztere [1. fr. 20-22] behandeln das beliebte Thema des Schlaraffenlandes. Die Titel zeigen, daß N. (obwohl von Athenaios [3] und Harpokra…

Nouios

(25 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Νούιος). Nur inschr. bezeugter Komödiendichter des 2. Jh.v.Chr.; errang drei Siege an den Lenäen. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 94.

Polyzelos

(158 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύζηλος). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter, um 400 v. Chr. Komödiendichter vom E. des 5./Anf. des 4. Jh. v. Chr.; errang vier Lenäensiege [1. test. 2]. Erh. sind 13 Fr. und fünf Stücktitel, davon vier myth. (Ἀφροδίτης γοναί/‘Die Geburt der Aphrodite, Δημοτυνδάρεως/ ‘Demotyndareos, Διονύσου γοναί/‘Die Geburt des Dionysos, Μουσῶν γοναί/‘Die Geburt der Musen); der Dichter bevorzugte offenbar komische Darstellungen von Göttergeburten, eine Sonderspielart myth. Stücke, die um die Wende 5./4. Jh. oder …

Epochenbegriffe

(8,373 words)

Author(s): Demandt, Alexander (Berlin) RWG | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) RWG | Kuhlmann, Peter (Düsseldorf/Gießen) RWG
Demandt, Alexander (Berlin) RWG I. Alte Geschichte (RWG) [English version] A. Definitionen und Abgrenzungen (RWG) Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, neu bearbeitet seit 1890 von Georg Wissowa, versteht unter “Altertum” die Kultur der “klass.” Völker der Griechen und Römer, ergänzt um den Alten Orient einschließlich Ägyptens, soweit er mit jenen in Verbindung steht, um die ant. Randkulturen (Araber, Germanen, …

Nikon

(229 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Köln) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Folkerts, Menso (München)
(Νίκων). [English version] [1] thebanischer mil. Anführer, 413 v.Chr. Thebaner, Anführer 300 boiotischer Hopliten, die im Jahre 413 v.Chr. mit spartanischen Einheiten nach Sizilien übersetzten, um Syrakus zu verteidigen (Thuk. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Köln) [English version] [2] Komödiendichter, 4./3. Jh. v. Chr. Komödiendichter des 4. oder 3. Jh.v.Chr.; erh. ist das Fr. eines Stücks Kitharōdós, in dem offenbar die direkte Rede eines nichtgriech. Sklaven zitiert wird (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [English version] [3] Mitbegründer des an…

Dioxippos

(74 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Διώξιππος). Dichter der Mittleren Komödie, von dem noch fünf Stücktitel bekannt sind [1. test. 1]: Antipornoboskós [2], Diadikazómenoi, Thēsaurós, Historiográphos (in dem vielleicht der oligarchische, promaked. Politiker Kallimedon verspottet wird, fr. 3Dioxippos fr. 3) und Philárgyros. Betätigte sich wahrscheinlich bei den Lenäen 349 v.Chr. als Didaskalos für ein Stück des Anaxandrides [1. test. 2]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 44-46 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990, 324.

Athenion

(462 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων). [English version] [1] peripat. Rhetor in Athen, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Peripatetischer Rhetor in Athen (verschieden von Aristion [1. 341-343]), nur aus einer polemischen Partei des Poseidonios bekannt (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Von Athen 88 v.Chr. zu Mithradates VI. gesandt, von diesem unter seine φίλοι ( phíloi, Freunde) aufgenommen, gewann er mit dessen Unterstützung die Volksgunst und nahm als στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategós epí tá hópla) bestimmenden Einfluß auf die Politik Athens (“Tyrann”). Ein mißglückter Überfall auf Delos beendete offenbar seine polit. Karriere. Olshausen, …

Emmenides

(28 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Ἐμμενίδης). Nur inschr. bekannter Dichter der Neuen Komödie [1]; siegte im 2. Jh.v.Chr. an den Lenäen. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 130.

Dioskurides

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης). [English version] [1] Sohn von Polemaios, Flottenkommandeur 314-313 v. Chr. Sohn von Polemaios, Neffe von Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos. Als Flottenkommandeur 314-13 v.Chr. erzielte er einige Erfolge. Sein weiteres Schicksal ist unbekannt. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R.A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [English version] [2] Polyhistor, 4. und 3. Jh. v. Chr. Polyhistor des 4. und 3. Jh.v.Chr., Schüler des Isokrates (Athen. 1,18,11 A). Von seinen Werken kennen wir folgende Titel (vgl. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Denkwürdigke…

Karikatur

(664 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] Die Begriffe K., Groteske, Grylloi werden teils verschieden definiert, teils nicht strikt getrennt, teils syn. gebraucht [11. 89]; aber obwohl sich gerade das Groteske von der K., weil nicht wie sie unbedingt auf ein Vorbild bezogen, von dieser unterscheiden läßt, wird hier zur Erfassung möglichst vieler Erscheinungen ein weiter gefaßter K.-Begriff bevorzugt [4. 4]. Zu Begriff und Abgrenzung vgl. daher unbedingt [9]. K. als Abweichung vom Normalen rief schon früh Spott hervor (Thersites: Hom. Il. 2,212ff.); mißproportionierte Gestalten er…

Athenokles

(188 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνοκλῆς). [English version] [1] aus Kyzikos, Grammatiker, 3./2. Jh. v. Chr. aus Kyzikos. Grammatiker. Auf Grund von Didymos in schol. Hom. Od. 14,503, wo in Bezug auf ihn das Wort προηθέτει (‘hat schon vorher athetiert’) benutzt wird (s. auch schol. Hom. Od. 6,144), hält man ihn für älter als Aristarchos [4] von Samothrake oder höchstens für einen seiner Zeitgenossen, so daß er also ins 3./2.Jh. v.Chr. zu setzen ist. Gegen ihn verfaßte Ammonios [3] aus Alexandreia, der Schüler des Aristarchos, eine Schr…

Phoinikides

(98 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Φοινικίδης). Komödiendichter des 3. Jh. v.Chr. aus Megara [1. test. 2]; siegte zweimal an den Dionysien [1. test. 3], errang an den Lenäen 285 mit den Ἀνασῳζόμενοι den fünften, im folgenden Jahr mit dem Ποιητής den vierten Platz. Erh. sind vier Fr. und fünf Titel (neben den genannten Αὐλητρίδες, Μισουμένη, Φύλαρχος); im ohne Titel erhaltenen Fr. 4 will eine Hetäre ihr Handwerk aufgeben, weil sie mit drei Liebhabern (einem Soldaten, einem Arzt und einem Philosophen) zu schlechte Erfahrungen gemacht habe [2. 323]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7,…

Nikochares

(77 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Νικοχάρης). Komödiendichter des 5./ 4. Jh.v.Chr., aus dem att. Demos Kydathenaion. Sohn des Komikers Philonides [1. test. 1 und 2]. Erh. sind 28 Fr. und 9 Titel, davon 7 myth. (Ἀγαμέμνων, Ἀμυμώνη ὴ Πέλοψ, Γαλάτεια, Ἡρακλῆς γαμῶν, Ἡρακλῆς χορηγός, Λάκωνες, Λήμνιαι). Mit den Λάκωνες konkurrierte er 388 gegen Aristophanes' [3] zweiten Πλοῦτος; seine Γαλάτεια stammt aus derselben Zeit [2. 203]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 39-49 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990.

Krobylos

(52 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Κρωβύλος). Komödiendichter des 4. Jh. v.Chr., von dem 11 Fr. erh. sind; zwei davon lassen sich der Komödie Ἀπαγχόμενος (‘Der sich Erhängende), zwei der Ἀπολείπουσα (oder -λιποῦσα, ‘Die Frau, die (den Mann) verläßt) und drei dem Ψευδυποβολιμαῖος (‘Der falsch Untergeschobene) zuordnen. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 350-355.

Aropos

(21 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] Nur inschr. bezeugter Dichter der Neuen Komödie; Lenäensieger im 3.Jh. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 12.

Nike

(975 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νίκη). [English version] I. Mythologisch N. ist die griech. Personifikation des Sieges. Abstrakt ist schon ihre Konzeption bei Hesiod: N. ist die Tochter der Styx und des Pallas und hat ähnliche Personifikationen, nämlich Zelos (Eifer), Kratos (Macht) und Bia (Gewalt) als Geschwister (Hes. theog. 384-385). Zeus verfügt über diese Kräfte auf ewig (ebd. 388), da sie ihn in der Gigantomachie auf Anraten der Styx unterstützten (ebd. 389-403; Serv. Aen. 6,134); Nonnos skizziert kurz auch N.s Beteiligung …

Poliochos

(39 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Πολίοχος). Att. Komödiendichter des 5. Jh. v. Chr., siegte einmal an den Lenäen [1. test. 1]. Erh. sind zwei Fr., davon eines aus dem Stück Κορινθιαστής ( Korinthiastḗs, ‘Der Liederliche). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 550-551.

Archippos

(199 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] [1] Dichter der Alten Komödie Dichter der Alten Komödie, siegte einmal an den Dionysien in der 91. Ol. (415-412 v. Chr.) [1.test.1.2]. 61 Fragmente und 6 Titel sind erh., darunter ein Amphitryon und ein Plutos. Der Rhinon und die ›Fische‹ ( Ichthyes) - in denen ein Fisch-Staat (vgl. den Vogel-Staat des Aristophanes) in Auseinandersetzung mit den Athenern dargestellt war - lassen sich wohl bald nach 403 datieren. Gelegentlich wurden auch 4 Stücke des Aristophanes dem A. zugewiesen [1.test.4]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 538-557. …

Arkesilaos

(1,129 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος). [English version] [1] A.I. König von Kyrene (Anf. 6. Jh. v.Chr.) Sohn und Nachfolger des Battos I. im Königsamt von Kyrene. Regierte Anf. des 6. Jh. v.Chr. für 16 Jahre (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [English version] [2] A. II. König von Kyrene (Mitte 6. Jh. v.Chr.) der “Grausame”, Sohn und Nachfolger des Battos II., Enkel von A.I., kämpfte bei Regierungsantritt um 565/60 v.Chr. erfolgreich gegen eine von seinen Brüdern angeführte Opposition. Diese verließen die Stadt, gründeten Barke in der westl. Kyrenaika und ver…

Nikodemos

(262 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος). [English version] [1] Ankläger des Demosthenes, gest. wohl nach 349 v.Chr. Athener aus Aphidna, Ankläger des Demosthenes [2] (Aischin. 2,148), Freund des Meidias [2] und des Eubulos [1], wurde von Aristarchos, dem Sohn des Moschos (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12), getötet (352 v.Chr.: [2]; vorzuziehen wohl nach 349, so [1. 112] und [3. 9-12]), wofür Meidias den Demosthenes verantwortlich machte (dazu [1. 102-105]; zu Aristot. rhet. 1397b 7 siehe [2]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Schäfer, Bd. 2 2 H.E. Stier, s.v. N. (2), RE 17, 347 3 D.M. MacDowell (ed.), Demo…

Epikrates

(372 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης). [English version] [1] Demokrat. Athener um 400 v. Chr. Athener. Kämpfte 403 v.Chr. auf seiten der Demokraten gegen die Oligarchie. 397 setzte er sich mit Kephalos für eine Zusammenarbeit mit Persien und einen raschen Bruch mit Sparta ein, auch auf die Gefahr eines neuen Krieges hin (Hell. Oxyrh. 10, 1-2 Chambers). Nach Konons Sieg in der Ägäis 394 mit Phormisios als Gesandter Athens beim persischen König. Nach seiner Rückkehr wegen Bestechlichkeit angeklagt, aber freigesprochen. 392/1 als Ges…

Nikias

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας). [English version] [1] bed. Feldherr im Peloponnesischen Krieg, ca. 470-413 v.Chr. Sohn des Nikeratos aus Athen, geb. ca. 470 v.Chr., gest. 413, einer der bedeutendsten Feldherren im Peloponnesischen Krieg. Nach dem Tode des Perikles konkurrierte N. mit Kleon [1] um Einfluß bei der Volksversammlung und die Zuweisung mil. Kommandos. Seine Politik zielte auf Beendigung der aggressiven athen. Expansionspolitik und Ausgleich mit Sparta ab. Seit 427 wurde N. regelmäßig zum stratēgós gewählt. Er leitete Expeditionen gegen das der Küste vo…

Laon

(46 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
[English version] (Λάων). Dichter der Neuen Komödie. Er gehört, da ihn Herakleides [18] zitiert, ins 3. Jh.v.Chr. Zwei Fr. sind erh., davon fr. 1 aus einem Stück Διαθῆκαι (‘Die Testamente); in fr. 2 (ohne Stücktitel) spricht ein Ehebrecher. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V 610.
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