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Margaret of Cortona

(170 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (c. 1247, Laviano – Feb 22, 1297, Cortona). When the young nobleman with whom Margaret had had a relationship for ten years died, she went to Cortona, where she settled with her illegitimate son (c. 1272–1274), leading an ascetic life and devoting herself to charitable work. A few years later, she became a Franciscan tertiary (Tertiaries); from 1288 she lived as a solitary at the ruined church of San Basilio, where she was buried in 1297. During her lifetime, the people of Cortona already considered her a saint; after her death, the bishop, the city, and the signori of Corton…

Patarines

(282 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] Patarines, a religious movement originating in Milan in the 11th century. Although its leaders, Arialdus and Landulf, were clerics, lay supporters played the most important role in the movement’s campaign against ¶ simony and Nicolaitanism (clerical marriage). In this period, most of the priests in Milan lived with wives ( clerici uxorati) and the archbishops of the diocese were appointed by the emperor. The conflicts between the Patarines and their opponents were often violent (pillaging the houses of Nicolaitan priests; murder o…

Jacopone da Todi

(180 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (c. 1230, Todi – 1306, Collazzone near Todi). Jacopone was initially a notary. After the sudden death of his wife, Vanna di Bernardino, he suffered a spiritual crisis. In 1278, he entered the order of the Minorites and sided with the Franciscan Rigorists (Spiritual Franciscans). Celestine V permitted the Spirituals to live in the congregation founded by the pope (Celestines) according to the Fransciscan Rule. After Celestine's abdication and the election of Boniface VIII, the Spir…

Fonte Avellana

(173 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] Fonte Avellana, a hermitage monastery founded at the end of the 10th century on the slope of Mount Catria (Gubbio diocese). Although Romuald of Ravenna probably did not play a role in its founding, his spirituality strongly influenced spiritual life in the area during this period. Fonte Avellana enjoyed its heyday in the mid-11th century, when Peter Damian was appointed prior (1043) and later (1063–72) spent his final years in Fonte Avellana. Fonte Avellana owed its reputation for being the center of perfect ascetic life to his Vita Romualdi, to the Consuetudines

Clare of Montefalco

(171 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (1268, Montefalco – Aug 17, 1308, Montefalco). While still a child, Clare (Chiara) followed her sister Johanna into the hermitage that she had founded, which initially had no rule. In 1290, probably under compulsion, she accepted the Augustinian Rule (Augustine, Rule of). But Chiara was also influenced by the Franciscans. After Johanna's death Chiara became abbess in 1291. Her ecstatic visions – which she discussed only reluctantly and which could last for …

Catherine of Genoa (Saint)

(205 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (C. Fieschi; 1447, Genoa – Sep 15, 1519, Genoa), a member of the Genoese higher nobility. At the age of 16, she was married to Giuliano Adorno. After living a worldly life for five years, she experienced a spiritual crisis. During the following years, she lived so ascetically that for a long time she did not eat; the Eucharist was sufficient for her survival. She devoted herself to the care of the sick and of abandoned children. Her husband was c…

Odo of Cluny (Saint)

(187 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (c. 879 – Nov 18, 942, Tours). After spending several years at the court of Duke William of Aquitaine, Odo, born to a noble family, entered the canonry of St. Martin’s in Tours and then studied with Remigius of Auxerre in Paris. At the age of 30, he entered the abbey of Baume-les-Messieurs at the western edge of the French Jura, founded by Berno, who later became the first abbot of Cluny. After Berno’s death, Odo succeeded him as abbot of Cluny, Déols, and Massay. In the years that followed, as abbot of Cluny – and with the support of popes and Alberic, the princeps of Rome – he fou…

Odilo of Cluny (Saint)

(188 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (c. 961 – Jan 1, 1049, Souvigny, Auvergne), came from the noble family of Mercour (Auvergne). He was first a canon in St. Julien ¶ in Brioude (Haute-Loire), and c. 990 became a monk in Cluny. From 993 Odilo was coadjutor of Abbot Maiolus of Cluny, and from 994 his successor. In 998 he received from Pope Gregory V exemption from the bishop of Macon. This privilege was extended in 1024 to all monasteries dependent on Cluny. Odilo was one of Emperor Otto III’s closest advisers, and wrote some important docum…

Catherine of Siena (Saint)

(219 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (c. 1347, Siena – Apr 29, 1380, Rome) was the youngest daughter of a cloth-dyer. She resolutely refused to marry in accordance with her parents' plans and, on reaching the age of 17 or 18, she became a Dominican tertiary (Tertiaries). She was well known in the town for her strict ascetic practices and for her charitable actions. A group of men and women gathered around her, forming a sort of family and calling Catherine their mother. In 1374, …

Apostolics

(169 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] The Apostolics of the Early Church criticized the church hierarchy and rejected property and marriage. In the Middle Ages, the name “Apostolics” (also Minimi, Pauperes Christi, or Pseudo-apostoli) was given to lay people who gathered around Gerard Segarelli after 1260, preaching without ecclesiastical permission and supporting themselves by begging. Disbanded by the Council of Lyon, the Apostolics…

Odo

(171 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[English Version] von Cluny (um 879 – 18.11.942 Tours). Nachdem der aus adliger Familie stammende O. einige Jahre am Hof Herzog Wilhelms von Aquitanien verbracht hatte, wurde er Kanoniker an St. Martin in Tours und Schüler des Remigius von Auxerre in Paris. Mit 30 Jahren trat er in das durch Berno, den späteren ersten Abt von Cluny, am Westrand des franz. Jura gegründete Kloster Baume-les-Messieurs ein. Nach Bernos Tod wurde er 927 Abt von Cluny, De´ols und Massay. Als Abt von Cluny gründete und re…

Pataria

(254 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[English Version] Pataria, Mitte des 11.Jh. in Mailand entstandene rel. Bewegung. Obwohl ihre Anführer Ariald und Landulf Kleriker waren, spielten Laien die wichtigste Rolle im Kampf gegen Simonie und Nikolaitismus (Priesterehe). Die mailändischen Priester lebten in dieser Zeit gewöhnlich mit Frauen zusammen (clerici uxorati), und die Erzbischöfe der Diözese wurden vom Kaiser ernannt. Die Auseinandersetzungen zw. den Anhängern der P. und ihren Gegnern waren oft sehr heftig (Plünderung der Häuser n…

Odilo

(172 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[English Version] von Cluny (um 961–1.1.1049 Souvigny, Auvergne). Aus der Adelsfamilie Mercour (Auvergne) stammend, wurde O. zuerst Kanoniker in St. Julien in Brioude (Haute-Loire) und um 990 Mönch in Cluny. Seit 993 war O. der Koadjutor des Abtes Maiolus von Cluny, ab 994 dann dessen Nachfolger. 998 erhielt er von Papst Gregor V. die Exemtion vom Bf. von Macon. Dieses Privileg wurde 1024 auf alle von Cluny abhängigen Klöster erweitert. O. war einer der engsten Berater Kaiser Ottos III.; für ihn sc…

Maiolus of Cluny, Saint

(235 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (after 909, Valensole – May 11, 994, Souvigny). Born to a noble Provençal family, Maiolus became a canon and later archdeacon in Mâcon. In 943 he entered the Abbey of Cluny, where he became chamberlain. From 954 to 965 he served as coadjutor to the abbot Aimard, whom he succeeded on the latter's death. During his 30 years as abbot, Cluny and the Cluniac community enjoyed a period of religious and economic florescence; the Church of St. Peter in Cluny was rebuilt (Cluny II), and ma…

Angelo Clareno

(293 words)

Author(s): Barone, Giulia
[German Version] (Pietro da Fossombrone; mid-13th cent., Chiarino, Marches – Jun 15, 1337, S. Maria in Aspro, Calabria). Angelo joined the Franciscans at a very early age. As an advocate of strict poverty, he was persecuted, locked up, and finally sent to Armenia as a missionary by the minister general Raimundo Gaufridi, along with some like-minded companions. In 1294, after returning to Italy, he received permission from Pope Celestine V to form a community with his associates (the Pauperes hermitae domini Coelestini), so that they could faithfully follow the …