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Vita Sanctae Melaniae

(177 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] The Vita Mariae Senatricis is the earliest surviving detailed Latin biography of a woman [3.156f.]. It has not been clarified whether the Latin text [1], not published until 1905, is an original or a translation of a Greek version [2]. In either case the work was written in Palestine by a priest named Gerontius shortly after the death of the younger Melania [2] (died 31 December 439 in Jerusalem). It describes the asceticism of this rich Roman woman [4] of senatorial status who is t…

Passio

(633 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] (martyrdom account). The oldest surviving Latin example of this extraordinarily fruitful Christian literary genre [3; 5; 6; 7; 8; 11; 12], which developed in the milieu of 'Hellenistic popular literature' [9; 10], is the Passio Sanctorum Scillitanorum, in which, in AD 180, a Christian from Carthage gives an account of the execution of a group of fellow believers from Scili in Numidia [4]. While the oldest form of the Greek acts of the martyrs is the epistle (martyrdom, literature of; also on the theology and historicity of the texts), the passio initially appeared in t…

Possidius

(216 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] Bishop of Calama, modern Guelma in Algeria (d. after 437), wrote a biography of Augustinus (d. 430), De vita et moribus praedestinati et suo tempore praesentati sacerdotis (1; 2; 3; 4; 5, preface), some 5 years after his death. For Augustine's youth, reference is made to his Confessiones; an essential theme is Augustine's almost forty years as a bishop. The only Latin biographer of a Late Antique bishop, P. (like Suetonius) presents his public and private life separately [7]; for his hero's private life, P., in a way similar t…

Vita patrum Iurensium

(131 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] ('Lives of the Jura Fathers'). A Latin biographical series describing the lives of the abbots Romanus, Lupicinus and Eugendus, founders of the monasteries of Condat (= St. Oyend, St. Claude), St. Lupicin and Romainmôtier in Burgundian Jura mountains (Ed.: [1; 2]). They lived at the turn of the 5/6th cent. and were part of the Rhône monasticism influenced by the monastery of Lérins [3]. [1] considered the trilogy to be a 9th cent. forgery; more recent scholarship has argued for a date around 520 [2.53-57]. Hagiography; Vitae Sanctorum Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) Biblio…

Eugippius

(161 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] As abbot of Castellum Lucullanum (now San Severino) near Naples, around 511 E. wrote the Commemoratorium vitae S. Severini [1; 3; 4], in which the prophetic appearance of the ascetic Severin († 482) in the Roman Danube provinces is described. Using classical stylistic elements [6. 174-181], E. recounts one exemplum after another; the number of chapters ─ 46 ─ is perhaps intended symbolically. This is supported by the remarkably full presentation of a corresponding exegesis of the name Adam (A=1; Δ=4; A=1; M=40: total 46) in the Excerpta ex operibus S. Augustini [6. 182…

Vita Sanctae Genovefae

(154 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] The VSG (ed.: [1]) tells, in a long-winded and often solecistic form, how, during the advances of the Hunni (in 451) and the Franks [4] on Paris in the midst of the collapse of Roman culture, belief in the miraculous flourished in every corner [2]. Genovefa ('the magic woman'), virgin and friend to many in need, died in 502. The author's assertion to have written the vita 18 years later, is taken seriously again by modern scholars [3; 5]. Hagiography; Miracles Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) Bibliography Editions: 1 B. Krusch, Passiones vitaeque sanctorum aevi Merovi…

Vita Sancti Alexii

(237 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] The VSA is an originally Syrian story about Mar Riscia, a 'man of God' who died [1] under the bishop Rabbulā of Edessa [2] (412-435). Before his death the ascetic Mar Riscia related that as a son of a rich Roman family he had fled to Edessa to avoid marriage and dedicate himself to God ('Alexius motif'; Alexius). Before the 9th cent. a Greek version [2] came into being in which Alexius returned to Rome and lived unrecognised in his parents' house. The first Latin versions appeared in the 10th cent. [3; 4]. The man of God acquired a symbolic name ( Alexios = 'defender'). The pathos…

Eugippius

(159 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] verfaßte als Abt von Castellum Lucullanum (h. S. Severino) bei Neapel um 511 das Commemoratorium vitae S. Severini [1; 3; 4], in dem das prophetische Auftreten des Asketen Severin († 482) in den röm. Donauprovinzen geschildert ist. Unter Einsatz von klass. Stilelementen [6. 174-181] fügt E. additiv Exemplum an Exemplum; die Zahl der 46 Kapitel ist möglicherweise symbolisch gemeint. Dafür spricht die auffallend komplette Berücksichtigung einer entsprechenden Exegese des Namens Adam (A=1; Δ=4; A=1; M=40: Summe 46) in den Excerpta ex operibus S. Augustini [6. 182…

Passio

(534 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Martyriumsbericht). Erstes überl. lat. Zeugnis der im Milieu der “hell. Kleinlit.” entstandenen [9; 10] und außergewöhnlich fruchtbaren christl. Lit.-Gattung [3; 5; 6; 7; 8; 11; 12] ist die P. Sanctorum Scillitanorum, in der 180 n.Chr. ein Christ aus Karthago die Hinrichtung einer Gruppe von Glaubensgefährten aus Scili in Numidien festhielt [4]. Während die älteste Form der griech. Märtyrerakten der Brief ist (Märtyrerliteratur, dort auch zur Theologie und Historizität der Texte), erscheint die P. im lat. We…

Possidius

(195 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] Bischof von Calama, h. Guelma, Algerien († nach 437), schrieb etwa 5 J. nach dem Tod des Augustinus († 430) dessen Biographie De vita et moribus praedestinati et suo tempore praesentati sacerdotis (1; 2; 3; 4; 5, praef.). Für Augustins Jugend ist auf dessen Confessiones verwiesen; eigentliches Thema sind die fast vierzig Bischofsjahre Augustins. Als einziger lat. Bischofsbiograph der Spätant. stellt P. (wie Suetonius) öffentliches und privates Leben getrennt dar [7]; beim Privatleben betont P. ähnlich wie Cornelius Nepos …

Patricius

(304 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] (St. Patrick). Der Britannier P. wurde als 16jähriger nach Irland entführt, als Sklave verkauft und floh sechs Jahre später. Einer ‘Stimme der Iren’ (Confessio 23) folgend, kehrte er (432 n.Chr.?) nach Irland als Bischof zurück. Er starb an einem 17. März (461? oder 491?). Sein Charisma ist belegt durch die Confessio betitelte Autobiographie [1. Bd. 1, 56-91; 2; 4] und die prophetisch-drohende Epistola ad milites Corotici [1. Bd. 1, 91-102; 2; 4]. P. ist ein “Grenzfall” [5. 228] der lat. Literatur. Sein schwieriges Latein [6] speist sich aus der Bibe…

Medieval Latin

(7,973 words)

Author(s): Klopsch, Paul | Laureys, Marc | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Klopsch, Paul I. Language (CT) [German version] A. Vulgar Latin and Late Latin (CT) After the fall of the Classical world, the Latin language followed paths on two levels into the Middle Ages. The spoken language of ordinary people continued to be passed on from person to person, with regional differences and partly influenced by substrata, as a kind of mother tongue. Its features can be seen from time to time as intentional characterisation in the written language, as in Petronius' novel and, more frequentl…

Greek

(7,729 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) I. Byzantine Middle Ages and Modern Period (CT) [German version] A. Prefatory Remarks on Method (CT) The terms 'Middle Greek' and 'Modern Greek' are adopted only as conventions. Their use in the literature is based upon an unreliable application of Western European categories to entirely different practices in the Byzantine East [1]. Fundamental for the following outline is the dichotomy 'written' vs. 'oral' as well as that of 'external' vs. 'internal' linguistic history. While the for…

Patricius

(421 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] British saint, 5th cent. (St. Patrick). P., a Briton, was abducted and taken to Ireland when he was 16; he was sold as a slave and fled six years later. Following a "voice of the Irish" (Confessio 23), he returned to Ireland (in AD 432?) as a bishop. He died on the 17th of March (461? or 491?). His charisma is attested by his autobiography, entitled Confessio [1. vol. 1, 56-91; 2; 4], and the prophetic, threatening Epistola ad milites Corotici [1. vol. 1, 91-102; 2; 4]. P. is marginal to Latin literature. His difficult Latin [6] was nourished by the Bible, whose …

Biography

(3,557 words)

Author(s): Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
I. Greek [German version] A. Definition and prehistory Biography as a literary genre is the account of the life events of an individual human being; it gives voice to the tendency to respect lifetime achievements and personal individuality as a meaningful unity. Biography has existed in this mould in Greek literature since Hellenism; the term for that is bíos (βίος; βιογραφία, biographía is first used in Damascius, Vita Isidori = Phot. Bibl. Cod. 242, § 8, as nomen actionis: ‘biographical writing’, then Phot. Bibl. Cod. 181 for the text itself). The search for its origins leads fur…

Biographie

(3,111 words)

Author(s): Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
I. Griechisch [English version] A. Definition und Vorgeschichte B. als lit. Gattung ist die Darstellung der Lebensschicksale eines einzelnen Menschen; darin drückt sich die Tendenz aus, Lebensleistung und persönliche Eigenart als sinnvolle Einheit zu würdigen. In dieser Ausprägung existiert die B. in der griech. Lit. seit dem Hellenismus; der Terminus dafür ist bíos (βίος; βιογραφία, biographía erst bei Damaskios, Vita Isidori = Phot. Bibl. Cod. 242, § 8, als Nomen actionis: ‘das Schreiben von B.’, dann Phot. Bibl. Cod. 181 von der Schrift selbst). Die Suche nach den Ursprüng…

Eucherius

(333 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Uncle of emperor Theodosius I Flavius E. was an uncle of emperor Theodosius I (Them. Or. 16,203d). He is possibly identical with the comes sacrarum largitionum of AD 377-379 (Cod. Theod. 1,32,3; 10,20,9). In 381 he was consul (Them. ibid.). He was still alive in 395 (Zos. 5,2,3). PLRE 1, 288 E. (2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Stilicho, about AD 390 Flavius E., the son of  Stilicho and Serena, born AD 389 in Rome. He first lived in Constantinople, then at the court of  Honorius, where he became tribunus et notarius. In 400 he became engaged wi…

Constantius

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] C. I, Flavius Valerius C., C. Chlorus, Roman Emperor (Augustus) AD 305-306 or M., Caesar (293-305) and Augustus (305-306), in later times nicknamed Chlorus; born c. 250 in what would become Dacia Ripensis. On the staff of the Illyrian soldier emperors, first protector, then tribunus. Under the rule of  Carinus attained equestrian rank as praeses Dalmatiarum (Anon. Vales. 1; SHA Car. 17,6). It seems likely that even before 293 (thus Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,24; Eutr. 9,22,1), and in fact before 289, when he was praefectus praetorio to  Maximianus, he had to divorce h…

Autobiography

(2,386 words)

Author(s): Pongratz-Leisten, Beate (Tübingen) | Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient A heterogeneous group of texts exists in the Ancient Orient which are supposed, on the basis of the categories of form (1st person singular) and semantics (reflection on past behaviour in respect of a current or future search for meaning), to be of an autobiographical character. In Mesopotamia this includes on the one hand texts which, written at a later point, give a more or less fictitious report of an episode in the life of great rulers of the past, for instance …

Constantius

(1,438 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] C.I., Flavius Valerius C., C. Chlorus, Röm. Kaiser (Augustus) (305-306 n. Chr.) oder M., Caesar (293-305) und Augustus (305-306), in später Tradition mit Beinamen Chlorus versehen, * um 250 in der späteren Dacia Ripensis. Im Stab der illyr. Soldatenkaiser zunächst protector, dann tribunus. Während der Herrschaft des Carinus ritterlicher praeses Dalmatiarum (Anon. Vales. 1; SHA Car. 17,6). Vermutlich mußte er nicht erst 293 (so Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,24; Eutr. 9,22,1), sondern schon vor 289 als praef. praet. des Maximianus seine erste Frau Helena verstoße…

Eucherius

(301 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] Onkel des Kaisers Theodosius I. Flavius E. war ein Onkel des Kaisers Theodosius I. (Them. or. 16,203d). Er ist evtl. identisch mit dem comes sacrarum largitionum von 377-379 n.Chr. (Cod. Theod. 1,32,3; 10,20,9). 381 war er consul (Them. ebd.). Er lebte noch 395 (Zos. 5,2,3). PLRE 1, 288 E. (2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [English version] [2] Sohn des Stilicho, um 390 n. Chr. Flavius E., Sohn des Stilicho und Serenas, * 389 n.Chr. in Rom, lebte zunächst in Konstantinopel, dann am Hofe des Honorius, wo er tribunus et notarius wurde. Im J. 400 mit Galla [3] Placidi…

Autobiographie

(2,047 words)

Author(s): Pongratz-Leisten, Beate (Tübingen) | Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Im Alten Orient existiert eine heterogene Gruppe von Texten, denen aufgrund formaler (1. Person Singular) und semantischer Kategorien (Reflektion auf vergangenes Handeln im Hinblick auf eine gegenwärtige oder zukünftige Sinnstiftung) autobiographischer Charakter zuzuschreiben ist. Dazu gehören in Mesopotamien zum einen Texte, die mehr oder weniger fiktiv zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt über einen Ausschnitt des Lebens großer Herrscher der Vergangenheit berichten, so über…

Griechisch

(6,953 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) RWG
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG I. Byzantinisches Mittelalter und Neuzeit (RWG) [English version] A. Methodische Vorbemerkungen (RWG) Die Termini “mittel- und ngriech.” sind lediglich als konventionell übernommen; ihre Verwendung in der Lit. beruht auf einer unzulässigen Übertragung westeurop. Einteilungen auf die gänzlich anderen Verhältnisse im byz. Osten [1]. Grundlegend für den folgenden Abriß sind dagegen die Dichotomien “schriftlich” vs. “mündlich” sowie “äußere” vs. “innere” Sprachgeschichte. Währ…

Pontius

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Oscan praenomen and Oscan/Lat. gentilic. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnite general, delivered Rome its defeat 321 BC at Caudium Samnite general who in 321 BC famously defeated the Romans at Caudium and sent them 'under the yoke' (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). The fact that the Samnite leader in the Social War (Social Wars [3]), P. [I 4], had the same name is no proof that P.' name entered the tradition only later. The annalistic tradition (in Liv. 9, 15,8), however, of P.'…

Pontius

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Osk. Praenomen und osk./lat. Gentilname. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnitischer Feldherr, brachte den Römern 321 v. Chr. die Niederlage bei Caudium bei Samnitischer Feldherr, der 321 v. Chr. den Römern die berühmte Niederlage bei Caudium beibrachte und sie ‘unter das Joch schickte’ (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). Daß der samnit. Anführer im Bundesgenossenkrieg [3] (P. [I 4]) ebenfalls diesen Namen trug, ist kein Indiz dafür, daß P.' Name erst später in die Überl. gelangte…

Antonios

(1,356 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] Thallos Epigrammatiker aus Milet, 2. H. 1. Jh. v. Chr. Epigrammdichter aus Milet (nach [2] hat er durch das Patronat der Antonia Minor die röm. Bürgerschaft erh.), lebte in der 2. H. des 1. Jh. v. Chr. (in Anth. Pal. 6,235 wird die Geburt eines Καῖσαρ begrüßt, der entweder mit C. Iulius Caesar, dem Enkel des Augustus, oder mit Germanicus gleichzusetzen ist). Seine fünf aus dem “Kranz” des Philippos stammenden Epigramme sind in ihren Themen zwar konventionell (das Grabepigramm Anth. Pal.…

Rufinus

(1,183 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trient) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
Röm. Cogn., abgeleitet von Rufus, in republikan. Zeit in der Familie der Cornelii (Cornelius [I 62]), in der Kaiserzeit weitverbreitet (Antius [8], Aradius [1], Caecilius [II 19], Clodius [II 13], Cuspius [3], Fadius [II 1], Vibius), in der Spätant. auch häufiger Eigenname. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] Magister militum per Thracias um 515 n. Chr. Magister militum per Thracias um 515 n. Chr., wurde von Kaiser Anastasios [1] I. mit dem Kampf gegen den Söldnerführer Vitalianus betraut (Ioh. von Antiocheia fr. 214e = FHG 5, 34; Chr…

Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist Greek epigrammatist; dating uncertain (Neronian/Flavian era? [2; 4]; 2nd cent. AD? [3]; late 4th cent. AD? [1]); origin unknown (Anth. Pal. 5,9: residence in Ephesus). 37 erotic poems are extant, all in Anth. Pal. 5,2-103 (on this so-called Sylloge Rufiniana, perhaps also from the 4th cent. AD, cf. [5]). With the exception of the paederastic poem 28 (cf. also 19), R.' epigrams, in which 13 women's names are mentioned (two further fictitious ones in 44,1), tr…

Antonius

(5,913 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Ἀντώνιος; Antṓnios). [German version] [1] Thallus Epigrammatic poet, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Epigrammatic poet from Miletus (according to [2] he had received Roman citizenship, through the patronage of Antonia Minor) lived in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC (in Anth. Pal. 6,235 the birth of a Καῖσαρ [ Kaîsar] is celebrated, who is to be equated with either C. Julius Caesar, the grandson of Augustus, or with Germanicus). His five epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, are certainly conventional in their…
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