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Muḥtād̲j̲ids

(518 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a local dynasty of mediaeval Central Asia which ruled in the upper Oxus principality of Čag̲h̲āniyān [

Bād̲h̲ām, Bād̲h̲ān

(531 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Persian governor in the Yemen towards the end of the Prophet Muḥammad’s lifetime. A Persian presence had been established in the Yemen ca. 570 A.D. when there had taken place a Yemenī national reaction under the Ḥimyarī prince Abū Murra Sayf b. D̲h̲ī Yazan [see …

S̲h̲uraḥbīl b. Ḥasana

(297 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, early Meccan convert to Islam, prominent Companion of the Prophet and leading commander in the Arab invasions of Syria, d. 18/639. Apparently of Kindī origin, he was known by his mother’s name Ḥasana, but his patrilineal nasab was ... b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Muṭāḥ b. ʿAmr. He is described as a ḥalīf or confederate [see ḥilf ] of the Meccan clan of Zuhra but as also being connected, through another marriage of his mother, with D̲j̲umaḥ. As an early convert, he took part in the second hid̲j̲ra or migration to Ethiopia (see Ibn Sa’d, iv/1, 94, vii, 118; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-g̲h̲āba

Arg̲h̲iyān

(275 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, the name found in mediaeval times for a district of northern K̲h̲urāsān. It lay to the south of Kūčān/K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān [ q.v.], straddling the hilly region of the modern Kūh-i S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān and the Kūh-i Binālūd, around the sources of the Kas̲h̲af-Rūd. It is not to be identified with the district of D̲j̲ād̲j̲arm [ q.v. in Suppl.] lying further to the west, as was done by Le Strange, The lands of the Eastern Caliphate , 392, an error perpetuated by B. Spooner in his Arghiyān . The area of Jājarm in western Khurāsān , in Iran , Jnal . of the British Institute of Persian Studies

T́́hānesar

(437 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, T́hāneswar (meaning “place of the god”), a town of northern India, especia…

Salg̲h̲urids

(860 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a line of Atabegs which ruled in Fārs during the second half of the 6th/12th century and for much of the 7th/13th one (543-681/1148-1282). They were of Türkmen origin, and Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī considered them as a clan of the Og̲h̲uz tribe [see g̲h̲uzz ], giving their particular tamg̲h̲a ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Turk , Tkish. tr. Atalay, i, 56, iii, 141, 414); later sources such as Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī’s Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Guzīda and Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī’s S̲h̲ad̲j̲ara-yi Tarākima were uncertain whether Salg̲h̲ur was a clan or the name of an eponymo…

Mus̲h̲īr al-Dawla

(470 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a. “counsellor of the state”), a title bestowed on six separate men of affairs in Ḳād̲j̲ār Persia during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the last of these being Mus̲h̲īr al-Dawla Ḥasan Pirniyā (d. 1935), prime minister in 1920 towards the end of Ḳād̲j̲ār rule. All six of them served as diplomatic envoys or ambassadors, and all except the first one became minister for foreign affairs in Tehran.…

Bādgīr

(701 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
(p.), literally “wind-catcher”, the term used in Persia for the towers containing ventilation shafts and projecting high above the roofs of domestic houses. They are also erected over water-storage cisterns and over the mouths of mineshafts in order to create ventilation through the tunnels below. In domestic houses, cooler air is forced down either to rooms at ground level or to cellars (the zīr-i zamīn ), and it provides an early form of air conditioning. The towers are usually substantial, square-sectioned structures…

Mardāwīd̲j̲

(590 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Ziyār b. Wardāns̲h̲āh , Abu ’l-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ , founder of the Ziyārid dynasty [ q.v.] in the Caspian regions of Persia. Mardāwid̲j̲’s rise as a soldier of fortune in northern Persia is bound up with the decline of direct caliphal control there, seen already in the independent role of the Sād̲j̲id governors [ q.v.] in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān towards the end of the 3rd/9th century and in the general upsurge of hitherto submerged indigenous Iranian elements, Daylamī, D̲j̲īlī and Kurdish, forming what has been called the “Daylamī interlude” of Persian history [see ḍaylam , and also buwayhids , k…

Yag̲h̲ma

(569 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in Arabic orthography Yag̲h̲mā, a Turkish tribe of Central Asia mentioned in accounts of the early Turks and their component tribal groups. P. Pelliot thought that the Chinese ϒang-mo presupposed a nasalised form * ϒangma ( Notes sur le “Turkestan” de M.W . Barthold, in T’oung-Pao , xxvii [1930], 17). There are sections on the Yag̲h̲ma in Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 95-6 § 13, cf. comm. 277-81, and Gardīzi, Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār , ed. Ḥabībī, Tehran 1347/1968, 260. Abū Dulaf does not mention them by name in his First Risāla

Yūsuf al-Barm

(210 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, sc. Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm, a mawlā of T̲h̲aḳīf, rebel against ʿAbbāsid rule in eastern K̲h̲urāsān during the caliphate of al-Mahdī, d. 160/777 or shortly afterwards. Yūsuf’s rising was only …

Sayābid̲j̲a

(816 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, for Sayābiga, the name given in early Islamic historical sources to a group of non-Arab emigrants, proximately from Sind in India but, most probably, ultimately from South-East Asia and established on the Arab shores of the Persian Gulf and at Baṣra in the first two centuries or so of Islam. ¶ Arabic authors often link them with the Zuṭṭ [ q.v.] or Jhāts [see d̲j̲āt́ ] from northwestern India (see e.g. al-Ṭabarī, i, 1961, 3125, 3134, 3181), although two distinct ethnic groups are in fact involved here. De Goeje was the first to discuss the Sayabid̲j̲a at length, in his Mémoire sur les migrati…

Bas̲h̲kard, Bas̲h̲ākard

(530 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Europeanised form Bas̲h̲kardia , a region of south-eastern Iran, falling administratively today within the 8th ustān or province of Kirmān and in the s̲h̲ahrastān or district of D̲j̲īruft, of which it comprises one of the nine constituent rural areas ( dihistānhā ), see

T́́hat́́t́ā

(512 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in Persian orthography T.t.h , conventionally Thatta or Tatta, a town of lower Sind, situated by the Indus some 100 km/60 miles from its debouchment into the Indian Ocean and about the same distance to the east of Karachi (lat. 24° 44′ N., long. 67° 58′ E.). In mediaeval Islamic times, it was a city of considerable political and commercial significance, but is now a small town, the cheflieu of a district of that name in the Haydarābād Division of Sind in Pākistān. 1. History. The actual name seems to have the general connotation of a settlement on the bank of a river. T́hat́t́ā…

Ismāʿīl b. Sebüktigin

(206 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, G̲h̲aznavid amīr, third son of the founder of the G̲h̲aznavid empire and last of the family to recognize the suzerainty of the Sāmānids. When Sebüktigin died in S̲h̲aʿbān 387/August 997, he left the provinces of G̲h̲azna and Balk̲h̲ to Ismāʿīl, and command of the army in Ḵh̲urāsān to his eldest son Maḥmūd; this allocation of G̲h̲azna to Ismāʿīl was probably influenced by the fact that he was Sebüktigin’s son by a daughter of Alptigin [see Alp-Takīn ], the original commander of the Turks in G̲h̲azna. Maḥmūd refused to accept these arrangements, and demanded recognition …

Ustān

(348 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), a term of administrative geography in the eastern Islamic world dating from Sāsānid times and surviving into mediaeval Islamic usage. In later Sāsānid times, ustān could denote the state domains, administered by an ustāndār [ q.v.], and this usage was taken over by the Arabs when they conquered ʿIrāḳ, so that we find the term ṣawāft al-ustān ¶ for the estates taken over by the caliph ʿUmar for the Islamic state (see Morony, 68-9). It also had a wider sense in Sāsānid times, as “province”, with its subdivisions being s̲h̲ahrs [ q.v.] or, in ʿIrāḳ, kūras [ q.v.], and this again was taken…

D̲j̲alālābād

(1,255 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a town of eastern Afghānistān, situated in lat. 34° 26′ N. and long. 70° 27′ E. at an altitude of 620 m./1, 950 ft. It lies in the valley of the Kābul River some 79 miles from Pes̲h̲āwar to the east and 101 miles from Kābul city to the west, and is on the right bank of the river. As well as being roughly midway along the historic route connecting Kābul with the beginning of the plains of northern India, D̲j̲alābād is also strategically situated to command routes into Kāfiristān [ q.v.] (modern Nūristān) and today, routes run northwards from it up to the Kānur and Alingār River valleys. The area around…

al-Muṣʿabī

(233 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Ṭayyib Muḥammad b. Ḥātim , official and poet in both Arabic and Persian in Buk̲h̲ārā under the Sāmānids, flor . early 4th/10th century. Better-known in his time as a statesman than as a poet, he was a boon-companion, then chief-secretary ( ʿamīd-i dīwān-i risālat ) and finally vizier in the reign of Amīr Naṣr b. Aḥmad (301-31/914-43); but he fell from power, and opposing the appointment of the new vizier Abū ʿAlī al-D̲j̲ayhānī [see al-d̲j̲ayhānī in Suppl.] in ca. 326/938, was executed (Bayhaḳī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳī , ed. G̲h̲anī and Fayyāḍ, 107; Gardīzī, Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār

Firrīm

(676 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Pirrīm , a stronghold in the Elburz Mountains mentioned in mediaeval Islamic times as held by the Iranian native princes of the Caspian region, firstly the Ḳārinids and then the Bāwandids [ q.vv.]. Its exact position is unfortunately not fixed in the itineraries of the geographers, and an authority like Ibn Ḥawḳal, ed. Kramers, 377, tr. Kramers-Wiet, 367, following Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, merely mentions it as the capital of the Kārinids since pre-Islamic times, where their treasuries and materials of war were stored; Yāḳūt adds to this …

al-Mustakfī

(489 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
bi ’llāh , Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd Allāh , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 333-4/944-6, son of the caliph al-Muḳtafī [ q.v.] by a Greek slave concubine called G̲h̲uṣn. When the commander-in-chief of the Turkish soldiery in Bag̲h̲dād, Tūzūn, deposed and blinded al-Muttaḳī b. al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.], he raised to the throne one of the latter’s cousins as al-Mustakfī in Ṣafar 333/September-October 944, al-Mustakfī being then aged 41. The situation in ʿIrāḳ was unpropitious for the new ruler. The caliphs were puppets in the hands of the Turkish troops, whose…

Muẓaffarpur

(223 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town in northern Bihār State of the Indian Union (lat. 26° 7′ N.,85° 24″ E.), and also the name of a District of which it is the administrative centre; the District covers the ancient region of Tirhut between the Ganges and the southern border of Nepal. The region was attacked in the 8th/14th century by the Muslim rulers of Bengal; in the next century it passed to the S̲h̲arḳī rulers of D̲j̲awnpur [ q.v.], and then to Sikandar Lōdī of Dihlī. The town of Muẓaffarpur enshrines the name of its founder, the Emperor Akbar’s commander Muẓaffar Khān, dīwān or head of revenue and finance [see dīwān. v] a…

Prester John

(478 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a mysterious potentate, said to be a Nestorian Christian and inimical to Islam, whom the Christians of medieval Europe placed beyond the Islamic lands in Inner or Far Asia. The name Presbyter Johannes first occurs in the chronicle, called Historia de duabus civitatibus, of the German prelate Otto, Bishop of Freising, in which he describes, on the authority of a meeting in 1145 with the Latin Bishop Hugh of D̲j̲abala (= ancient Byblos, in Lebanon), how Prester John was a monarch, of the lineage of the Magi of the Gospels, living in the Far East ( in extremo oriente) beyond Persia an…

Nihāwandī

(144 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, ʿAbd al-Bāḳī b. Abī Bakr Kurd, Indo-Muslim historian of the Mug̲h̲al period (978-after 1046/1570-after 1637). Of Kurdish origin from D̲j̲ūlak near Nihāwand [ q.v.], he served the Ṣafawids as a tax official and eventually became a wazīr in the administration. But then he fell from grace, and like many Persians of his age, decided to migrate to India, and entered the service of the K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān [ q.v.] Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, one of Akbar’s generals, subsequently holding official posts in the Deccan and Bihar. The K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān asked him to write a biography of himself, the Maʾāt̲h̲ir…

Sarwistān

(334 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town in the Persian province of Fārs (lat. 29° 16′ N., long 53° 13′ E., alt. ¶ 1,597 m/5,238 ft.), some 80 km/50 miles to the southeast of S̲h̲īrāz on the road to Nayrīz [ q.v.]. It seems to be identical with the K̲h̲awristān of the early Arab geographers, but first appears under the name Sarwistān (“place of cypresses”) in al-Muḳaddasī at the end of the 4th/10th century. It is notable for the tomb and shrine of a local saint, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Yūsuf Sarwistānī, dated by its inscription to 682/1283, and for a nearby mysterious building situated on the S̲h̲īrāz-F…

Kāfiristān

(2,408 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(“land of the unbelievers”), the name of a mountainous region of the Hindu Kush massif in north-eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, until 1896 very isolated and politically independent, but since the Afg̲h̲ān conquest of that date and the introduction of Islam known as Nūristān (“land of light”). Some older European writers mentioned what might be termed a “greater Kāfiristān”, comprising such regions as Kāfiristān in the restricted sense (see below), Lag̲h̲mān, Čitral, Swāt, Bad̲j̲awr, Gilgit, etc. This cor…

K̲h̲urāsān

(4,360 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, today the north-easternmost ustān or province of Persia, with its administrative capital at Mas̲h̲had [ q.v.]. But in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term “K̲h̲urāsān” frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of what ¶ are now Soviet Central Asia and Afg̲h̲ānistān; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia, sc. D̲j̲ibāl or what was subsequently termed ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī, as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of K̲h̲urāsān, which might even extend to the Indus Valley …

Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh

(251 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, early ʿAbbāsid prince and uncle of the first ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Saffāḥ and al-Manṣūr [ q.vv.], d. at Baṣra in D̲j̲umādā II 142/October 759 aged 59 (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 141). He was appointed governor of Baṣra, including also eastern Arabia and western Persia, by al-Saffāḥ in 133/750-1 ( ibid., iii, 73), and remained in this important power base until forced out of the governorship in 139/756. As one of the ʿumūma or paternal uncles, whose position vis-à-vis their nephews the caliphs was ambiguous, Sulaymān sheltered for many years the failed rebel ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī [ q.v.], until ʿAbd All…

Nayrīz

(379 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Nīrīz , the name of a mediaeval Islamic region and of a town of Fārs in southern Persia. The Nayrīz plain is essentially a landlocked region in the southern Zagros mountains, drained by the Kūr and Pulwār rivers which rise in the Zagros and flow southeastwards into the shallow lake known in mediaeval Islamic times as the Lake of Nayrīz and in more recent ones as Lake Bak̲h̲tigān [ q.v., and also E. Ehlers, art. Bak̲tagān Lake , in EIr ]; although the lake itself is salt, the plain forms an agriculturally prosperous region, and in ancient times was the…

Muḥammad Farīd Bey

(479 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Aḥmad Farīd Pas̲h̲a (1284-1338/1867-1919), Egyptian nationalist politician, active in the first two decades of the 20th century. Of aristocratic Turkish birth, he had a career as a lawyer in the Ahliyya courts and then as a supporter of Muṣṭafā Kāmil Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], leader of the nationalist opposition to the British protectorate over Egypt and founder in 1907 of the Nationalist Party ( al-Ḥizb al-Waṭanī ) [see ḥizb. i. In the Arab lands]. When Muṣṭafā Kāmil died at the beginning of 1908, Muḥammad Farīd succeeded him as leader of the party, but being by temperame…

Ṭarsūs

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the Arabic form of the name of the city of Tarsus in Cilicia, situated on the classical River Cydnus, the Nahr Baradān of early Islamic times and the contemporary Turkish Tarsus Çay, in the rich agricultural plain of the modern Çukurova. The ancient city appears first firmly in history under the Assyrian kings, then as being in the Persians’ sphere of influence, then as disputed by the Seleucids and Ptolemies, being for a while styled Antioch-onthe-Cydnus in honour of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (1…

Pīrī-Zāde

(164 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
Meḥmed Ṣāḥib Efendi (1085-1162/1674-1749), Ottoman S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ al-Islām [ q.v.] in Istanbul and the pioneer translator into Turkish of Ibn K̲h̲aldūn. Ibn K̲h̲aldūn’s Muḳaddima was quite early known in Ottoman Turkey, being cited by e.g. Maḥmūd b. Aḥmed Ḥāfiẓ al-Dīn (d. 937/1550) and by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa in his Kas̲h̲f al-ẓunūn . But during the years 1138-43/1725-30 Pīrī-zāde translated the Muḳaddima from the beginning to the end of the fifth chapter, i.e. about two-thirds of the whole, and this was lithographed at Cairo in 1275/1859, with Aḥmed D̲j̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] shortly …

Linga

(584 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a minor seaport, modern Bandar-i Linga, on the northern shore of the Persian or Arab Gulf, in lat. 26° 34′ N. and long. 54° 53′ E., to the south of Lāristān [see lār , lāristān ] and facing the islands of Ḳis̲h̲m [ q.v.] and the Ṭūnbs. Linga has a harbour of some depth, allowing traffic by dhows and coastal craft; behind the town lies a salt marsh, and then the Band-i Linga mountains, which rise to 3,900 ft./1,190 m. The population, formerly largely Arab, is now predominantly Persian, but with strong admixtures of Arabs, Baluchis, India…

Mawdūd b. Masʿūd

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Fatḥ , s̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn wa ’l-Dawla , Ḳuṭb al-Millā , sultan of the G̲h̲aznawid [ q.v.] dynasty, reigned 432-40/1041-winter of 1048-9. ¶ He was probably born in 401/1010-11 or 402/1011-12 as the eldest son of Masʿūd b. Maḥmūd [ q.v.], and during his father’s reign was closely associated with the sultan on various military expeditions. When Masʿūd was deposed and then killed in D̲j̲umādā I 432/January 1041, Mawdūd made himself the avenger against the rebellious commanders and their puppet, his uncle Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd. He marche…

Laḳab

(14,791 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.) nickname, and at a later date under Islam and with a more specific use, honorific title (pl. alḳāb ). For suggestions about its etymology, see L. Caetani and G. Gabrieli, Onomasticon arabicum . i. Fonte-introduzione , Rome 1915, 144-5; and for its place in the general schema of the composition of Islamic names, see ism. The laḳab seems in origin to have been a nickname or sobriquet of any tone, one which could express admiration, be purely descriptive and neutral in tenor or be insulting and derogatory. In the latter case, it was often termed nabaz , pl. anbāz , by-form labaz

S̲h̲addādids

(1,405 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Banū S̲h̲addād , a minor dynasty of Arrān and eastern Armenia which flourished from the 4th/10th to the 6th/12th century ( ca. 340-570/ ca. 951-1174), with a main line in Gand̲j̲a and Dwīn [ q.vv.] and a junior, subsequent one in Ānī [ q.v.] which persisted long after the end of the main branch under Sald̲j̲ūḳ and latterly Ildeñizid suzerainty. There seems no reason to doubt the information in the history of the later Ottoman historian Müned̲j̲d̲j̲im Bas̲h̲i̊ that the S̲h̲addādids were in origin Kurdish. Their ethnicity was complicated by the fact that…

Sīmd̲j̲ūrids

(183 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a line of Turkish commanders and governors, originally of slave origin, for the Sāmānids in 4th/10th-century K̲h̲urāsān. The founder, Abū ʿImrān Sīmd̲j̲ūr, was the amīr Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmad’s [ q.v.] ceremonial ink-stand bearer ( dawātī ). He became Sāmānid governor of Sīstān [ q.v.] in 300-1/913-14 when the local dynasty of the Ṣaffārids [ q.v.] were temporarily driven out. Thereafter, the family was prominent as governors of K̲h̲urāsān for the amīrs , involved in warfare with the Sāmānids’ rivals in northern Persia such as the Būyids, and they …

Ṭulaḳāʾ

(275 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the pl. of ṭalīḳ , which means “a person loosed, set free, e.g. from imprisonment or slavery” (Lane, 1874). The plural becomes a technical term in earliest Islam for denoting the Meccans of Ḳurays̲h̲ who, at the time when Muḥammad entered Mecca in triumph (Ramaḍān 8/January 630), were theoretically the Prophet’s lawful booty but whom he in fact released (al-Ṭabarī, i, 1642-3: ḳāla ’d̲h̲habū fa-antum al-ṭulaḳāʾ . Gf. Glossarium , p. CCCXLII, and Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Nihāya , ed. al-Zāwī and al-Ṭannāḥī, Cairo 1383/1963, iii, 136). It was subsequently used opprobriousl…

Ṣaband̲j̲a

(455 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Turkish Sapanca, a town in northwestern Anatolia, in the classical Bithynia, situated on the southeastern bank of the freshwater lake of the same name and to the west of the Sakarya river (lat. 40° 41′ N., long. 30° 15′ E.). Almost nothing is known of its pre-Islamic history, although there are Byzantine remains; the name may be a popular transformation of Sophon. According to Ewliyā Čelebi, the town was founded by a certain Ṣaband̲j̲ī Ḳod̲j̲a, but this last must be merely an eponymous hero. It seems to appear in history only i…

al-Zaynabī

(405 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, ʿAlī b. Ṭirād (or Ṭarrād ) b. Muḥammad, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim S̲h̲araf al-Dīn, vizier to the two ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Mustars̲h̲id and al-Muḳtafī [ q.vv.] in the first half of the 6th/12th century, b. 462/1069-70, d. 538/1144. The nisba refers to descent from Zaynab bt. Sulaymān b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās, and this ʿAbbāsid descent doubtless helped al-Zaynabī’s father Ṭirād or Ṭarrād, called D̲h̲u ’l-S̲h̲arafayn, to secure in 453/1061 the office of naḳīb [see naḳīb al-as̲h̲rāf ] of the Hās̲h̲imī s̲h̲arīf s and also to pursue a career in diplomacy on beha…

al-Nuwayrī

(203 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim al-Iskandarānī, local historian of his home Alexandria, who lived in the 8th/14th century but whose precise dates are unknown. Between 767/1365-6 and 775/1373-4 he wrote a three-volume history of the city, the K. al-Ilmām fīmā d̲j̲arat bihi ’l-aḥkām al-maḳḍiyya fī wāḳiʿat al-Iskandariyya purporting to describe the calamity of Muḥarram 767/October 1365 when the Frankish Crusaders, led by Pierre de Lusignan, king of Cyprus, descended on Alexandria, occupied it for a week and sacked it (see S. Runciman, A history of the Crusades , London …

Ibn Nāẓir al-D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(229 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Taḳī ’l-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , ḳāḍī , official and author of the Mamlūk period in Egypt. His precise dates are unknown, but he was apparently the son of another ḳāḍī who had been controller of the army in the time of Sultan al-Nāṣir Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn, and he himself served in the Dīwān al-Ins̲h̲āʾ under such rulers as al-Manṣūr Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Muḥammad (762-4/1361-3) and his successor al-As̲h̲raf Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲aʿbān (764-78/1363-76). His correspondence was apparently collected into a mad̲j̲mūʿ , for al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī [ q.v.] quotes four letters from it, to external …

al-K̲h̲uld

(273 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Ḳaṣr , the name of a palace of the early ʿAbbāsids in Bag̲h̲dād, so-called because of its being compared in splendour with the d̲j̲annat al-k̲h̲uld “garden of eternity”, i.e. Paradise. It was built by the founder of the new capital Bag̲h̲dād, al-Manṣūr [ q.v.], in 158/775 on the west bank of the Tigris outside the walled Round City, possibly on the site of a former Christian monastery (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 273; Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, ii, 382). It was strategically placed between the two great military areas of the Ḥarbiyya and al-Ruṣāfa on the eastern side [see al-ruṣāfa. 2.] and adjacent …

Gūmāl

(525 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Gomal , a river of the Indus valley system and the North-West Frontier region of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. It rises in eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān some 40 miles/62 km. east of the Āb-i Istāda lake. Flowing eastwards, it is joined from the south by the Kundar and Z̲h̲ōb rivers, and forms the southern boundary of the South Wazīristān tribal agency of the former North-West Frontier Province of British India (now Pakistan). Below the settlement of Murtaḍā, it leaves the mountains and enters the lower-lying lands of the Dēra Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān district [see dērad̲j̲āt ], …

K̲h̲ērla

(342 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a fortress of mediaeval India, lying to the south of Mālwa and east of K̲h̲āndes̲h̲ [ q.vv.], and in the extreme northern part of Berār [ q.v.], just to the south of the headwaters of the Tāptī River. It is in fact some 50 miles west of modern Deogaŕh; in British India it fell within the Central Provinces, now Madhya Pradesh. The foundation of the fortress is attributed to a Rād̲j̲put rād̲j̲ā , the last of whose line is said to have been killed by a commander of the Dihlī Sultans, perhaps in the time of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī; but the fortre…

Tukarōʾī

(102 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Mug̲h̲almārī , a place near Midnapūr in the southern part of West Bengal, the site of a battle in 982/1574 between Akbar’s finance minister and commander Rād̲j̲ā T́ōd́ar Mal [ q.v.] and the young ruler of Bengal, Dāwūd K̲h̲ān Kararānī [ q.v.], who had repudiated Mug̲h̲al suzerainty. Dāwūd K̲h̲ān was beaten by a ruse [see ḥarb. vi, at Vol. III, 202b] and forced to flee, allowing Akbar formally to annex Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. (C.E. Bosworth) Bibliography See that to dāwūd k̲h̲ān kararānī, and also J.F. Richards, The Mughal empire (= The New Comb. hist, of India, I. 5), Cambridge 1993, 33.

Ilek-K̲h̲āns or Ḳarak̲h̲ānids

(4,341 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a Turkish dynasty which ruled in the lands of Central Asia straddling the T’ien-s̲h̲an Mountains, scil . in both Western Turkestan (Transoxania or Mā warāʾ al-Nahr) and in Eastern Turkestan (Kās̲h̲g̲h̲aria or Sin-kiang), from the 4th/10th to the early 7th/13th centuries. 1. Introductory. The name “Ilek-K̲h̲āns” or “Ilig-K̲h̲āns” stems from 19th century European numismatists. The element Ilek/Ilig (known in Hunnish, Magyar and Uyg̲h̲ur Turkish onomastic) is commonly found on the dynasty’s coins, but is by no means general. The complete phrase Ilek-K̲h̲ān/Ilig-K̲h̲ān

Malik-S̲h̲āh

(2,908 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of various Sald̲j̲ūḳ rulers. 1. Malik-S̲h̲āh I b. Alp Arslan , D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla Muʿizz al-Din Abu ’l-Fatḥ , Great ¶ Sald̲j̲uḳ sultan, born in 447/1055, reigned 465-85/1072-92. During his reign, the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire reached its zenith of territorial extent—from Syria in the west to K̲h̲urāsān in the east—and military might. Alp Arslan [ q.v.] had made Malik-S̲h̲āh his walī ’l-ʿahd or heir to the throne in 458/1066, when various governorships on the eastern fringes were at this same time distributed to several members o…

Thānā

(225 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of western peninsular India, 21 km/15 miles from the Arabian Sea coast and 32 km/20 miles to the north-north-east of Bombay (lat. 90° 14′ N., long. 73° 02′ E.; see the map in gud̲j̲arāt , at Vol. II, 1126). Thānā was in pre-Muslim times the centre of a great Hindu kingdom, but was conquered in 718/1318 by the Sultan of Dihlī Mubārak S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī It soon afterwards became an outpost of the Bahmanid sultanate of the Deccan, but was at times disputed by the Sultans of Gud̲j̲arāt, who seized it, e.g. in 833/1430 (see hind, iv, at Vol. III, 418b). By 1529 it was tribute to the Por…

Ṣofta

(315 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t., orthography ṣ.w.f.t.h ), a name given to students of the theological, legal and other sciences in the madrasa [ q.v.] system of Ottoman Turkey. A parallel form is sūk̲h̲te , in Persian literally “burnt, aflame (i.e. with the love of God or of learning)”, which seems to be the earlier form; the relationship between the two words, if any, is unclear (see S̲h̲. Sāmī, Ḳāmūs-i turkī , Istanbul 1318/1900-1, ii, 839 col. 3; Redhouse, Turkish and English dict., 1087, 1192). The term ṣofta was applied to students in the earlier stages of their education; when a student became qualified to act as a muʿ…

Zūn

(443 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Z̲h̲ūn , the name of a deity of the district of Zamīndāwar [ q.v.] in eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, whose shrine there figures in historical accounts of the Arabs’ and Ṣaffārids’ penetration of the region. In 33/654-5 ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Samura, governor of Sīstān for ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir [ q.v.], raided into Zamīndāwar and attacked the “hill of Zūn” ( d̲j̲abal al-Zūn ), entered the shrine and partially despoiled the idol there, telling the local marzbān that his sole object was to demonstrate the idol’s impotence (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 394). Over two centuries late…

Rustāḳ

(308 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised form of M. Pers. rōstāg , meaning “rural district, countryside”, and given the broken pl. rasātīḳ . (1) In the mediaeval Islamic usage of the Arabic and Persian geographers and of the Arabic writers on finance and taxation, rustāḳ is used both as a specific administrative term and in a more general sense. Thus, reflecting the more exact usage, in Sāsānid and early Islamic ʿIrāḳ, each kūra [ q.v.] or province was divided into ṭassūd̲j̲ s or sub-provinces, and these last were in turn divided into rustāḳs, districts or cantons, centred on a madīna or town. According to Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ, K.…

Terken K̲h̲ātūn

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of the wives of various Turkish rulers of the eastern Islamic world in mediaeval (essentially pre-Mongol) times. In old Turkish, terken was a royal title, often but not invariably applied to females, and in these cases being roughly equivalent to “queen”. It may be a loan word in Turkish, being found, according to G. Doerfer, amongst the Kitan or Western Liao, the later Ḳara K̲h̲itay [ q.v.] of Central Asian Islamic history (see his Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen , Wiesbaden 1963-7, ii, 495-8 no. 889; Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-…

Naṣr b. Aḥmad b. Ismāʿīl

(439 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Sāmānid amīr of Transoxania and K̲h̲urāsān (301-31/914-43), given after his death the honorific of al-Amīr al-Saʿīd (“the Fortunate”). Naṣr was raised to the throne at the age of eight on the murder of his father by the Turkish g̲h̲ulāms of the army, with a regency of the vizier Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad D̲j̲ayhānī [see al-d̲j̲ayhānī in Suppl.]. The early years of his reign were seriously disturbed by rebellions at Samarḳand, at Nīs̲h̲āpūr and in Farg̲h̲āna by various discontented members of the Sāmānid family, and the amīrate was not at peac…

S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī

(314 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Persian historian and poet of the Tīmūrid period, born at Yazd, died in 858/1454. He was a favourite of the Tīmūrid ruler S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ [ q.v.] and of his son Mīrzā Abu ’l-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm Sulṭān, governor of Fārs, and in 832/1429 became tutor to the captured young Čingizid Yūnus K̲h̲ān. to whom he dedicated many poems. He was then in the service of the Tīmūrid prince Mīrzā Sulṭān Muḥammad in ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī or western Persia, and narrowly escaped death when that prince rebelled in 850/1447. After S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲’s death he …

al-Wāt̲h̲iḳī

(243 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān, poet and political claimant of the second half of the 4th/10th and the first years of the 5th/11th centuries, who claimed descent from the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ [ q.v.]. His younger contemporary al-T̲h̲aʿālibi gives specimens of his verses plus biographical information ( Yatīma , ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, iv, 192-3). Al-Wāt̲h̲iḳī began his career in ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra as a court witness and preacher, but became involved in political intrigues. He fled eastwards to the Transoxanian lands of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids [see ilek-k̲h̲āns …

D̲j̲irga

(567 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
(Pas̲h̲to; cf. H.G. Raverty, A dictionary of the Puk̲h̲to , Pus̲h̲to , or language of the Afg̲h̲āns , London 1867, 330b), an informal tribal assembly of the Pafhàns in what are now Afg̲h̲ānistān and Pakistan, with competence to intervene and to adjudicate in practically all aspects of private and public life among the Pat́hāns. In the course of his abortive mission to S̲h̲āh S̲h̲u-d̲j̲āʿ and the Durrānī court of Kabūl in 1809 [see Afg̲h̲ānistān . v. History (3) (A)], Mountstuart Elphinstone described the d̲j̲irga system as alive and vital, with assemblies…

Rūd̲h̲rāwar

(253 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a rural district ( rūstāḳ , nāḥiya ) of the mediaeval Islamic province of D̲j̲ibāl [ q.v.], sc. western Persia. The geographers describe it as a fertile plain below the Kūh-i Alwand, containing 93 villages and producing high-quality saffron which was exported through the nearby towns of Hamad̲h̲ān and Nihāwand. The chef-lieu of the district, in which was situated the d̲j̲āmiʿ and minbar , was known as Karad̲j̲-i Rūd̲h̲rāwar, characterised in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 132, § 31.8-9, as prosperous and the resort of merchants. The site of this seems…

Salm b. Ziyād b. Abīhi

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Ḥarb, Umayyad commander and governor, the third of the many sons of Abū Sufyān’s bastard son Ziyād b. Abīhi [ q.v.], d. 73/692. The family of Ziyād already had a firm grip on the East in the later years of Muʿāwiya’s caliphate, and when Yazīd I came to the throne, he appointed Salm as governor of Ḵh̲urāsān (61/681), and the latter nominated another of his brothers, Yazid b. Ziyād, as his deputy in Sīstān. Salm proved himself a highly popular governor with the Arab troops in Ḵh̲urāsān. largely on account of his mil…

Ḳul

(277 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an old Turkish word which came, in Islamic times, to mean “slave boy, male slave”, defined by Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Turk , ed. Kilisli Rifʿat Bilge, i, 282, tr. Atalay, i, 336-7, as ʿabd . However, the original meaning of ḳul in Orkhon Turkish was rather “servant, vassal, dependent” (the masculine counterpart of kün “female servant, etc.”, the two words being linked in the Kültegin inscription, text references in Talât Tekin, A grammar of Orkhon Turkish, Bloomington, Ind. 1968, 347), since slavery in the Islamic juridical sense did not exist among the ancient Turks. The…

Sārangpur

(203 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town in Central India, before Partition in the Native State of Dewās, now in the Shajapur District of the state of Madhya Pradesh in the Indian Union (lat. 23° 34′ N, long. 76° 24′ E). It is essentially a Muslim town, founded by the sultans of Mālwā [ q.v.], but on an ancient site. It was reputedly the location of a battle in 840/1437 when Maḥmūd K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī I of Mālwā was defeated by the forces of Mēwāŕ [ q.v.], and, of more certain historicity, it was captured in 932/1526 from Maḥmūd II of ¶ Mālwā by Rāṇā Sāṇgā [ q.v.] of Čitawr. Then in 968/1561 it was seized by Akbar from the local…

Zarang

(1,264 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised as Zarand̲j̲, the main town of the early Islamic province of Sīstān. Its ruins lie a few miles north of what was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the administrative centre of Persian Sīstān, Nuṣratābād or Nāṣirābād, modern Zābul. Its remaining traces are visible within the vast ruined site known as Nād-i ʿAlī, to the east of the present course of the Hilmand river [ q.v.] before it peters out in the Hāmūn depression [see zirih ] just inside Afg̲h̲an Sīstān; the site has, however, been much depleted by periodic flooding and the re-us…

Simnān

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern Persia (long. 53° 24′ E., lat. 35° 33′ N., alt. 1,138 m/3,734 ft.), in mediaeval Islamic times coming within the province of Ḳūmis [ q.v.] and lying on the great highway connecting Rayy with the administrative centre of Ḳūmis, sc. Dāmg̲h̲ān [ q.v.], and K̲h̲urāsān. To its north is situated the Elburz Mountain chain and to its south, the Great Desert. 1. History. Simnān comes within what was the heartland of the Parthians (whose capital almost certainly was at S̲h̲ahr-i Ḳūmis, southeast of Dāmg̲h̲ān on the Simnān road), but nothing is known o…

al-ʿUtbī

(688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a family settled in K̲h̲urāsān, of Arab descent, which provided secretaries and viziers for the Sāmānids and early G̲h̲aznawids [ q.vv.] in the 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries (from which of the ʿUtbas of early Islamic times they were descended does not seem to be specified in the sources). 1. Abū d̲j̲aʿfar ( ism and nasab variously given), vizier under the Sāmānid amīr ʿAbd al-Malik I b. Nūḥ I, from 344/956 to 348/959 and again, in company with Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Balʿamī [ q.v.], under his successor Manṣūr I b. Nūḥ I, a few years later. His policy aimed at s…

Ṭabas

(557 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of two places in eastern Persia, denoted in the early mediaeval Islamic sources by the dual form al-Ṭabasāni (e.g. in al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, ix, 45, and Yāḳūt, Buldān, ed. Beirut, iv, 20) and distinguished as Ṭabas al-Tamr “Ṭ. of the date-palms” and Ṭabas al-ʿUnnāb “Ṭ. of the jujube trees”, later Persian forms Ṭabas Gīlakī and Ṭabas Masīnān respectively. Ṭabas al-Tamr lay to the west of Ḳuhistān [ q.v.] in the central Great Desert at a junction of routes between the Das̲h̲t-i Lūt in the south and the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr in the north and west. Ṭab…

D̲j̲and

(1,880 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a mediaeval town on the lower reaches of the Si̊r Daryā in Central Asia, towards its debouchure into the Aral Sea, in what is now the Kazakhstan SSR; its fame was such that the Aral Sea was often called “the Sea of D̲j̲and”. D̲j̲and is first mentioned by certain Muslim geographers of the mid-4th/10th century, in particular, by Ibn Ḥawḳal, and following him, by the anonymous author of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (wrote 372/982). Ibn Ḥawḳal mentions three settlements on the lower Si̊r Daryā amongst the Og̲h̲uz Turks of that region: D̲j̲and; the “New Se…

Ḳut̲h̲am b. al-ʿAbbās

(737 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib al-Hās̲h̲imī , Companion of the Prophet, son of the Prophet’s uncle and of Umm al-Faḍl Lubāba al-Hilāliyya, herself Muḥammad’s sister-in-law. Although the Sīra brings him into contact with Muḥammad by making him one of the inner circle of the Hās̲h̲imī family who washed the Prophet’s corpse and descended into his grave, and although his physical resemblance to the Prophet is also stressed, he was obviously a late convert to Islam, doubtless following his father al-ʿAbbās [ q.v.] in this after the conquest of Mecca. Nothing is heard of him during the reigns of t…

Naṣr b. Muzāḥim

(228 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl al-Minḳarī al-Tamīmī, early S̲h̲īʿī historian (though probably not, as Sezgin rightly observes, the first one) and traditionist; his date of birth is uncertain, but he died in 212/827. He lived originally in Kūfa but later moved to Bag̲h̲dād; amongst those from whom he heard traditions was Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī [ q.v.]. His own reputation as an ak̲h̲bāri and muḥaddit̲h̲ was, however, weak, and he was regarded by some Sunnī authors as a fervent ( g̲h̲ālī ) S̲h̲īʿī. He is best known for his Kitāb Waḳʿat Ṣiffīn (this has been reconstructed, from the p…

al-Maybudī

(321 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the nisba of two scholars from the small town of Maybud [ q.v.] near Yazd in Persia and also of a vizier of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs. 1. ras̲h̲īd al-dīn abu ’l-faḍl aḥmad b. muḥammad , author of an extensive Ḳurʾān commentary in Persian, begun in 520/1126, the Kas̲h̲f al-asrār waʿuddat al-abrār , extant in several mss. Bibliography Storey, i, 1190-1 Storey-Bregel, i, 110-11 and on the nisba in general, al-Samʿānī, Ansāb, f. 547b. 2. mīr ḥusayn b. muʿīn al-dīn al-manṭiḳī , pupil of D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn al-Dawānī [ q.v.], ḳāḍī and philosopher, author of several works on…

Nīs̲h̲āpūrī

(240 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Ẓahīr al-Dīn , Persian author who wrote a valuable history of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs during the reign of the last Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ of Persia, Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l (III) b. Arslan [ q.v.]; he must have died ca. 580/1184-5. Nothing is known of his life except that Rāwandī [ q.v.] states ( Rāḥat al-ṣudūr , ed. M. Iqbál, 54) that he had been tutor to the previous sultans Masʿūd b. Muḥammad [ q.v.] and Arslan b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l (II). His Sald̲j̲ūḳ-nāma was long believed lost, but was known as the main source for Rāwandī’s information on the Sald̲j̲ūḳs up to the latter’s own time (see Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, Preface, pp. XXVI, XXI…

Ḳandahār

(3,156 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a city in southeastern Afg̲h̲ānistān (in modern times giving its name to a province) situated in latitude 31°27′ N. and longitude ¶ 65°43′ E. at an altitude of 3,460 ft. (1,000 m.), and lying between the Arg̲h̲andāb and S̲h̲orāb Rivers in the warmer, southern climatic zone ( garmsīr ) of Afg̲h̲ānistān. Hence snow rarely lies there for very long, and in modern times the city has been favoured as a winter residence for Kābulīs wishing to avoid the rigours of their winter (see J. Humlum et al., La géographie de l’Afghanistan , étude d’un pays aride , Copenhagen 1959, 14…

al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī

(352 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, abū s̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ muḥammad b. al-ḥusayn , zaḥīr al-dīn , vizier to the ʿAbbāsid caliphs and adīb (437-88/1045-95). He was actually born at Kangāwar [see kinkiwar ] in D̲j̲ibāl, but his father, a member of the official classes, stemmed from the nearby district of Rūd̲h̲rāwar [ q.v.]. Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad served al-Muḳtadī as vizier very briefly in 471/1078-8 after the dismissal of ʿAmīd al-Dawla Ibn D̲j̲ahīr [see d̲j̲ahīr , banū ] ¶ and then for a longer period, S̲h̲aʿbān 476 Ṣafar or Rabīʿ I 484/December 1083 to January 1084-April or May 1091, after the second …

Nūḥ

(307 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(I) b. Naṣr b. Aḥmad , Sāmānid amīr of Transoxania and Khurāsān (331-43/943-54), given after his death the honorific of al-Amīr al-S̲h̲āhīd (“the Praiseworthy”). ¶ Continuing the anti-S̲h̲īʿī reaction which marked the end of the reign of Nūḥ’s father Naṣr [ q.v.], the early years of the new reign were dominated by the vizierate of the pious Sunnī faḳīh Abu i-Faḍl Muḥammad Sulamī, but very soon, ominous signs of decline began to appear in the state. There were revolts in the tributary kingdom of K̲h̲wārazm [ q.v.] and in K̲h̲urāsān under its governor Abū ʿAlī Čag̲h̲ānī, whom Nūḥ a…

K̲h̲ōst

(523 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabic spellings K̲h̲.w.st or K̲h̲.wāst, the name of various places in Afg̲h̲anistān. The most likely etymology for the name is that given by G. Morgenstierne in his An etymological vocabulary of Pashto , Oslo 1928, 98: that it is an Iranised form * hwāstu , cf. Skr. suvāstu- “good site” (which became the place-name Swāt [ q.v.] in the North-West frontier region of Pakistan). The mediaeval Arabic and Persian geographers mention what appear to be two places of this name in northern Afg̲h̲anistān. Those of the 4th/10th century mention K̲h̲as̲h̲t as a town on …

Naṣr b. Sayyār

(743 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
al-Layt̲h̲ī al-Kinānī , the last ¶ governor of K̲h̲urāsān under the Umayyads, d. 131/748. Naṣr’s whole career seems to have been spent in K̲h̲urāsān and the East. In 86/705 he campaigned in the upper Oxus region under Ṣāliḥ, brother of the governor of K̲h̲urāsān Ḳutayba b. Muslim [ q.v.], and received a village there as reward. Then in 106/724 he was campaigning in Farg̲h̲āna under Muslim b. Saʿīd al-Kilābī, and served as governor of Balk̲h̲ for some years. Hence on the death of the governor of the East Asad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī [ q.v.], the caliph His̲h̲ām was advised to appoint as hi…

Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd

(340 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
the title given to local Iranian rulers of Sog̲h̲dia and Farg̲h̲āna in the pre-Islamic and early Islamic period. Although Justi ( Iranisches Namenbuch , 14 ), Unvala ( The translation of an extract from Mafâtîh al-ʿUlûm of al-K̲h̲wârazmî , in J. of the . Cama Ins xi (1928), 18-19) and Spuler ( Iran , 30-1, 356) derive it from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲aeta- ‘shining, brilliant’, an etymology from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- ‘king, ruler’ (M. Pers. and N. Pers. s̲h̲āh ) is more probable (Christensen, and Bosworth and Clauson, see below). This O. Pers. term k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- penetrated beyond T…

Munād̲j̲āt

(256 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the verbal noun of the form III verb nād̲j̲ā “to whisper to, talk confidentially with someone”, which is used in Ḳurʾān, LVIII, 13, in this sense, and in the reciprocal form VI in LVIII, 9, 10, of the murmurs of discontent amongst the Prophet’s followers, probably after the Uḥud reverse (see Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 212-13). Munād̲j̲āt becomes, however, a technical term of Muslim piety and mystical experience in the sense of “extempore prayer”, as opposed to the corporate addressing of the deity in the ṣalāt (see Hughes, A dictionary of Islam, 420), and of the Ṣūfīs’ communio…

Eličpur

(611 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Iličpur , modern Ačalpur , a town of the mediaeval Islamic province of Berār [ q.v.] in southern Central India, lying near the headwaters of the Purnā constituent of the Tāptī River in lat. 21° 16ʹ N. and long. 77° 33ʹ E. Up to 1853, Eličpur was generally regarded as the capital of Berār, after when Amraotī became the administrative centre. The pre-Islamic history of Eličpur is semi-legendary, its foundation being attributed to a Jain Rād̲j̲ā called Il in the 10th century. By Baranī’s time (later 7th/13th century), it could be described as one of the fam…

Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam

(604 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, “The limits of the world”, the title of a concise but very important anonymous Persian geography of the world, Islamic and non-Islamic, composed towards the end of the 4th/10th century in Gūzgān [ q.v.] in what is now northem Afghānistān. The work exists in a unique manuscript of the 7th/13th century (the “Toumansky manuscript”) which came to light in Buk̲h̲ārā in 1892. The Persian text was first edited and published by W. Barthold at Leningrad in 1930 as Ḥudūd al-ʿālem , rukopisi̊ Tumanskago , with an important preface (this last reprinted in his Sočineny̲a̲ , vii…

Rāfiʿ b. Hart̲h̲ama

(153 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a soldier of fortune who disputed control of K̲h̲urāsān with other adventurers and with the Ṣaffārid Amīr ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲ [ q.v.] in the later 3rd/9th century, d. 283/896. Rāfiʿ had been in the service of the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.], and after the death in 268/882 at Nīs̲h̲āpūr of the previous contender for power in K̲h̲urāsān, Aḥmad al-K̲h̲ud̲j̲istānī, he set himself up as de facto ruler of K̲h̲urāsān, subsequently securing legitimisation from the ʿAbbāsid caliphs when al-Muwaffaḳ [ q.v.] broke with the Ṣaffārids. By 283/896, however, ʿAmr managed to defeat Rāfiʿ and to dri…

Sāsān

(554 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Banū , the blanket designation in mediaeval Islamic literature for the practitioners of begging, swindling, confidence tricks, the displaying of disfiguring diseases, mutilated limbs, etc., so that sāsānī has often become a general term in both Arabic and Persian for “beggar, trickster”. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa uses sāsānī in the sense of “pertaining to magic or slight-of-hand”, with the ʿilm al-ḥiyal al-sāsāniyya denoting “the science of artifices and trickery”. In his treatise warning the general public against trickery in all forms, al-Muk̲h̲tār min kas̲h̲f al-asrār

Lālā

(477 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Lala (p.), a term found amongst the Turkmen dynasties of Persia and, especially, amongst the Ṣafawids, with the meaning of tutor, specifically, tutor of royal princes, passing also to the Ottoman Turks. Under the Aḳ Ḳoyunlu [ q.v.], both atabeg [see atabak ] and lālā are found, but after the advent of the Ṣafawids (sc. after 907/1501), the latter term becomes more common, with the Arabic term muʿallim “instructor” also found. Such persons were already exalted figures in the state. The lālā of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I’s second son Sām Mīrzā was the īs̲h̲īk-āḳāsī [ q.v.] or Grand Marshal of the great dī…

Pahlawān

(742 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), from Pahlaw , properly “Parthian”, ¶ acquired in pre-modern Persian and thence in Turkish, the sense of “wrestler, one who engages in hand-to-hand physical combat”, becoming subsequently a general term for “hero, warrior, champion in battle”. From this later, broader sense it is used as a personal name in the Persian world, e.g. for the Eldigüzid Atabeg [see ilden̄izids ] Nuṣrat al-Dīn D̲j̲ahān-Pahlawān (reigned in ʿĀd̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. d. 581 or 582/1186 [see pahlawān , muḥammad b. ilden̄iz ; and see Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch, 237, for other bearers of this name]. The w…

Muḥammad b. Hindū-S̲h̲āh

(212 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
Nak̲h̲čiwānī , S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Persian official and littérateur of the 8th/14th century and apparendy the son of Hindū-S̲h̲āh b. Sand̲j̲ar Gīrānī or al-D̲j̲īrānī, author of an Arabic adab work (Brockelmann, II2, 245, S II, 256) and of a Persian version of Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā’s Fak̲h̲rī , the Tad̲j̲ārib al-salaf (see Storey, i, 81, 1233; Storey-Bregel, i, 326-7). Muḥammad was a chancery secretar…

Naṣīḥat al-Mulūk

(4,755 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), literally “advice for rulers”, a phrase under which may conveniently be considered the genre of pre-modern Islamic literature which consists of advice to rulers and their executives on politics and statecraft (

Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusayn

(465 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Muṣʿab b. Ruzayḳ, called D̲h̲u ’l-Yamīhayn (? “the ambidextrous”), b. 159/776, d. 207/822, the founder of a short line of governors in K̲h̲urāsān during the high ʿAbbāsid period, the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.]. His forebears had the aristocratic Arabic nisba of “al-K̲h̲uzāʿī”, but were almost certainly of eastern Persian mawlā stock, Muṣʿab having played a part in the ʿAbbāsid Revolution as secretary to the dāʿī Sulaymān b. Kat̲h̲īr [ q.v.]. He and his son al-Ḥusayn were rewarded with the governorship of Pūs̲h̲ang [see būs̲h̲and̲j̲ ], and Muṣʿab at least apparently governed Harāt also. …

al-Sīrad̲j̲ān

(600 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Sīradtān , one of the principal cities of mediaeval Persian Kirmān and that province’s capital during the first three Islamic centuries. Only from Būyid times onwards (4th/10th century) did Bardasīr or Guwās̲h̲īr (perhaps originally a …

Miyāna

(446 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in the early Islamic souces more usually Miyānid̲j̲, a town of Persia situated on the Ḳizil-Üzen [ q.v.] affluent of the Safīd-Rūd which drains southeastern Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān [ q.v.]. The modern town lies in lat. 37°20′ N. and long. 47°45′ E. at an altitude of 1,100 m./3,514 ft. Being at the confluence of several rivers on the section of the Ḳizil-Üzen known in mediaeval Islamic times as the “river of Miyānid̲j̲” (cf. Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzha , 224, tr. 216), Miyāna (literally, “middle place”, cf. Yāḳūt, Buldān

Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Māl-Amīr , town of western Persia, situated on a tributary of the upper reaches of the Dud̲j̲ayl or Kārūn river, in southern Luristān, at 49° 45′ E. and 31° 50′ N. In mediaeval times it was generally reckoned to be part of the province of al-Ahwāz or K̲h̲ūzistān [ q.v.], and under the ʿAbbāsids was the capital of a separate administrative district or kūra . It lay on a plain at an altitude of 3,100 feet, and though reckoned by the geographers to be in the garmsīr or hot zone, the nearby mountains gave it a pleasant and healthy climate; the winter snow from…

Ṭahmūrat̲h̲

(602 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, generally accounted the second king of the Pīs̲h̲dādid dynasty [ q.v.] in legendary Iranian epic history, coming after the first world-king Kayūmart̲h̲ or Gayōmard and the founder of the Pīs̲h̲dādids, Hūs̲h̲ang [ q.v.]. Certain Islamic sources make him the first king of his line, and the length of the reign attributed to him—such figures as an entire millennium or 600 years are given—shows the importance attached to him. His name appears in the Avesta as

Sarak̲h̲s

(916 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern K̲h̲urāsān, lying in the steppe land to the north of the eastern end of the Köpet Dag̲h̲ mountain chain. It was situated on the right or eastern bank of the Tad̲j̲ant (modern Ted̲j̲en) river, whose uncertain flow received the waters of the Harī Rūd before finally petering out in the Ḳara Ḳum desert [

Ḳūčān

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern form of the mediaeval Islamic K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān/K̲h̲ūd̲j̲ān, a town of northern K̲h̲urasān on the main highway connecting Tehran and Mas̲h̲had. It lies at an altitude of 4,060 feet in the fertile and populous Atrek River-Kas̲h̲af Rūd corridors, on the headwaters of the Atrek and between the parallel mountain ranges of the Kūh-i Hazār Masd̲j̲id on the north and the Kūh-i S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān and Kūh-i Bīnālūd on the south; the modern town ¶ lies several miles upstream, sc. to the east-south-east, of the mediaeval town. K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān was apparently the earliest Islamic form of the town’s name, although nothing is known about it during the period of the Arab conquests and the ensuing two or three centuries. But already in the 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries, such writers as Ibn Ḥawḳal; ed. Kramers, 433, tr. Kramers-Wiet, 419, Muḳaddasī, 318-19, the author of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. Minorsky, 103, § 23, and Bayhaḳī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Masʿūdī , ed. G̲h̲anī and Fayyāḍ 1, 604, 607, tr. Arends…

Rifāʿiyya

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of one of the most prominent Ṣūfī orders from the period of the institutionalisation of the ṭarīḳas [ q.v.], and one which came to be noted in pre-modern times for the extravagance of some of its practices. It is unclear whether the founder, Aḥmad al-Rifāʿī [ q.v.], was a mystic of the thaumaturgie, miracle-mongering type, but the order which he founded and which was developed by his kinsmen certainly acquired its extravagant reputation during the course of the 6th/12th century; it may not be without significance that the order grew…

Ḳāwurd

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. čag̲h̲ri̊ beg dāwūd , called also Ḳara Arslan Beg on his coins and by authors like Mīrk̲h̲wand, the founder of a line of virtually independent Sald̲j̲ūḳ amīrs in Kirmān which endured for some 140 years until the irruption into the province of Og̲h̲uz from K̲h̲urāsān. The origins of Sald̲j̲ūḳ rule in Kirmān are obscure: there are discrepancies in the accounts of the sources, and the opening pages of Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm’s local history of Kirmān are missing. Kirmān had been recovered by the Būyids after the G̲h̲aznavid occupation of 422-5/1031-4 (on which see E. Merçil, Gaznelilerʾin Kirm…

Özkend

(332 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, ūzkend , sometimes written in the sources Yūzkand or Ūzd̲j̲and, a town of mediaeval Islamic Farg̲h̲āna [ q.v.] in Central Asia, lying at the eastern end of the Farg̲h̲āna valley and regarded as being near the frontier with the pagan Turks. Already in the mid-3rd/9th century, Özkend had a local ruler called by the Turkish name K̲h̲ūrtigin (?Čūr-tigin) (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 30). The geographers of the next century (i.e. that of the Sāmānids) describe it as having the tripartite pattern typical of eastern Islamic towns, with a citadel in the madīna or inner cit…

Wān

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C. E.
, conventionally Van , the name of a lake and of a town (lat. 38° 28’ N., long. 43° 21’ E.) in what is now the Kurdish region of southeastern Turkey. 1. The lake (modern Tkish., Van Gölü). This is a large stretch of water now spanning the ils of Van and Bitlis. It lies at an altitude of 1,720 m/5,640 feet, with a rise in level during the summer when the snows on the surrounding mountain ranges melt. Its area is 3,737 km2/1,443 sq. miles. Being landlocked, with no outlet, it has a high content of mineral salts, especially sodium carbonate, which makes its water undrinkable, but…

Wenedik

(2,055 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Greene, Molly
, the Ottoman Turkish form for the name of the Italian city of Venice, in earlier Arabic usage, however, there appears Bunduḳiya and similar forms. 1. In earlier Islamic times. The city was known to early Arabic geographers, such as Ibn Rusta, Ibn Ḥawḳal, etc., and these geographers had a fair knowledge of the names of many of the Italian cities and towns of the Lombard and Carolingian periods; the knowledge of later writers like al-Idrīsī was a fortiori much profounder after some three centuries during which the Arabs had controlled Sicily [see siḳilliya ] and, at times, Calabria [see Ḳillawr…

Marand

(1,740 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
1. Town in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies about 40 miles north of Tabrīz, halfway between it and the Araxes or Aras in lat. 38° 25′ 30″ N. and 45° 46″ E. at an altitude of ca. 4,400 feet/1,360m. (it is 42 miles from Marand to D̲j̲ulfā). The road from Tabrīz to K̲h̲oy also branches off at Marand. A shorter road from Tabrīz to K̲h̲oy follows the north bank of Lake Urmiya and crosses the Mis̲h̲owdag̲h̲ range by the pass between Tasūd̲j̲ [ q.v.] and Ḍiyā al-Dīn. Marand, which is surrounded by many gardens, occupies the eastern corner of a rather beau…

Taymāʾ

(992 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, an ancient oasis settlement of northwestern Arabia, now in Saudi Arabia (lat. 27° 37’ N., long. 38° 30’ E.). According to the mediaeval Islamic geographers, it lay in the region called al-Maḥad̲j̲d̲j̲āt, and was four days’ journey south of Dūmat al-D̲j̲andal [ q.v.]; al-Muḳaddasī, 107, 250, 252, localises it at three stages from al-Ḥid̲j̲r [ q.v.] (in fact, Taymāʾ is some 110 km/70 miles from al-Ḥid̲j̲r/ Madā’in Ṣāliḥ), four stages from Tabūk [ q.v.] and four from the Wādī ’l-Ḳurā [ q.v.]. It lies in a depression, the length of which J.A. Jaussen and R. Sauvignac put at 3.2…
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