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God

(23,549 words)

Author(s): Zinser, Hartmut | Kaiser, Otto | Lindemann, Andreas | Brümmer, Vincent | Schwöbel, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Dogmatics – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Missiology – VIII. Art – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. It is fundamentally true that God is not an object of religious studies, since God – as theology teaches – canno…

Philosophical Theology

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Brümmer, Vincent
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Philosophy of religion may be defined as the philosophical discipline in which generally accepted methods of philosophical argument and critical analysis are applied to conceptual problems that arise both in religious theory and practice, and in secular views of life. The latter can take over the role of religion as conceptual framework, because in both, meaning and significance are ascribed to life (V) and experience (II). Philosophical theology is a sub-discipline of phil…

Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enlightenment (Nirvāṇa). According to Stanner and others, indigenous Australians are also unfamiliar with prayer. Prayer may be distinguished from other types of religious act such as meditation, divination, or incantation. In contemplation the subject reflects on a religious object or the cosmos, whereas in prayer he or she speaks to a personal religious object. Prayer is not simply religious communication: communication is reciprocal, but in prayer only the person praying speaks. In divination, the believer expects to learn the answer of a religious object (e.g. a god), the will of such an object, or the …

Divine Attributes

(4,975 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Brümmer, Vincent | Schmidt, Werner H. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. Islam I. Religious Studies In the context of rational Christian metaphysics, the knowability of God is assumed and God-talk is substantiated in such a way that certain attributes, such as holiness (Sacred and profane: V), eternity, …

Philosophische Theologie

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Brümmer, Vincent
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Religionsphilosophie kann als diejenige philos. Disziplin definiert werden, in der allg. akzeptierte Methoden der philos. Argumentation und krit. Analyse auf begriffliche Probleme angewendet werden, die sowohl in der rel. Theorie und Praxis als auch in weltl. Lebensanschauungen auftreten. Letztere können die Rolle der Rel. als Rahmenkonzept übernehmen, weil in beiden dem Leben (: V.) und der Erfahrung (: II.) Bedeutung und Bedeutsamkeit beigemessen w…