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Bâmyân

(124 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Resting-place for pilgrims and caravans between  Balkh and Peshawar ( Peucelaotis). Described by the Chinese pilgrim Hsüan Tsang in the 7th cent. AD; known in Europe since 1824; explored by a French expedition in 1922-30. Oldest remains of the city in the valley of B. date from the 5th cent. AD. Important Buddhist monastery, which was chiselled into a steep rock-face between the 5th and 7th cents. Large Buddhas (one 53 m, the second 35 m high), which were cut out of the rock, were…

Buchara

(33 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Medieval capital of the Buchara oasis, inhabited from the time of the Kushan dynasty (2nd cent. AD), successor to Varachsa. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography G. A. Pugacenkova, Samarkand -- Buchara, 1975.

Namazga-Tepe

(88 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] The largest tell (50 ha) in the foothills of the mountains of southern Turkmenia, to the southeast of Ašḫābād. Excavations since 1949. Basis for the structure of southern Turkmenian Chalcolithic and Bronze Age cultures (NMG strata I-V: 5th-2nd millennia BC) and the early Iron Age (NMG stratum VI: 1st millennium BC). The excavations so far encompass only part of the site, and the interpretations are somewhat disputed. Abandoned since the Achaemenid period. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography P.L. Kohl, Central Asia. Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iro…

Dahistan

(53 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Landscape on the lower  Atrek, western Turkmenia, named after the  Dahae. In the late Bronze and early Iron Age between 1500 and 600 BC, a well-developed irrigation culture with more than 30 attested settlements. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography P. L. Kohl, Central Asia, Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iron Age, 1984, 200-208.

Atrek

(43 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] River in south Turkmenia flowing into the   Caspian Sea , in the late 2nd and early 1st millennium BC used to irrigate  Dahistan; since the Seleucid era the southern border of the nomadic territory ( Alexander's Wall). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Kandahar

(116 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (today Šahr-e Kohna). Capital of the satrapy Arachosia, rectangular city of the Kushans ( Kushan) and Kushano-Sassanids, in three parts: 1. the fortified residential city with central citadel, 2. two suburbs, 3. a Buddhist monastery with stupa and aqueduct system. A rock inscription of Aśoka (Greek Aramaic bilingual inscription) contains a religious-social proclamation of the Maurya ruler. The choice of the two languages indicates the settlement of Greeks and Syrians in the 3rd…

Prasodes thalassa

(197 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (πρασώδης θάλασσα/ prasṓdēs thálassa, the 'green sea'). Described by Ptol. 7,2,1 and 7,3,6, Marcianus [1] (Periplus maris exteri 1,44 = GGM 1,44) and Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 32 (= GGM 2,32) as the part of the region of the Indian Ocean that is coloured by a leek-like "sea moss". The appearance of this seaweed points to a shallow zone probably close to a coastline, which could have been near the East African coast north of Zanzibar. From the Augustinian era on, Greco-Roman ships…

Taochi

(74 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάοχοι, cf. Xen. An. 4,4,18 et passim; according to Sophaenetus FGrH 109 F 2 also Τάοι/ Táoi). Mountain people in northern Armenia, who maintained several fortified places with stores of foodstuffs in the valley of the Glaucus (tributary of the modern Çoruh Nehri). The T. were not directly dependent on the Great King, but occasionally served in the Persian army as mercenaries. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2247.

Nomads

(386 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Νομάδες/ Nomádes). Nomads are wandering shepherds leading a special form of non-sedentary life, which is adapted, thanks to herd raising, to arid steppe regions of Eurasia and Africa. We may distinguish between: 1. nomads keeping sheep, horses, camels, and cattle (partly yaks) in north Eurasia; 2. those breeding sheep, goats, and camels, sometimes also keeping donkeys, in Arabia, Iran, India, and North Africa; 3. nomads breeding mainly cattle in East Africa. Greeks, Romans, and Byz…

Treasure of the Oxus

(227 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] or Amu Darya treasure; hoard taken from the area of this river (Araxes [2]) to India, and since 1897 exhibited in London. It comprises some 1,500 coins, worked gold and silver, a number of roll seals and gems. Coins: Achaemenid period  Greek imports and recoinings, and about 100 tetradrachmai and 100 drachmai of  Alexander III, Seleucus I, Antiochius I and II and Diodotus I. The gold works form several groups: statuettes, sumptuous bracelets in various styles, brooches, pot handles in the shape of a Bezoar ibex, a model quadriga, fragments of the sheath of an akinákēs (Pers…

Merw

(112 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (also Alexandria [5], later Antioch [7]), principal town of Margiana; an oasis at the delta of the Murgab (or Margus); 30 km east of modern Mary in southern Turkmenistan. Inhabited since the Neolithic. First blossom in the 2nd millenium. The citadel of Erk-/Ark-Kala was built in the Achaemenid period; in Hellenistic times a town with rectangular grid pattern was attached to it. M. belonged to the Parthian and later to the Sassanid kingdom. It was conquered by the Arabs in 651 AD. Excavations have uncovered both Parthian and medieval remains. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bi…

Capisa

(96 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Καπίσα; Kapiša-kaniš, Behistun inscription [1. D]), now Bagrām. City in the Ghorband Valley, 45 km north of Kabul, known since 1833. Capital city of Indo-Grecian kings (2nd-1st cents. BC), summer residence of the  Kushanians). Two rooms in the ‘palace’ contained inlaid works of art: Chinese lacquer work, Indian ivory and Hellenistic work. Plaster moulds for pouring metal reliefs are regarded as Alexandrian imports but prove the production of Hellenistic art works in Bactria. Brentjes, Burchard (Berl…

Gedrosia, Gadrosia

(220 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Area in south-eastern Iran and south-western Pakistan, roughly equivalent to modern Baluchistan. Now a largely arid mountainous area with deep valleys, known from Arrian's account of the difficulties encountered by Alexander's army on its return march. The coast is described in detail in the Voyage of Nearchus (Arr. Anab. 6,22-26; Str. 15,723). Bearers of various cultures since the 8th millennium, they were possibly the ancestors of the Brahui, who are linguistically close to the …

Pendzhikent

(143 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (ancient name and date of foundation unknown). Sogdian city of Pantcakat on the Serafsan, northern Tadjikistan; trading and artisan centre with gold extraction. A citadel, the inner city with two temples, suburbs and a necropolis are preserved. Wall paintings with local, Indian and Graeco-Roman motifs were found in temples and private houses, e.g. the fable by Aesop of the goose that laid the golden eggs. In addition, bracteates with the Roman she-wolf based on Byzantine coins wer…

Uxii

(45 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Iranian tribe, mentioned in Diod. Sic.  17,67, Curt. 5,3,1-15, Arr. Anab. 3,17, Str. 16,1,16-18 and Plin. HN  6,133. It is mentioned among the inhabitants of Ḫuzestān (in Iran) in accounts of Alexander the Great's campaign. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. U., RE 9 A, 1313-1319.

Bishapur

(220 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids ‘The fair (city) of Shapur’, rectangular seat of residence of Shapur I (241-272,  Sapor), in south-west Iran. Constructed by Roman prisoners of war after Shapur's victories over Gordianus, Philippus Arabs and Valerians, consequently using Roman stonemasonry techniques (clamping hewn stones with iron ‘swallowtails’). I.a., a temple of  Anahita has been excavated, a square hall with an outer corridor on each side. The central, domed hall (22 × 22 m, c. 25 m high) of the quarry-stone palace was extended …

Liwan

(78 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (= Eivan). Hall open at the front with a barrel vault, mostly accessible from an internal courtyard. Characteristic building form of the Parthian and Sassanid period (2nd cent. BC-7th cent. AD; Ḥatra [1], Parthian Palace in Assur [1], Ctesiphon [2], Sarwistān, Qaṣr-e Šīrīn) which later became a defining element of Islamic mosque and palace architecture and spread in this way to Morocco and India. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography O. Grabar, s.v. Īwān, EI 4, 287-389.

Chorezmia

(286 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Χορασμίη; Chorasmíē, Arabic Ḫwārizm). River-valley oasis on the lower Āmū-daryā. Settled by farmers since the 5th-4th millennia BC. In the Avesta ( Avesta script) as xwarizm; mentioned in the  Bisutun inscription. The Chorezmians together with the Aryans formed a satrapy (Hdt. III,93,173 Hecat. fr.). Abū Raiḥān al-Bı̄rūnī gives the year 980 before the era of Alexander (1292 BC) as the beginning of the Chorezmian era. When in 329/328 Alexander wintered in  Maracanda he was visited by  Pharasmanes, king o…

Air-tam

(60 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Graeco-Bactrian settlement on the north bank of the Amu-darja river. Remains include a Buddhist temple decorated with reliefs in the north Bactrian style of Gandhara art. Also found were the remains of two stupas and a Greek inscription of several lines from the time of Huvishka. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. Staviski, Mittelasien. Kunst der Kuschan, 1979, 134-138.

Paikuli

(83 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Village in Iraqi Kurdistan with an expanse of ruins around a stepped altar in the form of a tower (now also in ruins). Stone blocks with Parthian and Middle Persian inscriptions and busts with the representation of the Sassanid Šahānšāh Narseh (293-302; Narses [1]) are preserved. The remains were interpreted by E. Herzfeld as a victory monument to Narseh. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography E. Herzfeld, P. Monument and Inscription of the Early History of the Sasanian Empire, vol. 1, 1924.

Kinnamomophoros chora

(114 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Κινναμωμοφόρος χώρα; Kinnamōmophóros chṓra, ‘Land of Cinnamon’). This is what Str. 2,133 calls the region around Cape Guardafui in Somalia. Str. 16,774 cites the interior of this country as the area of origin of cinnamon; Ptol. 4,7,10 looked for it among the sources of the Nile. Eventually the whole of southern Ethiopia came to be regarded as the Land of Cinnamon. Hdt. 3,110,111; Plin. HN 10,97 and 12,82 et al. cited southern Arabia as the land of origin of the spice, though it was…

Ochus

(40 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὦχος/ Ô chos). Unidentified river in Hyrcania or Bactria (Str. 11,7,3; 11,11,5; Apollod. FGrH 779 F 4. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography J. Sturm, s.v. Ochos (2), RE 17, 1668-1770  H. Myśliwiec, s.v. Oaxus lacus, RE Suppl. 11, 1027.

Amardus

(78 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] A river in Media, mentioned in Ptol. 6,2,2, today Sefi Rud, in the territory of the Καδούσιοι ( Kadoúsioi) tribe, originally supposedly belonged to the territory of the Ἄμαρδοι ( Ámardoi; Str. 11,8,8). The Amardi migrated out of Ariana in the time of the Persian empire and settled by the Caspian Sea and in the mountainous area to the south. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography Atlas of the World, pl. 32, 1959 Großer Histor. Weltatlas I, 15 c.

Satala

(99 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Legio | Limes | Limes (τὰ or ἡ Σάταλα [ or hē Sátala]; Cass. Dio 68,19,2; Procop. Pers. 1,15,9 f.). Important communications node in Armenia Minor during the Imperial Period and hence a long-standing Roman garrison town. In the Christian period it was a see (remains at modern Sadağ). A fragment (face) of an Anahita-Artemis sculpture was found here. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. N. Arakeljan, Ocerki po istorii iskusstva drevnej Armenii (VI v. do n.E. - I…

Ariaspae

(73 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] A tribe of the Hilmend plain (Arr. Anab. 3,27,4) known from Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4]). 3,27,4). Excavations uncovered Iron Age settlements with fire cult temples, as in Dahan-i Ghulaman, possibly the old Zarina drangiana. They were probably identical to the Εὐεργέται ( Euergétai) in Arr. 4,6,6 and Diod. Sic. 18,81. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography U. Scerrato, Evidence of religious life at Dahan-e Ghalaman, Sistan, in: South Asian Archaeology 1977, 1979, 709-733.

Ghazni

(89 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Finds of coins from the period of the Indo-Greek kings  Artemidorus [1], Peucolas and  Archebius (around 130 BC) and the Saka king Azes I (around 70 BC) prove that G. was an important centre in the Graeco-Bactrian period. The Buddhist monastery of Tapa Sardar (2nd-4th cents. AD) discovered closeby and buildings of the Islamic Ghaznowid dynasty of the 11th-12th cents. attest to the continuous importance of the region. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography F. R. Allchin, N. Hammond, The Archaeology of Afghanistan from the earliest times to the Timuri…

Anahita

(121 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Iranian deity of water and fertility; the name means ‘unpolluted’, ‘spotless’. She is described very specifically in Yt. 5,126-129; presumably the description is of a statue. The animal seen as sacred to her was the beaver. First mentioned in Iranian inscriptions at the time of Artaxerxes II. According to Clement of Alexandria (Protrept. 5,65,3), Berossus (III) reported that Artaxerxes had had statues of A. erected in Bactria, Ecbatana, Susa, Babylon, Damascus and Sardes. A popular deity from the Parthian era, with …

Armavira

(85 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀρμαουίρα; Armaouíra). City mentioned in Ptol. 5.12.5 M. and 8.19.11 N. on the left bank of the Aras, the Urartian Argistichinili. Castle and residence on the crest of a mountain, the city below it on the slope leading down to the River A.; first capital of the Armenian kingdom. Excavations have revealed Urartian material, as well as ancient Armenian strata, including a gold medallion picturing the goddess  Anahita (?). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography A. A. Martirosjan, Argistichinili I, Archeologiceskie Pamjatniki Armenii 8, 1974.

Utii

(84 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Οὔτιοι/ Oútioi, in Herodotus 3,93 and 7,68) and Yutica/Yutiyâ (Middle Persian, in the Darius Inscription of Bisutun 40,23), mentioned as a Persian tribe in the Fourteenth Satrapy. The U. contingent in Xerxes's army was under the command of Arsamenes, a son of Darius [1] I. It is suggested that their settlement area was in Carmania. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. U., RE 9 A, 1185-1187 R. Borger, W. Hinz, Die Behistun-Inschrift Darius' des Großen, in: Id., W. H. Ph. Römer, in: TUAT 1.4, 1984, 419-450.

Cyrtii

(84 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Κύρτιοι; Kýrtioi, Lat. Cyrtii). Mentioned at Str. 11,523; 727 as nomads in northern Media and Persia. Pol. 5,52,5 mentions the C. as reserve troops of the Median governor Molon in the struggle against Antiochus III. Liv. 37,40,9 mentions them as opponents of the Romans in the battle of Magnesia (190 BC); at Liv. 42,58,13 they appear as Roman mercenaries with Callinicus (171 BC). On the basis of their name, they are seen as the ancestors of the Kurds. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Aral Sea

(79 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Inland body of water between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan; it receives hardly any precipitation and the only water supply is from the Syr-darja and Amu-darja. The area covered by water in antiquity was more than double the size than that in 1962. The areas abandoned after the departure of nomads moving to Bactria (140-120 BC) have become desertified since then, in the same way as the western and north-eastern parts of Chorezmia. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Cirik-Rabat-Kala

(72 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Oval city site east of Lake Aral (800 × 600 m), with a citadel and six funerary buildings of the 4th-2nd cents. BC. Interpreted as the capital city of the  Apasiaci, abandoned in the late 2nd cent. BC. In the 3rd (?) cent. AD a rectangular fortification of the Khorezm state was built on the city site. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography S. P. Tolstov, Po drevnim del'tam Oksa i Jaksarta, 1962.

Sacae

(338 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Σάκαι/ Sákai, Σάκκαι/ Sákkai: different variants of the name, e.g., in Aristoph. Av. 31; Xen. Cyr. 8,3,25-32; 8,3,35-50; Hdt. 7,64; Sacae: Plin. HN 6,50, among others). Derived from the Persian name for the nomads of central Asia, possibly called after the tribal group's name for itself. For Str. 11,8,2, “most of the Scythians” east of the Caspian Sea are S. According to the ancient Persian inscriptions, there were several leagues, the Sakā haumavargā (= Σκύθαι Ἀμύργιοι/ Skýthai Amýrgioi, approximately ‘haoma-drinking S.’) and the Sakā tigraḫaudā (Σκύθαι Ὀρθοκορ…

Alexander's Wall

(97 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Legendary term for the border fortification from the coast of the Caspian Sea 200 km inland to the mountains of Pishkamar. Probably Parthian and Sassanid in origin. Today still 175 km long, 2.5 m high, and 10 m wide; ditches 3 m deep and 30 m wide, various auxiliary walls. Forty forts continue at distances of 0.4-6 km south of the wall. Excavated forts: Qaleh Kafar, Qaravol Tappeh. Provided protection for c. 500 villages and cities. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography M. Y. Kani, Parthian Sites in Hyrcania, in: A M I, Suppl. vol. 9, 1982.

China

(298 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Σῖνα; Sîna). C. comprises within its modern borders several ancient cultural zones, with various traditions and ties looking to the west and the south. The steppe zone in the north was in continuous contact with western Siberia and eastern Europe from at least the 2nd millennium BC, always under the influence of the central Chinese cultures of the Yellow River region and the coastal zone. Southern China was orientated towards the south and south-east. Traffic along the ‘silk roads…

Acadra

(73 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Coastal area of Indo-China A coastal area of Indo-China mentioned by Ptol. 7,2,6. Excavations in Arikamedu indicate that this region enjoyed trade with Rome during the 1st cent. AD. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) [German version] [2] City of southern China City of southern China recorded only by Ptol. 7,3,5, possibly associated with the πόλις Ἀσπίθρα ( pólis Aspíthra) and the Psitharas river mentioned by Plin. HN 6,35. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Apasiaci

(63 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] From Âpaçaka = ‘Water Sacae’ (?), in Str. 11,6-7,513 and Pol. 10,48. Possibly in the Šany-darja delta, their residence  Cirik-Rabat-Kala (?). Babiš-Mulla 1 is a fortified palace, the funeral monuments Babiš-Mulla 2 and Balandy 2 are domed buildings and represent a preliminary stage of the development of Islamic mausoleums. The region was abandoned in 150 BC. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Prason

(125 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] (Πράσον ἀκροτήριον/ Práson akrotḗrion). Southernmost cape on the African coast reached by the Greeks. It was considered to be the northwestern border of the legendary 'land of the south' (Ptol. 7,2,1) - the counterpart to Cattigara as the corner of Asia. According to the longitudinal data of several seafarers, it lay south of the equator, see Ptol. 1,8. It could have been Cape Ras Kansi near Dār as-Salām. P. was reached by the owners of trading vessels who were either driven south w…

Silk Road

(608 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Collective term for the caravan routes from China to western Asia. Used for general trade and interchange, the Silk Road acquired particular significance by bringing silk fabrics into the Mediterranean, where it was highly prized, particularly in Rome (silk had been known there since the 1st cent. BC; for evidence see Seres). It is not known when the use of these trade routes began - it presumably goes back to the 4th millennium BC; it is documented until the 16th cent. AD. Today'…

Nautaca

(68 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria (τὰ Ναύτακα; tà Naútaka). According to Arr. Anab. 3,28,9; 4,18,1; Curt. 8,2,1 ( Nauta), a settlement or region in Sogdiana. Possibly a venue for chariot-racing. Not located. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography J. Sturm, s.v. N., RE 16, 2033  R. Hauschild, Tirade der Wagenrennfahrt des Königs Haosravah und Junkers Neresmanah, in: MIO 7,1, 1959, 1-78.

Daher

(82 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
(Δάαι, Δάοι). [1] zentralasiatische Nomaden (Lat. Dahae), Zweig der zentralasiatischen Nomaden, bei Strab. 11,8,2 östl. des Kaspischen Meeres; Hdt. 1,125 nennt D. in der Persis; in der Persepolis-Inschrift als Daha bezeichnet; Teilstamm der Parner, der die Satrapie Parthava (Parthia) besetzt. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) [2] medische Volksgruppe Wahrscheinlich eine medische Volksgruppe, die in der skythischen Wanderung zugrunde ging. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography J. Junge, in: Klio 41, Beiheft 28, 1939  P.L. Kohl, Central Asia, Palaeolithic Beginnings to…

Cirik-Rabat-Kala

(52 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Ovale Stadtanlage östl. des Aralsees (800 × 600 m), mit Zitadelle und sechs Grabbauten des 4.-2.Jh. v.Chr. Als Hauptstadt der Apasiaken gedeutet, im späten 2.Jh. v.Chr. aufgegeben. Im 3.(?)Jh. n.Chr. rechteckige Festung des Chorezmstaates im Stadtgebiet errichtet. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography S.P. Tolstov, Po drevnim del'tam Oksa i Jaksarta, 1962.

Paikuli

(66 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Dorf in Iraqisch-Kurdistan mit Ruinenfeld um einen Stufenaltar in Turmform, der in Trümmern liegt. Erh. sind Steinblöcke mit parthischen und mittelpersischen Inschr. und Büsten mit der Darstellung des sāsānidischen Šahānšāhs Narseh (293-302; Narses [1]). Die Reste wurden von E. Herzfeld als Siegesdenkmal des Narseh interpretiert. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography E. Herzfeld, P. Monuments and Inscriptions of the Early Sasinian Empire Bd. 1, 1924.

Atrek

(37 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Fluß in Südturkmenien zum Kaspischen Meer ( Kaspia thalatta ), im späten 2. und frühen 1. Jt.v.Chr. zur Bewässerung von Dahistan benutzt; seit seleukidischer Zeit südl. Grenze des Nomadengebietes (Alexanderwall). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Buchara

(27 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Mittelalterliche Hauptstadt der Buchara-Oase, war seit der Kuschanazeit (2.Jh. n.Chr.) besiedelt, Nachfolgerin von Varachsa. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography G.A. Pugacenkova, Samarkand - Buchara, 1975.

Gedrosia, Gadrosia

(196 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Landschaft im SO-Iran und SW-Pakistan, entspricht ungefähr dem h. Balūčēstan. Ein h. in großen Teilen arides Berggebiet mit eingetieften Tälern, bekannt durch den Bericht des Arrianos über die Schwierigkeiten, auf die Alexanders Armee auf ihrem Rückmarsch traf. Die Küste ist im Periplus des Nearchos genau beschrieben (Arr. an. 6,22-26; Strab. 15,723). Träger der verschiedenen Kulturen seit dem 8. Jt. waren evtl. die Vorfahren der sprachlich den Drawida nahestehenden Brahui, die v…

Amardos

(66 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Bei Ptol. 6,2,2 erwähnter Fluß in Medien, der h. Sefi Rud, im Gebiet des Stammes Καδούσιοι, soll urspr. zum Gebiet der Ἄμαρδοι gehört haben (Strab. 11,8,8). Aus Ariana zugewandert siedelten die Amardoi in der Zeit der pers. Großreiche am Kaspischen Meer und im südl. anschließenden Bergland. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography Atlas of the World, pl. 32, 1959  Großer Histor. Weltatlas I, 15 c.

Bischapur

(185 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sāsāniden “Die schöne (Stadt) des Schapur”, rechteckige Residenzstadt Schapurs I. (241-272, Sapor), Südwestiran. Erbaut durch röm. Kriegsgefangene aus Schapurs Siegen über Gordianus, Philippus Arabs und Valerianus, daher Anwendung röm. Steinmetztechniken (Verklammerung von Steinquadern mit eisernen “Schwalbenschwänzen”). Ausgegraben wurden u.a. ein Tempel der Anahita, ein Quadratsaal mit umlaufendem Korridor. Den zentralen Kuppelsaal (22 × 22 m, ca. 25 m hoch) des aus Bruc…

Dahistan

(46 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Landschaft am unteren Atrek, Westturkmenien, nach den Dahern benannt. In der späten Bronze- und frühen Eisenzeit 1500-600 v.Chr. eine entwickelte Bewässerungskultur mit mehr als 30 nachgewiesenen Siedlungen. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography P.L. Kohl, Central Asia, Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iron Age, 1984, 200-208.

Oxos-Schatz

(181 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] oder Amu-Darjā-Schatz; vom Gebiet dieses Flusses (Araxes [2]) nach Indien gebrachter Hort, der seit 1897 in London ausgestellt wird. Er umfaßt ca. 1500 Mz., Gold- und Silberarbeiten, einige Rollsiegel und Gemmen. Mz.: achämenidenzeitliche griech. Importe und ihre Nachprägungen, sowie ca. 100 Tetradrachmen und 100 Drachmen Alexandros' III., Seleukos' I., Antiochios' I. und II. und Diodotos' I. Die Goldarbeiten bilden mehrere Gruppen: Statuetten, prunkvolle Armreifen unterschiedlic…

Alexanderwall

(96 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Legendäre Bezeichnung für Grenzbefestigung von der Küste des Kaspischen Meeres bis in die ca. 200 km entfernten Berge von Pischkamar. Wahrscheinlich parthisch und sasanidisch. Heute noch 175 km lang bei 2,5 m Höhe und 10 m Breite; davor Graben von 3 m Tiefe und 30 m Breite; verschiedene Zusatzmauern. 40 Forts folgen im Abstand von 0,4-6 km südl. der Mauer. Gegrabene Forts: Qaleh Kafar, Qaravol Tappeh. Bot Schutz für ca. 500 Dörfer und Städte. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography M. Y. Kani, Parthian Sites in Hyrcania, in: A M I, Erg. Bd. 9, 1982.

Ghazni

(79 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Münzfunde aus der Zeit der indogriech. Könige Artemidoros [1], Peucolas und Archebios (um 130 v.Chr.) und des Sakenkönigs Azes. I. (um 70 v.Chr.) erweisen G. als bed. Zentrum in graeco-baktrischer Zeit. Das in der Nähe entdeckte buddhist. Kloster Tapa Sardar (2.-4. Jh. n.Chr.) und Bauten der islam. Ghaznowidendyn. des 11.-12. Jh. zeugen von der anhaltenden Bed. der Region. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography F.R. Allchin, N. Hammond, The Archaeology of Afghanistan from the earliest times to the Timurid period, 1978.

Sakai

(309 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Σάκαι, Σάκκαι: Name in verschiedenen Varianten z. B. bei Aristoph. Av. 31; Xen. Kyr. 8,3,25-32; 8,3,35-50; Hdt. 7,64; Sacae: Plin. nat. 6,50 u. a.). Abgeleitet vom persischen Namen für die Nomaden Zentralasiens, evtl. nach der Selbstbezeichnung einer Stammesgruppe. Für Strab. 11,8,2 sind ‘die meisten der Skythen’ östl. des Kaspischen Meeres S. Nach den altpers. Inschr. gab es mehrere Verbände, die Sakā haumavargā (= Σκύθαι Ἀμύργιοι, etwa “die haoma-trinkenden S.”) und die Sakā tigraḫaudā (Σκύθαι Ὀρθοκορυβάντιοι, “die spitzhelmigen S.”), die Sakā para Sugda (…

Nomaden

(333 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Νομάδες). N. sind Wanderhirten, eine Spezialform nicht-seßhafter Lebensweise, die mit Herdenhaltung an aride Steppenzonen in Eurasien und Afrika angepaßt ist. Man unterscheidet: 1. Schaf-, Pferde-, Kamel- und Rinder- (z.T. Yak-) Haltung in Nordeurasien; 2. Schaf-, Ziegen- und Kamelzucht, z.T. Eselhaltung in Arabien, Iran, Indien und Nordafrika; 3. vorwiegend Rinderzucht in Ostafrika. Griechen, Römer und Byzantiner wurden sowohl an ihren Süd- und Nord-Grenzen als auch in Arabien m…

Nautaka

(62 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Graeco-Baktrien | Graeco-Baktrien (τὰ Ναύτακα). Nach Arr. an. 3,28,9; 4,18,1; Curt. 8,2,1 ( Nauta) Ort oder Region in der Sogdiana. Evtl. Austragungsort von Wagenrennen. Nicht lokalisiert. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography J. Sturm, s.v. N., RE 16, 2033  R. Hauschild, Tirade der Wagenrennfahrt des Königs Haosravah und Junkers Neresmanah, in: MIO 7,1, 1959, 1-78.

Merw

(97 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (auch Alexandreia [5], später Antiocheia [7]), Hauptort der Margiana; Oase am Delta des Murgab (auch Margos); 30 km östl. des h. Mary im südl. Turkmenien. Besiedelt seit dem Neolithikum, erster Höhepunkt im 2. Jt. In der achäm. Zeit entstand die Rundburg Erk-/Ark-Kala, an die sich in hell. Zeit im Süden eine rechteckig angelegte Stadt anschloß. M. gehörte zum parth., dann zum sāsānidischen Reich und wurde 651 n.Chr. von den Arabern erobert. Grabungen haben parth. sowie ma. Reste aufgedeckt. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography G.A. Pugacenkova, Puty razvi…

Liwan

(66 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (= Eivan). Meist von einem Innenhof zugängliche, vorne offene Halle mit Tonnengewölbe; charakteristische Bauform der parth. und sāsānidischen Zeit (2. Jh.v.Chr.-7. Jh.n.Chr.; Ḥatra [1], Parther-Palast in Assur [1], Ktesiphon [2], Sarwistān, Qaṣr-e Šīrīn), die dann zu einem bestimmenden Element der islam. Moschee- und Palastarchitektur wurde und sich damit bis nach Marokko und Indien verbreitete. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography O. Grabar, s.v. Īwān, EI 4, 287-389.

Air-tam

(43 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Graeco-baktrische Siedlung am Nordufer des Amu-darja. Buddhistischer Tempel mit Reliefschmuck im nordbaktrischen Stil der Gandhara-Kunst. Reste zweier Stupas und eine mehrzeilige griech. Inschr. aus der Zeit des Huvischka. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography B. Staviski, Mittelasien. Kunst der Kuschan, 1979, 134-138.

Ariaspai

(68 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Durch den Alexanderzug (Alexandros [4]) bekannter Stamm in der Hilmend-Ebene (Arr. an. 3,27,4). Grabungen brachten eisenzeitliche Siedlungen mit Tempeln des Feuerkultes zutage, so in Dahan-i Ghulaman, evtl. das alte Zarina drangiana. Wahrscheinlich waren sie mit den Εὐεργέται bei Arr. 4,6,6 und Diod. 18,81 identisch. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography U. Scerrato, Evidence of religious life at Dahan-e Ghalaman, Sistan, in: South Asian Archaeology 1977, 1979, 709-733.

Kinnamomophoros chora

(84 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Κινναμωμοφόρος χώρα, “Zimtland”). So bezeichnet Strab. 2,133 die Region um Kap Guardafui/Somalia. Strab. 16,774 gibt als Herkunftsgebiet des Zimts das Innere dieses Landes an; Ptol. 4,7,10 suchte es bei den Nilquellen. Schließlich wurde das gesamte südl. Äthiopien als Zimtland angesehen. Hdt. 3,110,111; Plin. nat. 10,97 und 12,82 u.a. gaben Südarabien als Herkunftsland des Gewürzes an, das aber über See aus Indien importiert und in Südarabien und NO-Afrika nur umgeschlagen wurde (Periplus maris Erythrai 20ff.; Ptol. 4,7,3,4). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Prason

(102 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Πράσον ἀκροτήριον). Südlichstes Kap an der afrikan. Küste, das von den Griechen erreicht wurde. Es galt als NW-Grenze des sagenhaften “Südlandes” (Ptol. 7,2,1) - das Gegenstück zu Kattigara als Eckpunkt Asiens. Den Längenangaben mehrerer Seefahrer zufolge lag es südl. des Äquators, s. Ptol. 1,8. Es könnte sich um das Kap Ras Kansi bei Dār as-Salām gehandelt haben. P. wurde von Kauffahrern erreicht, die auf der Indusfahrt nach Süden verschlagen wurden bzw. an der ostafrikan. Küs…

Aralsee

(59 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Binnengewässer zw. Uzbekistan und Kasachstan, erhält kaum Niederschläge, Wasserversorgung nur durch Syr-darja und Amu-darja. Die in der Ant. bewässerte Fläche war mehr als doppelt so groß wie 1962. Die nach dem Abzug der nach Baktrien ziehenden Nomaden (140-120 v. Chr.) verlassenen Gebiete sind seither verwüstet, desgleichen der Westteil und der Nordostteil Chorezmiens. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

China

(248 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Σῖνα). Ch. umfaßt in den h. Grenzen mehrere Kulturzonen des Alt. mit unterschiedlichen Traditionen und Verbindungen nach Westen und Süden. Die Steppenzone im Norden war spätestens seit dem 2. Jt.v.Chr. im ständigen Kontakt mit Westsibirien und Osteuropa, stets unter dem Einfluß der zentralchinesischen Kulturen im Hoangho-Gebiet und der Küstenzone. Süd-Ch. war nach Süden und SO ausgerichtet. Seit achämen. Zeit ist der Verkehr auf den “Seidenstraßen” belegt und seit dem 2.-3.Jh. n…

Bâmijân

(104 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Wallfahrts- und Karawanenrastort zw. Balch und Peschawar (Peukelaotis). Im 7.Jh. n.Chr. von dem chinesischen Pilger Hsüan Tsang beschrieben, seit 1824 in Europa bekannt, 1922-30 von einer frz. Expedition erforscht. Älteste Reste der Stadt im Tal von B. stammen aus dem 5.Jh. n.Chr. Bedeutendes buddhistisches Kloster, das vom 5.-7.Jh. in eine Steilwand eingemeißelt wurde. Große aus dem Fels geschlagene Buddhas (einer 53 m, der zweite 35 m hoch) entstanden wahrscheinlich im 6.Jh. Di…

Anahita

(106 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Iran. Gottheit des Wassers und der Fruchtbarkeit, Wortbed. “unbefleckt”, “makellos”. Sie wird in Yt. 5,126-129 sehr konkret geschildert, vermutlich nach einer Statue. Ihr hl. Tier war der Biber. Erstmals in iran. Inschr. bei Artaxerxes II. bezeugt. Nach Clemens Alexandrinus (protrept. 5,65,3) hat Berossos (III.) berichtet, Artaxerxes habe Statuen der A. in Baktrien, Ekbatana, Susa, Babylon, Damaskus und Sardes aufstellen lassen. Beliebte Gottheit seit parth. Zeit, Tempel u. a. in Artaxata, Armavir, Istachr …

Akadra

(60 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Küstenplatz Hinterindiens Bei Ptol. 7,2,6 erwähnter Küstenplatz Hinterindiens. Grabungen in Arikamedu belegen röm. Handelskontakte im 1. Jh. n. Chr. mit jener Region. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) [English version] [2] Stadt Südchinas Nur von Ptol. 7,3,5 genannte Stadt Südchinas; evtl. mit πόλις Ἀσπίθρα und dem von Plin. nat. 6,35 erwähnten Fluß Psitharas zu verbinden. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Kyrtioi

(73 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Κύρτιοι, lat. Cyrtii). Bei Strab. 11,523; 727 als Nomaden im nördl. Medien und Persien genannt. Pol. 5,52,5 erwähnt K. als Hilfstruppen des medischen Statthalters Molon im Kampf gegen Antiochos III. Liv. 37,40,9 nennt sie als Gegner der Römer in der Schlacht bei Magnesia (190 v.Chr.), bei Liv. 42,58,13 erscheinen sie als röm. Söldner bei Kallinikos (171 v.Chr.). Dem Namen nach werden sie als Vorfahren der Kurden angesehen. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Namazga-Tepe

(65 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Größter Tell (50 ha) im Bergvorland Süd-Turkmeniens, sö von Ašḫābād; Grabungen seit 1949. Grundlage der Gliederung der südturkmenischen chalkolithischen und brz. Kulturen (NMG-Schichten I-- V: 5.-2. Jt.v.Chr.) und der frühen Eisenzeit (NMG-Schicht VI: 1. Jt.v.Chr.). Die Grabungen umfaßten bisher nur Teilgebiete, die Interpretationen sind z.T. umstritten. Seit achäm. Zeit verlassen. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography P.L. Kohl, Central Asia. Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iron Age, 1984.

Apasiaken

(55 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Von Âpaçaka = “Wassersaken” (?), bei Strab. 11,6-7,513 und Pol. 10,48. Evtl. im Šany-darja-Delta, Residenz Cirik-Rabat-Kala (?). Babiš-Mulla 1 ist ein befestigter Palast, die Grabmale Babiš-Mulla 2 und Balandy 2 sind Kuppelbauten und stellen eine Vorstufe der islam. Mausoleen dar. Die Region wurde um 150 v. Chr. aufgegeben. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)

Prasodes thalassa

(169 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (πρασώδης θάλασσα, das “grüne Meer”). Bei Ptol. 7,2,1 und 7,3,6, Markianos (Periplus maris exteri 1,44 = GGM 1,44) und Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 32 (= GGM 2,32) als Teil des Indischen Ozeans beschriebene Region, die durch lauchähnliches “Seemoos” gefärbt sei. Dieses Auftreten von Tang spricht für eine flache, wahrscheinlich küstennahe Zone, die der ostafrikanischen Küste nördlich von Sansibar vorgelagert gewesen sein kann. Die griech.-röm. Schiffahrt erreichte diese Region se…

Kapisa

(78 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Indienhandel (Καπίσα; Kapiša-kaniš, Behistun-Inschrift [1. D]), h. Bagrām. Stadt im Ghorband-Tal, 45 km nördl. von Kabul, seit 1833 bekannt. Hauptstadt indo-griech. Könige (2.-1. Jh.v.Chr.), Sommerresidenz der Kuschanen (Kuschan(a)). Zwei Räume im “Palast” enthielten eingelagerte Kunstwerke: chinesische Lackarbeiten, indische Elfenbeine und hell. Arbeiten. Gipsformen zum Guß von Metallreliefs werden als alexandrinische Importe angesehen, b…

Ochos

(41 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Ὦχος). Nicht identifizierter Fluß in Hyrkanien oder Baktrien (Strab. Strab. 11,7,3; 11,11,5; Apollod. FGrH 779 F 4. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography J. Sturm, s.v. O. (2), RE 17, 1668-1770  H. Myśliwiec, s.v. Oaxus lacus, RE Suppl. 11, 1027.

Chorezmien

(230 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Χορασμίη, arab. Ḫwārizm). Stromtal-Oase am unteren Āmū-daryā. Seit dem 5.-4. Jt.v.Chr. von Bauern besiedelt. Im Avesta (Avestaschrift) als xwarizm; in der Bisutun-Inschr. erwähnt. Die Chorezmier bildeten mit den Ariern eine Satrapie (Hdt. III,93,173 Hekat. fr.). Abū Raiḥān al-Bı̄rūnī nennt das Jahr 980 vor der Alexander-Ära (1292 v.Chr.) als Beginn der chorezmischen Ära. Als Alexander 329/328 in Marakanda überwinterte, besuchte ihn Pharasmanes, der König der Chorezmier (Arr. an. 4,15,4); Residenz…

Pendzhikent

(125 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (ant. Name und Gründungsdatum unbekannt). Sogdische Stadt Pantcakat am Serafsan, Nord-Tadzhikistan; Handels- und Handwerkszentrum mit Goldgewinnung. Erh. sind eine Zitadelle, die Innenstadt mit zwei Tempeln, Vorstädte und Nekropole. In Tempeln und Privathäusern fanden sich Wandmalereien mit einheimischen, indischen und griech.-röm. Motiven, so der Fabel des Aisopos von der Gans, die goldene Eier legt. Aus P. stammen auch Brakteaten mit der röm. Wölfin nach byz. Mz., auch in der P…

Armavir

(70 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀρμαουίρα). Bei Ptol. 5,12,5 M. und 8,19,11 N. erwähnte Stadt am linken Ufer des Aras, das urartische Argistichinili. Burg und Residenz auf einem Bergkamm, die Stadt davor am Hang bis zum Fluß A., erste Hauptstadt des armen. Königreiches. Grabungen brachten urartisches Material, auch altarmen. Schichten, u.a. ein goldenes Medaillon mit der Göttin Anahita (?). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography A.A. Martirosjan, Argistichinili I, Archeologiceskie Pamjatniki Armenii 8, 1974.

Kandahar

(101 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[English version] (h. Šahr-e Kohna). Hauptstadt der Satrapie Arachosia, rechteckige Stadt der Kuschanen (Kuschan(a)) und Kuschano-Sāsāniden, dreiteilig: 1. die befestigte Wohnstadt mit zentraler Zitadelle; 2. zwei Vororte; 3. ein buddhistisches Kloster mit Stupa und Wasserleitungssystem. Eine Felsinschrift des Aśoka (griech.-aram. Bilingue) enthält eine rel.-soziale Proklamation des Maurya-Herrschers. Die Wahl beider Sprachen weist auf die Ansiedlung von Griechen und Syrern in K. im 3. vorchristl.…

Armenia

(707 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] A. Hellenism and Roman era The highlands south and south-west of the Caucasus. Main river is the  Araxes (today Aras). Northern border river Cyrus (today Kura), also upper reaches and tributaries of Tigris and Euphrates. Lakes: Lichnitis (today Sevan), Thospitis (today Van) and Matianus (Urmia). Holy mountain  Baris (5165 m, today Ararat), preserves the pre-classical name of Urartu of a state with Hurrite population, who under Persian rule became part of the Haikh (= Armenians). The Indo-European language was similar to Phry…

Prophthasia

(105 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Προφθασία/ Prophthasía, Str. 11,8,9; 15,2,8; Ptol. 6,19,4; 8,25,8 N.; Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 16 = GGM 1,253: Φρά/ Phrá in Ἀναύων χώρα/ Anaúōn chṓra that is otherwise unknown; Plin. HN 6,61: P.). Possibly the city of Φράδα/ Phráda (Charax of Pergamum FGrH 103 F 20) renamed in this way by Alexander [4] the Great probably in 330 BC in the region of Drangiana, generally identified with modern Farāh in Afghanistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. …

Iaxartes

(144 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] River in western Central Asia, modern Syr Darya, 2,860 km long; rises at the Taedyk pass in the eastern Altai Mountains. After flowing northwards for a short distance it takes in the Naryn River, which originates not far from Lake Issyk-Kul, then enters the plains of Kazakhstan south-west of Tashkent (where it becomes navigable) and flows into the  Aral Sea (Amm. Marc. 23,6,59). The indigenous Scythians called the I. Silis or Orxantes, Alexander the Great called it Tanais (Plin. HN 6,49; Arr. Anab. 3,30-7-8 et passim, but also I. Arr. Anab. 7,16,3 among others), …

Arabs

(381 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Today the largest group of people speaking a Semitic language. Aribi has been the name of the inhabitants of the Arabic steppe and Mat Arabi of the ‘steppe region’ since the Assyrian period (9th cent. BC). The A. were first mentioned as camel riders on the monolith of Shalmanasar II (859-825 BC). The Aribi were subject to kings and also ruling queens. In the Assyrian-Babylonian period the name referred to the Bedouins of northern Arabia. Since the Koran the term ‘Arabic’ has come to be univ…

Drapsaca

(138 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Δράψακα; Drápsaka). City in  Bactria, first mentioned in connection with Alexander the Great's campaigns, also attested in the forms Δάραψα and Δρέψα ( Dárapsa and Drépsa; Arr. Anab. 3,29,1; Str. 15,725; Ptol. 6,12,6; 8,23,13 N; Steph. Byz. p. 218). The form Δάραψα is preserved in the rural name of modern Andarāb north of Kābul (Hindu kush), while modern Qunduz should be regarded as the ancient D. [1]. Ptolemy includes D. in Sogdiana and also mentions the inhabitants (6,12,4: Δρεψιανοί; Drepsianoí). The Hyrcanian Ἄδραψα ( Ádrapsa) mentioned by Ptol. 6,9,6 has no…

Araxes

(156 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ἀράξης; Aráxēs). [German version] [1] Largest river in Armenia Largest river in Armenia (today known as the Aras, Georgian Rakhsî), flows into the Caspian Sea; its full extent was not known until Roman times (Pompey) (Mela 3,40; Plin. HN 6,26; Ptol. 5,12,3 M. i.a.). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] Another name for the Oxus According to Hdt. 1,202, another name for the Oxus (today Amu-darja), a western tributary of which (today: Wadi Usboi) reached as far as the Caspian Sea in Neolithic times. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) …

Cattigara

(387 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Καττίγαρα; Kattígara). Port in South-East Asia first mentioned by Ptol. (1,11,1; 17,4; 23) and Marcianus of Heraclia (1,46, GGM I, p. 538); a ὅρμος τῶν Σινῶν (‘harbour of the Sinai’). The name of the Σῖναι ( Sînai) points to C. being in the region of the Gulf of Tonking, of the ancient Μέγας κόλπος ( Mégas kólpos) [1] or Σινῶν κόλπος ( Sinôn kólpos) [2], as Marcianus himself and also Ptol. 7,3,3 call it. It formed the southern border of the Sînai and, according to ancient belief in around AD 200 it represented the eastern end of the   Oikouménē . In this area…

Bactria

(970 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] A. Sources Herodotus was the first to write about ancient B., and he was closest to the events he describes; all further tradition is secondary, mainly also the information relating to the epoch of  Alexander [4] the Great by Arrian (A.) and Curtius Rufus, who refer back to Aristobulus, Ptolemy and Cleitarchus. Strabo (11,11) and Ptolemy (6,11 N) give coherent representations of B. and, in addition, there are scattered accounts by  Aelianus [2], Aeschylus, Aristotle, Diodorus Sicul…

Aeniana

(119 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] A place in Armenia on the upper Araxes (present-day Aras), recorded only by Str. in books 11,7,1; 14,14. It was incorrectly associated with the southern Thessalian Αἰᾶνες ( Aiânes). An inland area of Armenia called Hani, a place with the same name located south-west of Lake Urmia and also Ani, a place on the upper Aras, are all very old indigenous names which led to this incorrect conclusion. Also, the district Οἰταία ( Oitaía) and the mountain Οἴτη ( Oítē) were associated with the Οὐίτιοι ( Ouítioi) tribe and the Οὐιτία ( Ouitía) area in the Araxes region. This resulted…

Sabbatha

(144 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαββαθά/ Sabbathá: Peripl. m. r. 27; Σάββαθα/ Sábbatha: Ptol. 8,14,22; Sabota: Plin. HN 6,155 and 12,52; corruption Χαβάτανον/ Chabátanon and variant: Str. 16,4,2; inscription Šabwat; already in the Arabic geographers in the form Šabwa: Hamdānī, Ǧazīra Müller 87; 98; Yāqūt, Muǧam Wüstenfeld 3,257). Maepha was the southern, S. the northern capital of Ḥaḍramaut in southern Arabia. Important for trade in incense, S. was the seat of Īlazz II. Yaliṭ (= Ἐλέαζος/ Eléazos, Peripl. m. r. 27) c. AD 29. S. was probably destroyed c. 200 by Yadail Bayyin of Ḥaḍramaut,…

Dargoidus

(61 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] River in  Bactria, which rises in the Parapanisus and flows northwards to join the Oxus ( Araxes [2]) east of the Zariaspes, and which used to supply the region of Choana (today known as Qunduz) with water. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege) Bibliography W. Henning, Surkh Kotal, in: BSO(A)S, 1956, 366f. Id., The Bactrian inscription, in: BSO(A)S, 1960, 47-55.

Erythra thalatta

(597 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ἐρυθρὰ θάλαττα; Erythrà thálatta). [German version] [1] Corresponding roughly to the north-western Indian Ocean A sea (Ionian Ἐρυθρὴ θάλασσα, ‘Red Sea’) frequently mentioned from Herodotus until late antiquity, corresponding roughly in its normal extent to the north-western Indian Ocean (today's Arabian Sea), while today's Red Sea and Persian Gulf were regarded as κόλποι ( kólpoi) of the Erythra thalatta (ET). Later on, however, this name undoubtedly covered an area much further eastwards; even the term Periplus maris erythraei to describe the coast stretching from with…

Hypanis

(142 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Ὕπανις; Hýpanis). [German version] [1] River in the Ukraine River in the Ukraine (modern Bug). According to Hdt. 4,47,52 it flows from west to east, next to  Ister (Danube) and  Tyras (Dniestr) the third of the Scythian rivers that flows to the Pontus. Further sources: Hdt. 4,17,18; Skymni periegesis V. 804 (= GGM 1,229); Str. 2,107; 7, 298; 306; Ptol. 3,5,2; Anonymi periplus Ponti Euxini 60 (= GGM 1,417); Steph. Byz. s.v.  Borysthenes; Mela 2,6; Plin. HN 4,83f. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] River in the northern Caucasus Modern Kuban, which …

Bactrus

(132 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
(Βάκτρος; Báktros). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of the city of Bactra or of the land  Bactria Inhabitant of the city of Bactra or of the land  Bactria (usually ὁ Βάκτριος and Βακτριανός), see Dionys. Per. 736 (GGM II p. 150), Nonnus, Dion. 25,374, Str. 11,11,3 Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin) [German version] [2] Southerly tributary of the Oxus Southerly tributary of the Oxus (Āmū-daryā), today Balḫāb (Curt. 7,4,31; Plin. HN 6,48; Str. 11,11,2 i.a.); identical with the  Araxes, according to Aristot. Mete. 1,13,16 and Ps.-Plut. De …

Dargamanes

(115 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] A river in  Bactria, which rises in the Paraponisus and supposedly joins the  Ochus to the west of the Zariaspes (Balhāb), and then flows together with the Ochus into the Oxus ( Araxes [2]). In fact there were two different rivers called Ochus, confused by Ptolemy: the Zariaspes (Balḫāb) and the Harērud. The former must be the one referred to here, which joins the Oxus, as the D. or Qunduz river (Arabic Nahr al-Ḍarġm̄) flows into the latter. Ptolemy (or his predecessor Marinus) ma…

Cercetae

(97 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Danoff, Christo (Sofia)
[German version] (Κερκέται; Kerkétai). Tribe on the north-eastern coast of the  Pontus Euxinus on the slopes of the Caucasus. The name of what are today the Circassians was known to Greek geographers early on, but the details they provide about where the C. lived do not agree with each other (according to Str. 11,492; 496f. between the  Heniochi and the  Moschi). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Danoff, Christo (Sofia) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. Kerketai, RE 11, 291f. T. M. Minajeva, Archaeological Research in the Land of the Circassians (Russian), 1953, 34ff. Ch. Danoff, s.v. Pontos E…

Sacastane

(149 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Σακαστανή/ Sakastanḗ: Isidorus of Charax, Stathmoí Parthikoí 18 = GGM 1,253). The land on the middle course of the Etymander (Helmand), between Arachosia and Drangiana, occupied since the 2nd cent. BC by Sacae, also called Paraetacene by Isidorus of Charax. When the Indo-Parthian king Gondophares conquered the Indian land of the Saces, it appears that he also occupied Arachosia and Sacastane. Ardašīr (Ardashir [1] I), the first Sassanid king (224-241), conquered the land of Sacast…

Aornus

(146 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] City in Bactria A city in Bactria, named only by Arr. Anab. 3,29,1, apart from Bactra (today Balch) the greatest city of this land, and probably identical with the present-day Tashkurgan [1]. In the castle of A., Alexander left behind a garrison in 329 BC. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography 1 Atlas of the World II, Pakistan, Kashmir, Afghanistan, 1959, pl. 31. [German version] [2] Mountain fortress near the Indus Mountain fortress near the Indus, allegedly conquered by Hercules and then by Alexander 328 BC (Arr. Anab. 4,28,1; Ind. 5,10; A…

Balkh

(116 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] (Βάκτρα; Báktra). Commercial and residential town at the intersection of two caravan routes in north Afghanistan. Originally Ζαρίασπα ( Zaríaspa; Arr. 3,1,5,71; Pol. 10,49) or Zariastes (Plin. HN 6,48). Today densely populated and, therefore, only excavations at the edge of the tell.  Antiochus III besieged  Euthydemus in vain in 206 BC; the latter built up the Graeco-Bactrian empire from here ( Bactria). In 1966, a hoard find brought forth more than 170 Greek coins from the period before 380 BC. Inhabited and fortified until today. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Trei…

Gandaritis

(210 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] (Greek Γανδαρικὴ χώρα / Gandaríkē chṓra; Ethnic groups: Gandarai, Gandarioi), district on the Kābul. According to Herodotus (3,91), the Gandarioi, together with the tribes of the Sattagydai, Aparytai and Dadikai, formed the ancient Persian Empire's seventh satrapy, which essentially covered the Kabulistan alpine territory intersected by the Cophen, between Paropanisos (Hindu Kush) and the upper Indus, and the mountain range itself. In spite of difficult passes along the Cophen, the routes through G. were used, from at least the 4th cent. B…

Arsamosata

(87 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Limes Often mentioned stronghold in Armenia, mentioned by Pol. 8 .23 for the year 189 BC, located by Plin. HN 6.26 ( Arsamosata Euphrati proximum) and mentioned by Tac. Ann. 15.10 for the year AD 62. In Ptol. 5.12.8: Ἀρσαμόσατα ( Arsamósata). Either identical to Erzurum (upper western Euphrates) or situated south of the eastern Euphrates between the latter and the Tigris. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Treidler, Hans (Berlin)

Albania

(175 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
[German version] [1] Caucasian landscape Caucasian landscape on the middle to lower  Cyrus (Kura) (Str. 11,4; Ptol. 5,11). The main city was Cabavla (Plin. HN 6,29 Cabalaca, Mount Kalak's name today is a reminder). The Ἀλβάνιαι πύλαι ( Albániai pýlai; Ptol. 5,9,15; 12,6) are presumably identical to the eastern Caucasian pass of Khacmȃz. Cabala and other cities in Albania have been excavated. A rock inscription on the Kobystan Cliff of the Caspian Sea verifies the advance of Domitian's XII legion (around AD 80). Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Bibliography L. Bretanizki, B. Weimarn, B.…

Drangae

(106 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (Liege)
[German version] Eastern Iranian people (Σαράγγαι, Sarángai, in Hdt. 3,93) on the lower course of the  Etymander (the modern Hilmand/Helmand Rūd); the country itself was called  Drangiana, and that seems in any case to be the Medio-Persian form. Together with some tribes of the central desert and Carmania, the Sarangae appear in Herodotus as linked to a tax district, on the southern side of the Parthians and Hyrcanians. In the army of Xerxes the Sarangai bore Median weaponry (Hdt. 7,67,1). A legendary cycle is bound up with the hero-names Keršāsp and Rōstam. Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) Du…

Maracanda

(443 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Wirth, Gerhard (Nuremberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Sassanids | Alexander | Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria (Μαράκανδα, ἡ Μαρακάνδα; Marákanda, hē Marakánda), modern Afrasiab/Samarkand, founded as an oasis city at the end of the 14th cent. BC in the fertile plain of the Polytimetus (modern Serafšān), old capital of Sogdiana (Arr. Anab. 3,30,6), the size of 60 stadia (Curt. 7,6,10). Trading centre for trade to the north and east (finds from the Tang period). There is hardly any information about the period before Alexander [4] the …
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