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Osi

(132 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Illyrian (?) tribe (Tac. Germ. 28,3; 43,1; Osones: Itin. Anton. 263,7), related to the Aravisci, living to the east of the Marcomanni but west of the Hercynia Silva. The O. were tributary to the Sarmates or the Quadi. They originally lived northeast of the bend in the Danube near Vác, not far from the river Ipel' in central Slovakia. In 10/9 BC, they became part of the Roman sphere of influence (ILS 8965). Probably before the end of the Marcomanni War in 180 AD they migrated to Pannonia, in the area between Savaria and Aquincum (Itin. Anton. 263,7). From this period a praepos( itus…

Troesmis

(255 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia (Τροσμής/ Trosmḗs). Roman legionary camp and civilian city (Ov. Pont. 4,9,79; Tab. Peut. 8,3; Not. Dign. Or. 39,23; 39,31; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,19;  Procop. Aed. 4,11) in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Igliţa (in the municipality of Turcoaia in the Romanian county of Tulcea). The Getae were the original settlers; the Romans advanced into the region in 29/27 BC and fortified their position c. AD 15. Before AD 112 the legio V Macedonica was deployed by Oescus [2] to take over military protecti…

Neviodunum

(173 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Small Roman town in Pannonia Superior (Νοοϊόδουνον/ Nooïódounon, Ptol. 2,14,4; Itin. Anton. 259; ILS 4189: Neviod(unensium servus), also CIL III 3919; 46,16), modern Drnovo in Slovenia (district of Brez̆ice), originally a Celtic settlement in the neighbourhood of the Latobici. In the Roman period N. gained significance as a node on the road from Emona to Siscia. A branch leading northwest connected N. with Celeia. Near N. there was a crossing over the Sava. In the Flavian period N. became a municipiu…

Poetovio

(591 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Pilgrimage Roman settlement in Pannonia superior, from the time of Diocletianus in Noricum Mediterraneum, modern Ptuj in Slovenia. The obviously Illyrian place name is documented in various alternative forms (CIL V 4371; VI 2552; 32561: Petovio; CIL XVI 155: Petabio; CIL VI 2579; 32515: Petavio; CIL XI 1016: Poetavio; Amm. Marc. 14,11,19: Potabio; Codex Theod. 12,1,78: Patavio; Ptol. 2,14,4; Zos. 2,46: Ποτόβιον/ Potóbion; Priscus fr. 8: Παταβίων/ Patabíōn). The…

Nauportus

(269 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Vicus in Pannonia Superior Vicus in Pannonia Superior (Tab. Peut. 5,1; Ναύπορτος/ Naúportos, Str. 4,6,10), modern Vrhnika (Ljubljana district, Slovenia). The Roman vicus was established at the site of a Celtic settlement (Str. 7,5,2). Because of its location on the eponymous river and the Aquileia - Emona road, the settlement quickly prospered (Tac. Ann. 1,20,1: municipii instar, ‘ as a municipium’). The area between N. and Emona was very important to commercial traffic from northern Italy to the middle Danube, where beyond Carnuntum …

Ratiaria

(123 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman colony in Moesia superior, later the capital of Dacia Ripensis (Daci, with map), modern Arčar (oblast Vidin, Bulgaria). The settlement lay on the right bank of the Danube on the important road from Singidunum to Oescus and further eastwards. R. was the camp of the  Legio XIII Gemina and the port of a river fleet (Not. Dign. Or. 42,43). There is evidence of an arms factory there (Not. Dign. Or. 11,38). Archaeological finds, inscriptions and coins. Burian, Jan (P…

Dorticum

(116 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δορτικόν; Dortikón). Roman fort on the right bank of the Danube at the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok), originally in Moesia Superior, in Dacia Ripensis after 271, today Vrav, Vidin in Bulgaria. In the 4th cent., location of the cuneus equitum Dalmatarum Divitensium. Still known as a fortress under Justinian. On its localization cf. also [1. 60, 77,248]. References: Geogr. Rav. 4,7,8; Tab. Peut.; It. Ant. 219,1; Not. Dign. Or. 42,3,14; Ptol. 3,9,4 (Δορτικόν); Procop. Aed. 4,6,20. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibli…

Sarmizegetusa

(236 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Balkans, languages Town in Dacia (cf. Ptol. 3,8,9: Ζαρμιζεγέθουσα/ Zarmizegéthousa; Cass. Dio 68,8,7: Ζερμιζεγέθουσα/ Zermizegéthousa; Dig. 50,15,1,9: Zarmizegetusa; Geogr. Rav 4,7: Sarmazege; Tab. Peut. 7,5: Sarmategte; in the inscriptions mainly S.), modern Hunedoara, Haţeg (Romania). In the pre-Roman Period, the centre was a settlement of the Daci and residence of the Dacian kings (S. Regia in Dacia Superior). Owing…

Savaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Roman colony in Pannonia superior, modern Szombathely in western Hungary. Its location on the Amber Road (route Aquileia - Carnuntum) and good road connections to Arrabona and via Sopianae to Sirmium enabled a swift economic growth. Under Claudius [III 1] a colony was founded in S. ( Colonia Divi Claudii S.: Plin. HN 3,146), t ribus Claudia. Until AD 106 S. was the administrative centre of the province. As a centre of communications and admi…

Dimum

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Statio on the Danube in Moesia inferior, modern Belene, apparently in the tribal territory of the Getic Dimenses. The identification with Δίακον (Ptol. 3,10,10) is questionable. In the 4th cent. a cuneus equitum Solensium was stationed there (Not. Dign. Or. 40,12). Attestations: Itin. Ant. 221; Tab. Peut.; CIL III 12399; Not. Dign. Or. 40,6; 12; Procop. Aed. 307,19 (Διμώ). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 60, 67, 88, 163.

Adamclisi

(187 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] ‘Church of Men’ (Turkish), the ancient Tropaeum Traiani in  Moesia inferior or Scythia minor (CIL III 7481-84; 12461-75; 13733-36; 14214-1421418; 16,58), founded by  Trajanus and settled by Traianenses Tropaeenses (CIL III 12470). It became a   municipium probably under Emperor  Marcus, was destroyed at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, later rebuilt by  Constantinus I and  Licinius (remains of buildings from the 4th cent., partly Christian). In the 6th cent. AD destroyed by the  Avares. About 1.5 km t…

Argidava

(87 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Military camp and civilian town (archaeological remains ) in  Dacia superior, statio on the road from Lederata to Tibiscum (Ptol. 3,8,9; Arcidaba: Geogr. Rav. 4,14), modern Varadia near Oravita ( Banat, Romania). Garrison of the cohors I Vindelicorum milliaria civium Romanorum, probably relocated from  Moesia superior to A. during the Dacian Wars in about AD 100. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography W. Wagner, Die Dislokation der röm. Auxiliarformationen, 1938, 198 G. Alföldy, Die Hilfstruppen in der röm. Prov. Germania Inferior, 1969, 75 TIR L 34, 1968, 30.

Crumerum

(129 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Military camp and vicus on the Danube embankment road east of Brigetio in Pannonia superior, now Nyergesújfalu (Komárom, Hungary). The site was established at the end of the 2nd cent, and in the 2nd/3rd cents. was the base for the cohors V Callaecorum Lucensium (CIL III 3662-3664), in the 4th cent. for the equites promoti (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,30). Rebuilt in the period of Constantine and fortified with corner turrets (It. Ant. 246,2; 266,8; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,9,30; CIL III 3662-3666, 10602; Κοῦρτα in Ptol. 2,11,5; 15,4). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography C. Patsch, s.v. …

Sopianis

(211 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome ( Sopianae). Roman settlement in Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 231; 264; Amm. Marc. 28,1,5; ILS 3795), modern Pécs in Hungary, situated at the starting point of significant roads into the Pannonian Limes zone: north of Carnuntum, Arrabona, Brigetio and Aquincum, southeast of Mursa, Sirmium and Singidunum. There were strong commercial relationships with Italy (imported metal goods, ceramics). Its economic upturn attracted…

Hieron Stoma

(153 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ἱερὸν Στόμα; Hieròn Stóma). The most southerly branch of the Danube estuary (Str. 7,5,1; 8,6,1; Ptol. 3,10,2), also known by the name of  Peuce (Luc. 3,202; Plin. HN 4,79; Ptol. loc. cit.; Mart. 7,7,1; Amm. Marc. 22,8,46; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,13), in Scythia Minor, modern district of Tulcea in Romania. Of the seven branches of the estuary in the Danube delta the Hieron Stoma (HS) carried the largest amount of water into the sea. The HS was dedicated to St. George by the Christians and pu…

Mursa

(230 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Roman colony from the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3279; 3560) and a military base in Pannonia Inferior (It. Anton. 131; Tab. Peut. 6,2), modern Osijek (in Croatia). M. probably lay on both sides of the lower Dravus (Drava), where there was a river crossing. Of the officials of the colony decuriones (CIL III 3288; 10305; 15141), VI viri (CIL III 15145), an augur (CIL III 3291 = 10267) and a flamen (CIL III 3288) are recorded. M. was known for its ceramics and as a trading ce…

Tapae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia Town at which L. Tettius [II 2] Iulianus was victorious over the Daci in 88/9 AD (Iord. Get. 10,12; Τάπαι, Cass. Dio 67,10,2; 68,8,1). It was from there that Trajan set out on his first campaign against the Daci in 101 AD. The identification of T. is uncertain (between Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa or the 'Iron Gate'). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Czechoslovacian Territory before the Appearance of the Slavs, 1964, 171 f., 176 (Czech).

Pathissus

(110 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] The biggest left-hand Sarmatian tributary of the Danube, the modern Tisa (Tisza, Theiß), which flows through the Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia and into the Danube near Acumincum (the modern Stari Slankamen) in Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN. 4,80; Parthiscus: Amm. Marc. 17,13,4; cf. Str. 7,5,2). The Latin name Tisia only appears in late-antique sources (cf. Iord. Get. 33). The river constituted a serious obstacle with its wide bed and its swampy environment. The area between the P. and the Danube was settled primar…

Oescus

(332 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior (Plin. HN 3,149; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus; Hdt. 4,49: Σκίος/ Skíos; Thuc. 2,96,4: Ὄσκιος/ Óskios), modern Iskăr (Bulgaria). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Roman town This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Roman town (Ptol. 3,10,10: Οἶσκος Τριβαλλῶν/ Oîskos Triballôn, cf. 8,11,6; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus), modern Gigen (Bulgaria), near the confluence of the O. [1] with the Danube. O. is to…

Aquincum

(196 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Originally a settlement of the  Aravisci; the military and administrative centre of  Pannonia inferior, on the right bank of the Danube, with camp and canabae (Ptol. 2,15,4; It. Ant. 254,7; Amm. Marc. 19,11,8; Not. Dign. occ. 33,54; Sidon. Apoll. Carm. 5,107), governor's residence of the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD; the modern Budapest, third district. In AD 124 municipium Aelium, AD 194 colonia Aelia Septimia. The legio II adiutrix was stationed here c. AD 114. Architectural …

Scordisci

(228 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe with Illyrian and Thracian elements. They originally settled in the northern central Balkans (Str. 7,5,12) - the 'Greater S.' to the east of the Noarus as far as the Margus [1] (modern Morava), and the 'Lesser S.' on the right bank of the latter. To the south the territory of the S. extended as far as the sources of the Margus. The precise boundaries of the tribal territory, however, are hard to ascertain; in the 1st cent. BC its nucleus was at the confluence of the Savus and the Danube. About the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC the S. and other Celtic tribes …

Breuci

(88 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Plin. HN 3,147; Suet. Tib. 9,2; Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,15,3: Βρεῦκοι; Breûkoi). Illyrian tribe, settling in Pannonia Inferior along the lower reaches of the Save, subjugated by the Romans between 12 and 10 BC; the B. took part in the Pannonian revolt of AD 6 to 9. From then on, the B. were recruited as Roman auxiliaries -- eight cohortes Breucorum are attested for the imperial period. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. Pannoniens, 1938, 15 TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 40.

Maezaei

(189 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Μαιζαῖοι; Maizaîoi, Ptol. 2,16,5; Μαζαῖοι; Mazaîoi, Str. 7,5,3; Cass. Dio 55,32,4; Mazaei, Plin. HN 3,142; Maezei in inscriptions). Tribe to the north of Dalmatia near the Dalmatian-Pannonian border. According to Plin., Ptol. and Cass. Dio, it belonged to the Dalmatini, according to Str. to the Pannonii. The Pannonian origin of the M. is more probable although they were attached to the conventus Salonitanus (‘legal district of Salona’). Their extensive area was subjugated by the Romans in 12 BC. They formed a peregrine tribal district that was administered by a praef…

Marsonia

(83 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Fort and settlement in Pannonia inferior on the river Savus and on the road from Siscia to Sirmium, modern Slavonski Brod in Croatia. The road starting at Siscia bifurcated north of Marsonia; the northern branch led to Sirmium via Cibalae, the southern branch via Marsonia and Saldis. In late antiquity, auxilia ascarii are mentioned as the garrison of Marsonia (Not. Dign. Occ. 32,43). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. M., RE 14, 1981 TIR L 34, Budapest, 1968, 78.

Brigetio

(136 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Pannonia | Pertinax Important Roman settlement (1st -4th cent. AD; municipium, later colonia); legion camp on the right bank of the Danube in Pannonia inferior, now Szöny/Komárom (Hungary). The legio I adiutrix was stationed in B. As the counter fort Celamantia (now Iža/Komárne in Slovakia) on the left bank of the Danube, B. was a strong military base in the defence against the tribes settling beyond the Danube. In B. Emperor Valentinian I died in 375 du…

Dierna

(166 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Daci, Dacia (Δίερνα; Díerna). Originally a Dacian settlement, Romanized since Trajan, modern Orşova in Banat/Romania. Supposedly already a colonia iuris Italici in Trajan's time (Ulpianus in Dig. 50,15,1,8) and a municipium in the Severian period (CIL III 14468). D. was located on the Danube west of Drobeta and was the starting point of the rural road to Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa. A ports, toll station and brick production were located nearby. The military garrison was supplied by the cohors I Brittonum miliaria,…

Durostorum

(297 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Settlement on the right bank of the lower Danube in Moesia inferior, the modern Silistra (northern Bulgaria). Customs post and important junction between the country road from Marcianopolis and the road along the bank of the Danube leading into the delta zone. The military importance of D. is demonstrated by the presence there of the legio IX Claudia (from AD 105/6). It was probably under Antoninus Pius that a civilian settlement ( canabae) arose in D., elevated …

Potaissa

(175 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Wine | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia | Commerce | Legio | Limes (Ptol. 3,8,7: Πατρούισσα/ Patroúissa; Geogr. Rav. 4,14: Potabissa; CIL III 1627; CIL III 2086: Patavisensis). Settlement in Dacia Porolossensis to the southeast of Napoca, modern Turda (district of Cluj in Romania). The significance of P. consisted in its military garrison, which from the outbreak of the Marcomanni Wars in AD 168/9 was formed by the legio V Macedonica. The original vicus gained size and significance after the rise of the Canabae

Candidiana

(154 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Late-antique Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube in Moesia inferior, west of Durostorum, near the modern Malăk Preslavec in north-eastern Bulgaria (It. Ant. 223,2; Not. Dign. or. 40,24; Procop. Aed. 4,7,9). It had probably been built under Diocletian, in order to replace the Nigrinianis fortress (Tab. Peut. 8,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,7), an important link in the Danube limes, which had been destroyed by the Carpi (?) towards the middle of the 3rd cent.It was the garrison of the cohors I Lusitanorum Maximiana. Remains of buildings, archaeological finds, tre…

Capidava

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube from Axiopolis to Carsium, Moesia inferior, modern Topalu/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3; It. Ant. 244; Geogr. Rav. 179,3; Not. Dign. or. 39,4,13). Built under Trajan, destroyed by Goths in the mid-3rd cent. AD. Rebuilt in the 4th cent., and newly fortified at the end of the 6th cent. Late-antique posting of the beneficiarii consulares and of a cuneus (unit) equitum Solensium. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography Gr. Florescu, C. I, 1958, pass…

Matrica

(96 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Auxiliary fort on the right bank of the Danube on the road from Aquincum to Intercisa in Pannonia inferior; the modern Százhalombatta in Hungary. The camp was built in approximately the 2nd century (Itin. Anton. 245,5; Matrice, Not. dign. occ. 33,36). Under Commodus, burgi ( burgus ) were built in the vicinity, which were intended to prevent ‘the clandestine crossing of brigands’ (CIL III 3385). Remains of canabae and baths (partially restored) are extant. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 78-79 Zs. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…

Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…

Discoduratera

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Δισκοδουρατέραι; Diskodouratérai). A considerable emporium between the modern villages of Gostilitsa and Slaveikovo on the left bank of the Yantra (ancient Iatrus), 12 km west of Drianovo, 32 km south-west of Nicopolis ad Istrum, founded by Augusta Traiana probably during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Enjoyed considerable prosperity under the Severan emperors, when it was fortified; under Aurelian incorporated into the territory of Nicopolis ad Istrum. Numerous inscriptions ([1. 21ff.], IGBulg II, 137-145) and important ruins. Burian, Jan (Prague) Biblio…

Carpi

(130 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κάρποι; Kárpoi). Important Dacian tribe; its original settlement area was located between Olbia and the mouth of the Danube. In the 3rd cent. AD, the C. settled in the lower Danube region. From then on, they were frequently in bloody disputes with Rome, initially in Dacia, later also in Moesia and Thrace; these opened the way into the Roman empire for other tribes, especially the Goths. From the time of the emperor Aurelian, the Romans settled individual groups of the C. in Roman …

Carsium

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort on the embankment road of the Danube, built under Trajan, modern Hîrşova/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3 Carsio; It. Ant. 224; Not. Dign. or. 39,22 Carso; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,2 Carsion; Ptol. 3,10,5 Κάρσους; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20 Καρσώ). Road junction, ford across the Danube. Destroyed by the Huns, rebuilt, into the 6th cent. garrison for military units, amongst them the legio I Italica, ala II Hispanorum et Aravacorum, milites Scythici. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography R. Vulpe, Histoire ancienne de la Do…

Transmarisca

(157 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τρασμαρίσκα/ Trasmaríska). Roman fort in Moesia Inferior (Moesi with map) on the right bank of the lower Danube (Ister [2]; Ptol. 3,10,11: Τρομαρίσκα/ Tromaríska; Procop. Aed. 4,7,7; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,1: Stamarisca) between Sexaginta Prista (modern Ruse) and Durostorum, modern Tutrakan (county of Silistra, Bulgaria). T. gained significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards, when the Cohors I Thracum was temporarily stationed in the fort. At the end of the 3rd cent. increased defence measures were taken on the lower Danube (Limes V), the fo…

Gorsium

(176 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (It. Ant. 264,4; 265,1; CIL III 3342f.; 3346; 11345). Roman camp and civil settlement in Pannonia inferior, modern Tác/Fejér (near Székesfehérvár/Hungary). Originally, G. was the centre of the Celtic Aravisci; during the Roman period, it was the intersection of the roads Sopianae─Aquincum and Sopianae─Brigetio. Rich archaeological finds attest to the importance of G. (remnants of buildings, burial ground). In the 1st cent. AD the camp which harboured the ala I Scubulorum was installed. The garrison was discharged…

Tricciana

(68 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fort ( beneficiarii station?, approximately 296 m × 268 m) in Pannonia Inferior, station on the Sirmium - Carnuntum road (It. Ant. 267,7), modern Ságvár (megye of Somogy in Hungary). Finds of terra sigillata, cemetery (also with Christian burials). T. was still of significance in the 4th cent. AD. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 113  A. Moćsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 305 f.

Transaquincum

(90 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Small fort, probably originating under Commodus (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,65: Transiacinco), on the left bank of the Danube (Ister [1]), linked by means of a wooden bridge with Aquincum in the province of Pannonia inferior, now near Budapest-Rákospatak. Remains of buildings, a statue of Victoria, inscriptions, tiles of the legio IV Flavia and legio II Adiutrix are preserved. In the 4th cent. AD the seat of a praef. legionis. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 32 Budapest, 1968, 112 f.  Z. Visy, Der pannonische Limes in Ungarn, 1988, 84 f.

Mursella

(108 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Small town in Pannonia superior Small town in Pannonia superior, probably modern Kisárpás (district of Sopron-Csorna, Hungary), on the Savaria-Arrabona road, a municipium from the reign of Hadrian (?) (CIL III 4490). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Municipium in Pannonia inferior This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Municipium in Pannonia inferior, modern Petrijevci (district of Osijek, Croatia), on the Poetovio-Mursa road, north west of Mursa. Military base, checkpoint (Itin. Burdigalense 562: mutatio Mersella). Burian, Jan (…

Surveyors

(545 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Marking out  fields or extensive farmlands, cities, temple districts and military camps and determining the directions of roads, aqueducts, etc., presupposed a number of measuring tasks which were carried out by technically trained surveyors. In Roman sources, from which our only  knowledge of the variety of problems of this specific discipline comes, these workers were termed, e.g. mensores ( agrorum), agrimensores, metatores, finitores and gromatici. The last term is derived from groma , the bearing apparatus used for measuring ta…

Zaldapa

(133 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ζάλδαπα/ Záldapa). Late Roman and early Byzantine settlement and fort (Iohannes Antiochenus FHG 4,32; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20; name probably Thracian) in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor). Formerly identified with Abrit(t)us, today Z. is equated with modern Abtaat to the southwest of Tropaeum Traiani (modern Adamclisi). There were road connections with Tropaeum Traiani, Scopis, Durostorum and Tomis. Z. was the birth-place of Vitalianus, a usurper against Anastasius [1] I. Towards the end of the 6th cent., the settlement was destroyed by Avari and Slavs. Burian, Jan…

Porolissum

(181 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Daci, Dacia | Limes (Πορόλισσον/ Porólisson). Settlement in northwestern Dacia (CIL III 7986; CIL XVI 132; Tab. Peut. 8,3: Porolisso; Ptol. 3,8,6; Daci, Dacia), in the area of modern Moigrad-Jas (near Cluj in Romania). Already occupied by the Romans under Trajan (AD 98-117) and, owing to its strategic location, an important military base with two camps. P. played a significant role as a centre of trade and administration in the province of Dacia Porolissensis, which was established in AD 124. The civ…

Cius, [2]

(112 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman fortification and statio on the road along the Danube from Carsium to Beroe and Troesmis in Moesia Inferior, modern Gîrliciu/Constanţa in Rumania (It. Ant. 224: Cio; Not. Dign. Or. 39,6,14: Cii). A Roman garrison may already be assumed in the 2nd and 3rd cents. AD, in the 4th cent. C. was the base of a cuneus (division) equitum stablesianorum. In 369 Emperor Valens defeated the Gothic king Athanaric there (CIL III 7494). Last fortification work in the Valentinian period. Archaeological finds: ruins, inscriptions, hoard find of the 4…

Ulpianum

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Οὐλπιανόν/ Ou lpianón, Οὐλπιάνα/ Ou lpiána). Roman fort and probably from the time of Hadrianus a municipium in Moesia superior (Moesi; Ptol. 3,9,6; Procop. Goth. 4,25,13; Procop. Aed. 4,1,29; Iord. Get. 285), modern Gračanica (in the district of Priština in Kosovo). There is evidence of a decurio and an ordo municipii; in the Severan period (beginning of the 3rd cent. AD) U. was called Res Publica Ulpiana (CIL III 1685 f.). U. was the centre of a mining district, an important road hub and prob…

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Lugio

(174 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λουγίωνον; Lougíōnon, Ptol. 2,15,3; Lugione, It. Ant. 244; Tab. Peut. 6,1; Lucione, Cod. Iust. 9,20,10f.). Roman auxiliary fort in Pannonia inferior, modern Dunaszekcsö (in the Hungarian county of Baranya), in the post-Diocletian period Florentia. The camp was probably established under Domitian to protect the crossing of the Danube and the road junction situated in L. The first garrison was made up of the cohors II Asturum et Callaecorum and the cohors VII Breucorum. After the withdrawal of the cohors II Asturum (under Commodus), the cohors I Noricorum moved into…

Cibalae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Important road junction in Pannonia inferior, modern Vinkovci (Croatia). Municipium since the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3267), colonia Aurelia from the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 2833). Monuments: remains of buildings, water pipes, thermae, graves, inscriptions, small finds. In AD 314 Licinius was defeated in a battle near C. by Constantine the Great (Eutr. 10,5; Zos. 2,18,4, also describing the location of C.). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 46f.

Brongus

(63 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Βρόγγος, Βάργος, Μάργος; Bróngos, Bárgos, Márgos). River in Moesia superior, rising on the eastern slope of the Scardus mountain range (Stara Planina) and flows into the Danube above Viminacium; now Morava (Hdt. 4,49; Str. 7,5,12; Ptol. 3,9,3; Eutr. 9,13). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography D. Dečev, Die thrak. Sprachreste, 1957, 90 Vl. Georgiev, La toponymie ancienne de la péninsule Balcanique, 1961, 33.

Tiarantus

(59 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τιαραντός; Tiarantós). Left bank tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), rising in the lands of the Scythae; smaller and turned farther westward than the Pyretus (Hdt. 4,48,2 f.), possibly identifiable with the modern Seret. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 762  A. Corcella, in: S. M. Medaglia (ed.), Erodoto, Le Storie, 4, 1993, here 272 (with comm.).

Vetus Salina

(220 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman auxiliary fort and civilian settlement ( canabae and vicus) on the Aquincum - Intercisa - Altinum Limes road (Ptol. 2,16,4: Σαλίνον/ Salínon; It. Ant. 245,4: Vetus Salinae; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,16,37: Vetusalina; Tab. Peut. 5,4: Vetusalo; Geogr. Rav 220,8: Belsalino = Bet(u)salino?; CIL III 10305: ' cives Romani ad Vetussalinas consistentes'/"Roman citizens settled at VS"), modern Adony in the megye of Fejér in Hungary. Originally a wood-and-earth fort was built in VS (three building periods from the middle of the 1st cent. until the 12…

Florentiana

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Φλωρεντίανα; Phlōrentíana: Procop. Aed. 4,4,1-3). Roman fortress on the Danuvius (Danube) near the mouth of the Timacus (modern Timok). Originally in Moesia Superior, from AD 271 in Dacia Ripensis, probably modern Florentin near Vidin in Bulgaria. The fortress, destroyed in late antiquity, was rebuilt at the time of Justinian for strategic reasons. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. I. Velkov, Die thrak. und dak. Stadt in der Spätant., 1959, 75 (Bulgarian with German summary) TIR L. 34, 1968, 59 (bibliography).

Ad Novas

(137 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Military post in Pannonia inferior Military post in  Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 246,3; Not. Dign. occ. 32,9: Novas; 32,28: equites Dalmatae, Novas; 32,40: Auxilia Novensia, Arsaciana (Antiana?) sive Novas; cf. CIL III 10665). Remains of buildings, graves, ceramics and finds of coins north-east of Zmajevac near Osijek are presumed to represent the remains of Ad Novas. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien, 1932, 112 TIR L 34, 25. [German version] [2] Military post in Moesia Superior Military post in  Moesi…

Germisara

(86 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia (CIL III 1395; Γερμίζερα; Germízera Ptol. 3,8,4; cf. Germigera Geogr. Rav. 4,7; Germizera Tab. Peut. 8,1). Roman fortress and civilian settlement in Dacia superior, modern Geoagiu (Romania). G. lay in the Marisus valley and was administratively dependent on Sarmizegetusa. Tile of the Legio XIII Gemina (CIL III 8065; 14h). Thermae at the site (cult of nymphs) and a quarry in the vicinity. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34, 1968, 60 (Bibliogr.).

Latobici

(127 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λατόβικοι; Latóbikoi, Ptol. 2,14,2; Latovici, Plin. HN 3,148; Latobici, inscription). A probably Celtic tribe in Pannonia superior near Noricum. In the Augustan period a city-like settlement ( municipium Latobicorum, tribus Quirina, CIL III, 3925) arose as a centre of the tribal area that was given the ius Latii ( Latin law) and was called Neviodunum from the time of Vespanian (AD 69-79). A duovir iure dicundo, a patronus municipii and a praeceptor Graecus (CIL III, 3925; 10804; 10805) are attested. There are votive inscriptions to Jupiter Optimus Ma…

Gerulata

(113 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (It. Ant. 247,3; Gerolate Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Roman military encampment established in Pannonia superior between Carnuntum and Ad Flexum before 116 BC, once located on a tributary of the Danuvius, modern Bratislava-Rusovce. In the 2nd and 3rd cents. the ala I Cannenefatium was stationed in G. (CIL III 4391; XVI 64; 76f.; 84; 96f.; 104; 178). The equites sagittarii were mentioned as garrison there during the 4th cent. (Not. Dign. Occ. 34,21). Rich archaeological finds from the 2nd-4th cents.: temple of Jupiter, remains of buildings, bu…

Lacringi

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] A Lugian (Vandalic) tribe (Λάκριγγοι/ Lákringoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,2; Lacringes, SHA Aur. 22,1), who fought against Rome in the Marcomannic Wars in AD 170. The L. were settled as foederati in the north of Dacia, where they defeated the Asdingi. Both tribes later counted as Roman allies (cf. Cass. Dio 71,11,6). In later years the L. intermingled with other members of the Vandalic tribes. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography L. Schmidt, H. Zeiss, Die Westgermanen, 1940, 163, 165, 167, 169.

Callatis

(276 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Patricius (Κάλλατις; Kállatis). Port town on the western coast of the  Pontus Euxinus, modern Mangalia in Romania, founded at the end of the 6th cent. BC by  Heraclea [7] Pontica. The economic boom of the town was originally brought about by the agricultural production from its surrounding area; C. was of less importance as a harbour town, compared with Odessus, Tomis and …

Siculus Flaccus

(77 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Along with Frontinus and Hyginus, most significant of the Roman surveyors. He probably lived under Trajan and Hadrian in the 2nd cent. AD and in his work De condicionibus agrorum ('On the legal status of landholdings') described the forms of Roman land ownership and the working methods of gromatici ( groma ); what survives of it [1] relates to Italy. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography 1 C. Thulin (ed.), Corpus agrimensorum Romanorum, vol. 1.1, 1913, 98-130.

Viminacium

(427 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman legion camp and civil settlement in Moesia superior (Ptol. 3,9,3: Οὐιμινάκιον/ Ouiminákion; Procop. Aed. 4,5,17; 4,6,1: Βιμινάκιον/ Biminákion; Eutr. 9,20,2; Not. Dign. Or. 41,5;16;31;38; It. Ant. 133,2 f.; 217,5; It. Burd. 564,8: civitas Viminatio; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Viminatio) near modern Kostolac (Serbia). The settlement was located in the area of the Celtic Scordisci on the right shore of the Mlava near the mouth of the …

Siscia

(190 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome Roman settlement in Pannonia superior ('Sicce', Geogr. Rav. 4,20; Σεγεστική/ Segestikḗ, Str. 7,5,2) at the confluence of the Colapis (modern  Kulpa) and Savus (modern Sava), modern Sisak in Croatia. The region had already been settled in the pre-Roman period. In 35 BC it came under Roman rule. In the 1st cent. AD the Legio IX Hispania was stationed there until 42/3. Under Vespasian, S. was elevated to a colonia, under Septimius [II 7] Severus designated Colonia Flavia…

Drobeta

(215 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Garrison and civilian settlement on the Danube east of the ‘Iron Gate’ in Dacia inferior or Dacia maluensis, modern Turnu Severin (Oltenia, Romania). Near it was Pontes, where Apollodorus of Damascus erected the famous Danube bridge for Trajan. In the 2nd Dacian War D. was used as a military base by the Romans. In Trajan's time the cohors Cretum sagittariorum built a large garrison here, in which various auxiliary troops were later stationed ( cohors III campestris: CIL III 14216,8,10; co…

Cotini

(114 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic people that settled in the 1st cent. AD with other small tribes to the north of the  Marcomanni and  Quadi. Renowned as miners, they apparently owed the Quadi tribute. Apart from mining iron ore, it may be assumed that they manufactured weapons. Their location is disputed but it was probably in central Slovakia near the Slovakian Ore Mountains. In the Marcomanni Wars the C. sided with the Romans (Cass. Dio 72,12) and were later settled between the Danube and the Drava (Tac. Germ. 43,1; Ptol. 2,11,11). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Cz…

Montana

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Camp and civilian settlement in Moesia inferior, later Dacia ripensis (ILS 9275), formerly Mihajlovgrad, now M. (NW Bulgaria). An important military base from the 1st/2nd cents. AD, raised to a municipium around AD 161-163. Fortifications were built in the 3rd cent. against Gothic assaults. Evidence of continuity of settlement even into late antiquity. Inscriptions, coin finds. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR K 34 Sofia, 1976, 88  V. Velkov, G. Alexandrov, Epigraphische Denkmäler aus M. (Monta…

Napoca

(369 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Municipium and colony in Dacia Porolissensis (Νάπουκα/ Nápouka: Ptol. 3.8.4; cf. Napu[ce]nses CIL III 7996; N. in Lat. sources), the modern Cluj (Klausenburg/Kolozsvár, Romania), on the site of a prehistoric (Dacian) settlement (the place-name is evidently of Daco-Getic origin). The sources do not supply us with any information about the history of N. prior to Trajan's conquest of Dacia (AD 101/2 and 105/6). N.'s significanc…

Moge(n)tiana

(163 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement in Pannonia superior on the Savaria-Aquincum road, to the north of the southwestern part of Lake Pelso ( Mogetiana: Itin. Anton. 233; Mogentinais: ibid. 263); probably modern Tüskevár (in the Veszprém-Devecser district of Hungary). From M. there was a branch road to Limusa and Sopianae. The Roman settlement grew up on the site of a Celtic one, but the indigenous element continued to play a role in the Roman period. Under Hadrian, M. became a municipium. There are records of a decurio, IIII viri and a flamen (CIL III 151881), a scriba (CIL III 4137 = 109…

Periplous

(737 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (περίπλους, 'circumnavigation', plural περίπλοι/ períploi), Greek description of a sea voyage and coast. In addition to explicit logbooks, many periploi were written as handbooks: these were limited to purely nautical issues, and recorded such features as harbour sites and points of anchorage, distances covered, climatic factors, and local peculiarities. The development of periplous-style literature reflects the significance of ancient voyages of discovery. Such voyages could be of political, economical, and military use, and were …

Tibiscum

(216 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia (Τιβίσκον/ Tibískon). Roman base in Dacia superior (Daci with map) on the upper Tibiscus (or Tibisia, modern Timiş), a left tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]; cf. Ptol. 3,8,10; 3,8,1; Iord. Get. 24,178; Geogr. Rav 4,14; 4,18; Tab. Peut. 7,4), modern Jupa (county of Caraş-Severin, Romania); on road from Viminacium via Lederata to Sarmizegetusa, where a road branched off to Dierna. In the camp of T., (320 m × 170 m) auxiliary units were stationed ( Cohors I Vindelicorum, Cohors I Sagittariorum, Num…

Bessapara

(91 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement on the road from Serdica to Philippopolis (It. Ant. 136; Procop. Aed. 4,11 Βεσούπαρον; Besoúparon), modern Sinitovo/Pazardžik, southern Bulgaria. Flourished in the imperial age. Thanks to its location, it retained its supraregional importance throughout late antique and the early Byzantine period. Its fortifications date from the time of Justinian I. Greek inscriptions and votive reliefs. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography V. Velkov, Gradât v Trakija i Dakija prez kâsnata antičnost, 1959, 109 (Bulgarian with German resumé: …

Dinogetia

(177 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia (Δινογέτεια; Dinogéteia). Roman fortification in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor) on the right bank of the lower Danube in a strategically important location north of Troesmis near the delta, modern Garvăn, Tulcea in Romania. A pre-Roman Geto-Dacian settlement is attested. In the Roman period the town (πόλις in Ptol. 3,8,2; 10,1) represented a significant starting-point for travel along the Pyretus into the Scythian hinterland. In the…

Ulmetum

(106 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman vicus and fort, node of important roads in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Pantelimon de Sus (district of Constanţa in Romania; Dobrugea). The vicus presumably came into being under Traianus [1] (there is evidence of magistri and principes loci). The population was ethnically mixed (Bessi, Romans and a number of Greeks). Destroyed by the Slavs, U. was rebuilt by Iustinianus [1] I (Procop. Aed. 4,7,17). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography E. Popescu, Inscriptiones intra fines Dacoromaniae repertae, 1976, 213 ff. A. G. Poulter, Rural Communi…

Marcianopolis

(322 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Moesi, Moesia | Rome City founded by Trajan and named after his sister Marcia (cf. Zos.1,42,1; 4,10,3; Greek authors call it Μαρκιανούπολις; Markianoúpolis. M., modern Reka Devnia in north east Bulgaria, about 20 km west of Odessos, today's Warna, was the administrative centre of Moesia inferior. M. was a junction of strategically important roads: from Constantinople to Durostorum, from Odessus to Nicopolis (modern Nikiup) and from M. to Noviodunum (Amm. Marc. 27,5,6, modern Babadag). Under Commodus M. w…

Aravisci, Eravisci

(111 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the north of  Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN 3,148; Tac. Germ. 28); today the communities of Pest, Fejér and Tolna. Under Roman rule a   civitas (CIL III 10418; AE 1951, 15) governed by native principes (CIL III 3546). Used as auxiliary troops (AE 1944, 102; CIL XVI 112; 123); scarcely romanized. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. von Pannonien, 1936, 29 M. Pavan, La provincia romana della Pannonia Superior, in: Atti della Academia Nazionale dei Lincei 1955, Vol. 8/6, 427, 483, 502 f. A. Mócsy, Die Bevölkerung von Panno…

Novae

(318 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Locality in Moesia superior This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Locality (posting station) in Moesia superior (Tab. Peut. 7,1; It. Ant. 221,4; Νοοῦαι/ Nooûai: Ptol. 3,15,5), 4 km east of modern Svištov (Bulgaria). N. was founded around AD 30; the legio I Italica  was stationed here under Vespasian (garrison on the right bank of the Danube near a river-crossing). A civilian settlement grew up nearby. Extensive archaeological and epigraphical finds (fortress wall with gate …

Dardani

(391 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Δάρδανοι; Dárdanoi). [German version] [5] Powerful Illyrian tribal group in the south-western part of Moesia superior, strongly influenced by Thrace, particularly in the east of the region. The region was within the sphere of influence of the Macedonians, who gained control over Dardania in c. 335 BC. However, the D. continued to strive for a certain degree of independence. In 284 BC they were united under the rule of one king and waged prolonged wars against the Macedonians. In 229 the D. defeated Demetrius II, who died soon after his d…

Naissus

(645 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Pilgrimage [German version] I. Site; Roman period Municipium in Moesia Superior (or Dardania; Ναϊσσός/ Naïssos: Ptol. 3,4,9; Νάϊσ(σ)ος/ Náïs(s)os: Zos. 1,45,1; 3,11,1f.; Procop. Goth. 3,40,2; Ναϊσσούπολις/ Naïssoúpolis: Procop. Aed. 4,1,31; Naissus/ Naisus is the usual form in Latin sources; Naessus: Amm. Marc. 21,10,5), modern Niš in Serbia. Originally a Thracian settlement, which by the 1st cent. AD was evidently used by the Romans as an occasional base. Its indig…

Intercisa

(301 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Military camp in Pannonia inferior Military camp, toll station and civilian settlement near the limes of Pannonia inferior on the Aquincum - - Altinum - Mursa road (It. Ant. 245,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,25f.; 38), modern Dunaújváros, district of Fejér in Hungary. This fortification, which was originally made of wood and earth, was probably built by the ala I Augusta Ituraeorum sagittariorum in the late Flavian period. A military base of the ala I Flavia Augusta Britannica (AD 105-106), the ala I Tungrorum Frontoniana (until 118/9) and the ala I Thracum veteranoru…

Itinerare

(1,501 words)

Author(s): Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Some Mesopotamian texts come very close to later travel accounts. An Old Babylonian text describes in detail a 38-day journey from Babylonian Dūr-Apil-Sîn to North Syrian Emar [1], two Old Babylonian tablets a journey of more than 6 months from Babylonian Larsa to North Syria and back [2]. The Neo-Assyrian ‘Zamua Itinerary’ [5] includes the description of a 4-day trip through the  Zagrus mountains indicating exact travel distances. Especially Neo-Assyrian reports of military campaigns from the 9th/8th cents. BC often contain longer …

Daci, Dacia

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Kramer, Johannes (Trier)
(Roman province of Dacia). [German version] A. Origins The Dacian group of tribes originally settled an extensive territory north of the lower Danube; in the west it reached to the Pathisus (Theiss), in the east possibly to the Hierasus (Sireth) or the Pyretus (Pruth); it was bordered to the north by the crescent of the Carpathians. The D. were a Thracian people. The location of their settlements enabled them to enter into various kinds of relations with neighbouring peoples, e.g. the Scythians and Gepi…

Bononia

(430 words)

Author(s): Susini, Giancarlo (Bologna) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Now Bologna This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Villanova Culture | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt Now Bologna. Villanova Culture settlement on the Reno, above an earlier Late Bronze Age settlement, then an Etruscan city (mythological founder Ocnus: Serv. Aen. 10,198; Sil. Pun. 8,600), called Felsina (Plin. HN 3,115); necropolises, abundant production of steles. Important Celtic centre,…

Margus

(305 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
(Μάργος; Márgos). [German version] [1] Strategos 255 BC M. from Carynea, probably serving as nauarch of the Achaean fleet contingent during the Illyrian War, was killed in 229 BC near Paxos ‘after faithfully serving the koinon of the Achaeans ’(Pol. 2,10). During the reformation of the league, he killed the tyrant of Bura in 275, thus forcing Iseas, the tyrant of Carynea, to resign and to have his town join the league (Pol. 2,41). Before Aratus [2] he played a prominent part and in 255 he was the first to be elected sole strategos (Pol. 2,43). Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Ptolemai…

Pannonia

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Up to subjugation by Rome Region and Roman province to the north and east of the Danube (Ister [2]), bordered in the south by the region south of the Savus; the western border ran west of the line between Vindobona, Poetovio and Emona, now the western part of Hungary, the Slovakian territory around Gerulata, the Austrian around the Viennese Basin and Burgenland, as well as the northern strip of Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The country was named after its original inhabitants (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, cf. Str. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, cf. 1,1,10). This lllyrian group…

Quadriburgium

(352 words)

Author(s): Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Late Antique type of fort Late Antique type of fort. The high defensive wall, generally on a square ground plan with sides measuring between 15 and 40 m, was protected on the outside by square or rectangular corner and intermediate towers. Troop casements abutted inside. The inner courtyard contained a subterranean cistern. Fortifications [III B]; Limes Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) Bibliography S. Johnson, Late Roman Fortifications, 1983, 27, 253 ff. [German version] [2] Settlement, probable find site on the hill of Qualburg (lower Rhine) Settlement, probably t…

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Isthmus

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Ἰσθμός; Isthmós, ὁ ( ho) or ἡ ( )) means primarily any connecting link between two things (e.g. the neck, Pl. Ti. 69e); in a narrower sense, any strip of land between two seas, as i.e. the Thracian Chersonesus [1] (Hdt. 6,36), but especially the I. of Corinth (e.g. Hdt. 8,40; Thuc. 1,13,5; 108,2; 2,9,2; 10,3). This I. corresponds to the fundamental definition in two respects - it links, on the one hand, the Corinthian Gulf with the Saronic Gulf, on the other hand, central Greece with the Peloponnese. The…

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Anchiale

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀγχιάλη; Anchiálē). [German version] [1] Cretan nymph Cretan nymph, mother of the Idaan  Daktyloi Tities and Cyllenus (birth myth in Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129-31) and, as lover of Apollo, mother of Oaxes also, the founder of the Cretan city of Oaxus (Serv. ecl. 1,65). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] (Anchialos) City on the western coast of Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | Moesi, Moesia (Anchialus; Ἀγχίαλος; Anchíalos) City on the western coast of Pontus, present-day Pomorije, founded by and dependent on  Apollon…

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…
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