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Petri, Ludwig Adolf

(340 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Nov 16, 1803, Lüthorst, Solling – Jan 8, 1873, Hannover). After studying at Göttingen from 1824 to 1827, Petri became a pastoral assistant at the Church of the Cross in Hannover, where (giving up his academic career) he was appointed junior pastor in 1837 and senior pastor in 1851. In 1843 he received an honorary doctorate from Erlangen. A theological high churchman, he was one of the most significant figures associated with Neo-Lutheranism. He had affinities with the revival mov…

Zeller, Eduard Gottlob

(303 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Jan 22, 1814, Kleinbottward [now part of Steinheim an der Murr] – Mar 19, 1908, Stuttgart) began studying philosophy in 1831 at Tübingen, then changed to theology and found in F.C. Baur a teacher who left a deep impression on him. He received his doctorate in 1836, was appointed lecturer in 1840, and in 1847 became an associate professor of theology at Bern. In 1849 he received a call to a full professorship at Marburg. The administration, however, forced him to move to the philosophical faculty. He taught in Heidelberg from 1862 to 1872 and in Berlin from 1872 to 1894. His Philo…

Tholuck, Friedrich August Gottreu

(578 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Mar 30, 1799, Breslau (Wrocław) – Jun 19, 1877, Halle), began studying Arabic and Indology in Breslau in 1816/1817, but transferred to Berlin as early as January, where he also took up the study of theology. J.W.A. Neander became his most important teacher. A closer contact with F.D.E. Schleiermacher did not develop and the latter even hindered his habilitation, which he was nevertheless able to complete in 1821 ( Sufismus sive Theosophia Persarum pantheistica, 1821). In 1823, Tholuck published his most famous work, Die Lehre von der Sünde und vom Versöhner od…

Subjektivität

(1,513 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Christophersen, Alf
1. Allgemein 1.1. BegriffUnter S. (von lat. subiectum, »das Daruntergelegte«; als Terminus der klassischen Rhetorik: »das [einer Aussage] Zugrundeliegende«) versteht man seit dem Ende des 18. Jh.s eine philosophische Einstellung oder Haltung, die Welt und Wirklichkeit nicht als etwas objektiv Gegebenes ansieht, sondern als eine Vorstellung bzw. Schöpfung des sie wahrnehmenden Subjekts. Dieser Akzent auf der Wahrnehmung unterschied S. von Anfang an von ähnlichen Kategorien wie dem Charakter (als Wesensart und sittliche Beschaffenheit eines Subjekts; Tugend) oder der Indiv…
Date: 2019-11-19

Vermittlungstheologie

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Mühling, Markus
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich In Anknüpfung an den von F. Lücke in Zusammenarbeit mit K. Ullmann, W.K. Umbreit, J.K. L. Gieseler und K.I. Nitzsch 1828 in der programmatischen Ankündigung der »Theol. Studien und Kritiken« (ThStKr) gebrauchten Begriff »Vermittlung« wurde in den theologiepolit. Auseinandersetzungen des Vormärz V. als polemische Fremdbez. dieser an F. Schleiermacher, dezidiert aber auch Melanchthon anknüpfenden Richtung geprägt. Die Verbindung von Glaube und Wissen, Freihei…

Perthes

(398 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] 1.Friedrich Christoph (21.4.1772 Rudolstadt, Thüringen – 18.5.1843 Gotha), Buchhändler und Verleger. Nach Lehrzeit in Leipzig eröffnete P. 1796 in Hamburg die erste reine, von einem Verlag getrennte Sortimentsbuchhandlung in Deutschland (Buchhandel: I.,3.). 1821 wechselte er nach Gotha und verlegte vornehmlich wiss. Werke aus den Bereichen der Historik und Theol. 1825 beteiligte sich P. führend an der Gründung des Börsenvereins der Dt. Buchhändler. Er unterstützte entscheidend den…

Weizsäcker

(317 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Pautler, Stefan
[English Version] 1.Karl Heinrich v. , (11.12.1822 Öhringen – 13.8.1899 Tübingen). Ab 1840 Theologiestudium, 1847 PD und Stiftsrepetent in Tübingen, nach Pfarrtätigkeit 1851 zweiter Hofprediger in Stuttgart, 1859 Oberkonsistorialrat, 1861 in Tübingen Nachfolger F. Ch. Baurs und Erhebung in den Adelsstand, 1889 Kanzler der Universität und Mitglied der Abgeordnetenkammer in Württemberg, 1894 Staatsrat. W. trat als Kirchenhistoriker, v.a. jedoch als Neutestamentler hervor und bemühte sich in vermittlu…

Weizsäcker

(437 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Pautler, Stefan
[German Version] 1. Karl Heinrich von (Dec 11, 1822, Öhringen – Aug 13, 1899, Tübingen) began his theological studies in Tübingen in 1840, becoming a lecturer at the university and the Stift in 1847; after serving as a pastor, in 1851 he was appointed second court chaplain in Stuttgart and in 1859 chief consistorial councilor. In 1861 he succeeded F.C. Baur as professor of church history and history of dogma at Tübingen; he was also ennobled. In 1889 he became chancellor of the university and a member…

Perthes

(459 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] 1. Friedrich Christoph. (Apr 21, 1772, Rudolstadt, Thuringia – May 18, 1843, Gotha), bookseller and publisher. After an apprenticeship in Leipzig, in 1796 Perthes opened in Hamburg the first retail bookstore in Germany not connected with a publisher (Printing and publishing: I, 3). In 1821 he moved to Gotha, where he specialized in publishing academic works in history and theology. In 1825 he played a leading role in establishing the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler (German Pub…

Kittel

(525 words)

Author(s): Bultmann, Christoph | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. Rudolf (Mar 28, 1853, Eningen unter Achalm, Württemberg – Oct 20, 1929, Leipzig), professor of Old Testament in Breslau (1888–1898) and Leipzig (1898–1923), and the father of 2. In 1905/1906, Kittel published a critical edition of the OT on the basis of the edition by Jacob ben Chayim (1524/1525). The third edition (1929–1937) was based on the Codex Leningradensis (Biblical manuscripts: I, 2.a). Building on his own source studies on Gen to 2 Kgs and 1/2 Chron, Kittel wrote a Geschichte der Hebräer (2 vols., 1888–1892, ET: History of the Hebrews, 1895/1896), which he …

Niemeyer

(648 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. August Hermann (Sep 1, 1754, Halle – Jul 7, 1828, Halle), great-grandson of A.H. Francke. Following school at the Pädagogium Regium of the Frankische Stiftungen (Francke institutions), he began to study philosophy, classical philology, and theology in Halle. In 1776 he began teaching in the Halle schools. After receiving his doctorate, he began lecturing in 1777; in 1779 he was appointed associate professor and in 1784 full professor of theology and superintendent of the Pädagogiu…

Steudel

(498 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] 1. Johann Christian Friedrich (Oct 25 1779, Esslingen – Oct 24, 1837, Tübingen). In 1797 he began study of theology, philosophy, and Near Eastern languages in Tübingen. He also studied at Paris in 1808. In 1810 he was appointed deacon in Cannstatt and in 1812 in Tübingen, where he was appointed professor of biblical theology in 1815. In 1816 he was made senior of the faculty and superintendent of the Tübingen Stift, fighting for its continued existence. He lectured on the Old Testamen…

Mediation Theology

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Dogmatics I. Church History The 1828 programmatic announcement of the journal Theologische Studien und Kritiken ( ThStKr) in 1828 by G. Lücke in cooperation with K. Ullmann, F.W.K. Umbreit, J.K.L. Gieseler, and K.I. Nitzsch used the term Vermittlung, “mediation.” The theologico-political controversies of the Vormärz period coined mediation theology as a polemical term to attack this school of theology, which followed in the footsteps of F.D.E. Schleiermacher but clearly went back to Melanchthon. The linkage…

Niemeyer

(535 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] 1.August Hermann , (1.9.1754 Halle – 7.7.1828 ebd.), Urenkel A.H. Franckes; nach der Schulzeit im Pädagogium Regium der Franckeschen Stiftungen ab 1771 Studium der Philos., klassische Philol. und Theol. in Halle, ab 1776 Lehrertätigkeit an den Schulen der Stiftungen. Als Dr. phil. seit 1777 Vorlesungen; 1779 a.o. Prof., 1784 o. Prof. für Theol. und Inspektor des Pädagogium Regium, 1785 Mitdirektor des Waisenhauses, 1792 Konsistorialrat, 1794 Dr. theol., 1799 Direktor der Franckesc…

Steudel

(381 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Steck, Friedemann
[English Version] 1.Johann Christian Friedrich , (25.10.1779 Eßlingen – 24.10.1837 Tübingen), 1797 Studium der Theol., Philos. und orientalischen Sprachen in Tübingen, ab 1808 Paris, 1810 Diakonus in Cannstatt, 1812 in Tübingen, 1815 dort o.Prof. für Bibl. Theol., 1826 Senior der Fakultät und Superattendent des Stifts, für dessen Bestehen er sich einsetzte. S. las AT und orientalische Sprachen, später auch NT und v.a. Dogmatik und Moral (Die Glaubenslehre der ev.-prot. Kirche, 1834). Der Vertreter e…

Sack

(1,064 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht | Wiggermann, Uta | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. August Friedrich Wilhelm (Feb 4, 1703, Harzgerode – Apr 23, 1786, Berlin), Reformed theologian. In 1722 he began to study theology in Frankfurt an der Oder; in 1724 he served as a domestic tutor in Stettin (Szczecin) and Holland, where he was influenced by Jean Barbeyrac (1674–1744), a critic of confessional tests, and Arminianism (Arminians: I). In 1728 he was appointed tutor to the heir to the throne of Hesse-Homburg. In 1731 he was appointed third preacher of German Reformed chu…

Sack

(750 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht | Wiggermann, Uta | Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] 1.August Friedrich Wilhelm , (4.2.1703 Harzgerode – 23.4.1786 Berlin), ref. Theologe. 1722 Studium der Theol. in Frankfurt/O., 1724 Hofmeister in Stettin und Holland (Einfluß des Symbolzwang-Kritikers Jean Barbeyrac [1674–1744] und des Arminianismus [Arminianer: I.]), 1728 Erzieher des Erbprinzen von Hessen-Homburg. 1731 dritter, 1737 erster Prediger der dt.-ref. Gemeinde in Magdeburg, 1738 KonsR und Inspektor der ref. Kirchen im Herzogtum Magdeburg mit ausgeprägtem sozialen Engage…
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