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ʿĪsawīya, ʿĪsāwa

(909 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Aīssaoua), a collective name from the singular ʿĪsāwī (cf. Marçais, Textes Arabes de Tanger, p. 397 sq.): a name given to the k̲h̲wān [q. v.] or members of the Moroccan religious brotherhood founded by Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā and derived from this last name. In spite of the fame of this brotherhood, the life of Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Fihrī and his origin are little known. The ethnic al-Fihrī suggests a Spanish Arab origin. He travelled a great deal in his youth and was initiated in the east into the ecstatic exercises of the religious orders of the ¶ Ḥaidarīya and the Saʿdīya. Returning to the …

S̲h̲aik̲h̲

(439 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
This word means one who bears the marks of old age, who is over fifty (cf. Lisān, iii. 509). It is applied to aged relatives; the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ is the patriarch of the tribe or family. In pre-Islāmic antiquity the title Saiyid, the chief of the tribe, was frequently given the epithet S̲h̲aik̲h̲ meaning full maturity in years and therefore of mental powers. The moral influence of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s over the Beduins was considerable and the term came to mean chiefs having a long career behind them, the glorious veterans. In the history of the Muslim period, it has ¶ frequently the sense of supreme c…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(837 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyu’l-Marīnī, chief of the Zanāta-Marīnides and founder of the dynasty of the Marīnides. His father, Abū Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyū, the chief of his tribe, having died in 592 (1197), ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ was chosen as his successor. At that time the Marīnides overran the high table-lands of the Central Mag̲h̲rib (Algeria), to the south of the Tāhert and Tlemcen mountains from the Zāb to Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in a nomadic state. They had their summer camps in the valleys of the Wādī Zā and of the Upper Mulūya, between Aḳersif and al-W…

Ibn Zaidūn

(749 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abu ’l-Walīd Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. G̲h̲ālib b. Zaidūn, one of the most celebrated poets of Muslim Spain and minister to the Arab Emīrs of Seville. He belonged to a famous family of the Arab ¶ tribe of Mak̲h̲zūm and was born at Cordóva in 394 = 1003. Left early an orphan, he was given the best teachers by his guardians and soon distinguished himself among his fellow pupils. At the age of twenty he already composed poems which made him famous. Our. poet became involved in the politics of his country through the civil wars of the Omayyad pretenders and the attempts of th…

Abū Zaiyān

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, the name of four ʿAbdalwādide or Zaiyānide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān I Muḥammed b. Abī Saʿīd ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan b. Zaiyān, the third sovereign of the Zaiyānide dynasty, was proclaimed king at Tlemcen, on the death of his father, the 2d Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 703 (6th June 1304), during the long siege of that town by the Marīnide sultan Abū Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr. The siege was kept on since the 3d S̲h̲aʿbān 698 (6th May 1299), and was not to be finished before the 7th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 706 (10th May 1307) when Abū Yaʿḳūb was assassinated by one of his eunuchs. The Marīnide sultan had founded, with the objec…

Derḳāwā

(4,029 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(plural of the ethnic Derḳāwī) a name collectively applied to the members of the Ṭarīḳa or Muḥammadan religious brotherhood, composed of the followers of Mūlāy ’l-ʿArbī al-Derḳāwī, the area of whose influence extends over Northwest Africa, particularly Morocco and Algeria. An individual member is called Derḳāwī while the plural is Derḳāwā. They are also called S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya-Derḳāwā, their brotherhood being an offshoot of the much older Ṭarīḳa of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya, founded by the Mag̲h̲ribī Ṣūfī Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. Origin of the Derḳāwā; The doctrine of th…

S̲h̲aik̲h̲

(760 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
— This title given to the founder of a religious brotherhood is also borne by his successors at the head of the hierarchy of the order and also by the heads of the various branches. The s̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-ṭarīḳa, at once the spiritual and the temporal director of his group, must possess all moral qualities: he ought to be high-souled, austere, endowed with all the virtues, he must also possess all knowledge. Favoured by God who has endowed him with baraka (grace), he is the intermediary between the divinity and man. He has a perfect knowledge of the divine law or s̲h̲arīʿa [q. v.]; he knows the wic…

Kuskusu

(951 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Couscous), a dish prepared with semolina. Throughout northwest Africa (Tripolitania, Sahara,Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) it is the basis of the food of the people. It is sometimes called ṭaʿām i. e. food par excellence. The Beduins of Eastern Algeria also call it naʿama, which has the same meaning; those of Western Algeria, maʿās̲h̲; those of the South and of the Sahara, ʿais̲h̲, also with the same sense. In Tunisia, the name ṭaʿām has even become applied to feasts at which this dish is particularly used, feasts known elsewhere as zarda (Eastern Algeria), waʿada (Western Algeria) and mu…

Huṣainī

(173 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, plur. Ḥusainīyūn, a name borne by those s̲h̲erīfs of Morocco who trace their descent from al-Ḥusain, son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, the daughter of the Prophet. Unlike the Ḥasanī [q. v.] the Ḥusainī came at a relatively late date to Morocco, where they in numbers at any rate never attained the importance of their cousins. They form two main groups, the Ṣaḳalīyūn and the ʿIrāḳīyūn. The Ṣaḳalīyūn (i.e. these who came from Sicily) were driven from their original home by the Norman conquest. They fled first to Spain and thence to Morocco in the reign of the Marīnid Sulṭ…

Abū Zaiyān

(1,383 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammed, the name of five Marīnide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān Muḥammed, son of the Marīnide sultan Abū ʿInān Fāris. The latter, while seriously ill, had designated Abū Zaiyān for the succession to the throne, indicating him at the same time the vizier Mūsā b. ʿĪsa’l-Aṣūlī as his prime minister. The illness of the monarch was growing worse, and the vizier, in order to avoid the competition of pretenders, wanted to hasten his master’s accession to the throne. He, accordingly, spoke of it to the principal personages of the Marīnide Court, who recognized Abū Zaiyān as sovereign. But just the same p…

Saʿdians

(1,789 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Banū Saʿd), the name of the dynasty of S̲h̲arīfs in Morocco which in 1544 (951) replaced the Waṭṭāsid dynasty on the throne of Fās. From the beginning of the fifteenth century the expeditions of the Portuguese and Spanish against the Muslim lands in Spain or North Africa had raised to a great pitch the fanaticism of the Berbers and of the Arabs who reacted violently under the leadership of holy men, s̲h̲arīfs [q. v.] and marabouts [q. v.]. In a country organised according to tribes or divided into numerous little states of a feudal character, among peoples whose only lin…

K̲h̲ulṭ

(619 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, forme classique du nom d’une tribu du Nord-ouest du Maroc prononcé Ḵh̲loṭ (mais ethnique: Ḵh̲ulṭī). Venus dans l’Afrique du Nord avec l’invasion hilalienne au Ve/XIe siècle, les Ḵh̲loṭ faisaient partie des populations arabes «mélangées» connues sous le nom de Ḏj̲us̲h̲am; d’après Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn et d’autres historiens, ¶ les Ḵh̲loṭ seraient des Banū l-Muntafiḳ. Les Ḏj̲us̲h̲am se répandirent dans le Mag̲h̲rib central, s’y établirent et participèrent à toutes les luttes qui désolèrent la Berbérie; après la conquête almohade, ils essayèrent en va…

Gūm

(521 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
( ḳawm; orth. franc, goum), forme et prononciation usuelles, dans les pays arabes de l’Afrique du Nord, du nom donné au groupe des cavaliers armés ou des combattants d’une tribu. Son dérivé gūma signifie « une levée de goums, de troupes, une équipée de pillards», une «sédition», une «révolte». Ce sont les Turcs qui, dans les anciennes régences d’Alger et de Tunis, ont donné aux goums une existence officielle, en les établissant comme base de leur système d’occupation du pays. Toutes les tribus avaient été divisées par eux en mak̲h̲zen ou auxiliaires, dispensés de la plupart des impôts, et en r…

Abū Zayyān

(308 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
appellatif de trois souverains de la dynastie ʿabd-al-wādide de Tlemcen. I. Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan, troisième souverain de la dynastie. Proclamé à Tlemcen le 2 d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda 703/6 juin 1304, il obtint la levée du siège de la capitale par les troupes marīnides; puis il alla châtier les tribus de l’Est de son royaume qui avaient appuyé l’ennemi: les Berbères Tūd̲j̲īn furent contraints à la soumission et au paiement des impôts, les tribus arabes furent fort malmenées et refoulées dans le d…

Mawlāy Ismāʿīl

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. al-S̲h̲arīf, Abū l-Naṣr, deuxième souverain de la dynastie marocaine des ʿAlawides [voir ʿAlawis et Ḥasanī]. A la mort du sultan Mawlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, l’empire du Maroc s’était divisé. Mawlāy Ismāʿīl, gouverneur de Meknès [voir Miknās] et frère du défunt, fut proclamé dans cette ville. Il marcha aussitôt sur la capitale, ¶ Fās, qui s’était déclarée contre lui et s’en empara; il y fut proclamé le 11 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082/14 avril 1672. Il était alors âgé de 26 ans. Mais trois rivaux, son frère Mawlāy al-Ḥarrān dans le Tafilalt, son neveu Aḥmad b. Muḥriz proclamé à Marr…

Kuskusū

(996 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a word probably of Berber origin meaning couscous, a culinary preparation containing semolina which is the national dish of the peoples of North Africa. It appears with the article and with a final nūn in an anecdote depicting an Oriental being advised by the Prophet, in a dream, to treat with al-kuskusūn a sick Mag̲h̲ribī; this anecdote, related by Dozy ( Suppl., s.v.) is very well known and is probably responsible for leading Moroccan scholars to adopt the form attributed to the Prophet. L. Bauer ( Wörterbuch der arabischen Umgangsprache 2, Wiesbaden 1957, 402), heard kusukson/ kusk…

Kuskusū

(981 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), terme probablement d’origine berbère désignant le couscous, une préparation culinaire à la semoule qui est le plat national des populations d’Afrique du Nord. Il apparaît avec l’article et un nūn final dans une anecdote qui montre un Oriental recevant du Prophète, en rêve, le conseil de soigner avec al-kuskusūn un Mag̲h̲rébin malade; cette anecdote, rapportée par Dozy ( Suppl., s.v.), est très connue, et c’est probablement elle qui a poussé des lettrés marocains à adopter la forme prêtée au Prophète. L. Bauer ( Wörterbuch der ara- bischen Umgangsprache 2, Wiesbaden 1957, 402),…

Dawāʾir

(682 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, plural of dāʾira , group of families attached to the service and the person of a native chief in Algeria. Before the French conquest, the name of dawāʾir (local pronunciation dwāyr ) was borne especially by four tribal groups encamped to the south-west of Oran and attached to the service of the Bey of that city, although there were other dawāʾir, for example in the Titteri. They were organized as a militia, living on the products of the ¶ land put at their disposition by the Turkish government and the profit from expeditions against tribes who were unruly or refused to p…

Dawāʾir

(628 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, pluriel de dāʾira, réunion de familles attachées au service et à la personne d’un chef indigène en Algérie. Avant la conquête française, le nom de dawāʾir (prononciation locale: dwāyr) fut spécialement porté par quatre groupes tribaux campés au Sud-ouest d’Oran et attachés au service du bey de cette ville, encore qu’il y eût des dawāʾir ailleurs, par exemple dans le Titteri. Ils étaient organisés comme une milice, vivant de l’usufruit des terres mises à leur disposition par le gouvernement turc et des profits des expéditions organisées contre les …

D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…

Ḏj̲ays̲h̲

(12,125 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, l’un des termes arabes usuels (avec d̲j̲und et ʿaskar) pour désigner l’armée. I. L’Arabie préislamique, tout en ayant vécu dans des conditions de petite guerre permanente, n’a connu d’armée spécifique qu’en cas d’occupation étrangère ou peut-être au Yémen. Les luttes entre tribus y mettaient en action virtuellement tous les hommes valides, mais sans organisation militaire, et les combats le plus souvent s’y résolvaient en exploits singuliers. Un embryon d’armée apparaît, si l’on veut, avec l’Islam, dans les expéditions conduites ou préparées par le Prophète, bien que le d̲j̲ihād
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