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Ode

(711 words)

Author(s): Düchting, Reinhard | Brusniak, Friedhelm | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Literature – II. Music – III. Orthodox Liturgy I. Literature Historically, the term ode (Gk ᾠδή/ ōdḗ, “song”; cf. the derivative lit. forms of the palinode, “poetic retraction,” and parody, “mock song/poem”) was increasingly reserved for a formal song or poem of exalted emotion ( carmen). Pindar (apart from four books of epinicia [victory songs], only frgms. extant) was the poetic muse of Horace (IV 2), whose four books of carmina ( odae), though little read in the Latin Middle Ages, provided a model for the Latin and vernacular strophic lyric poet…

Ode

(660 words)

Author(s): Düchting, Reinhard | Brusniak, Friedhelm | Christian Felmy, Karl
[English Version] I. Literarisch Ode, griech. ῳ᾿δη´/ōdē´, davon fortgebildet die lit. Formen der Palinodie, »Widerruf«, und Parodie, »Nebengesang«, bleibt literaturgesch. zunehmend dem feierlichen Gesang einer hohen Stimmung und Gesinnung (carmen) reserviert. Pindar (nur frgm., vier Bücher Epinikien [Siegeslieder]) ist der poetische Priester des Horaz (IV 2); dessen vier Bücher Carmina (odae) werden, nur spärlich für das lat. MA, bestimmendes Modell für die lat.-volkssprachige strophische Lyrik der…

Crusades

(4,060 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter | Düchting, Reinhard | Möhring, Hannes | Mentgen, Gerd
[German Version] I. History – II. Literature – III. From the Muslim Perspective – IV. Effects on the Jews I. History 1. Concept The Middle Ages did not develop a clear term for the crusades. The word itself is only documented at a late point. What research calls the crusades in the narrower sense of the word are the crusades which were begun at the end of the 11th century by Latin Christendom to reconquer or defend Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 by the Christ…